28.02.2016

Lung cancer articles pdf worksheets

Seven million people die from cancer every year, accounting for over 12 percent of deaths worldwide.
The best way to prevent lung cancer is to never start smoking, and if you are a smoker,  to quit immediately. One of the reasons lung cancer is such a killer is that it is difficult to detect in its early stages. If you are diagnosed with lung cancer, your lung doctor will do more tests to find out how advanced the cancer is, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
Lung cancer treatment involves many doctors, lots of new and complicated information, and many serious decisions.
The most important risk factors for lung cancer development are carcinogenic factors, genetic factors and dietary factors. Air pollution occurs with certain substances detected in the air, especially in urban areas, which are identical to those found in cigarette smoke (benzopiren). Professional pollution it increases the frequency of lung cancer, especially if is associated with smoking. Epidermoid carcinoma (squamous cell) has a frequency of approximately 29% and often is located in the large bronchi. Currently lung cancer diagnosis is established late, which contributes decisively to the bad results of therapy. Cough is the symptom most consistently and most important for diagnosis, if the patient is paying attention since the first weeks after appearance and after changing its character. Metastatic potential of lung cancer is increased, about 60% – 70% of patients having metastases at presentation to the doctor. Paraneoplastic syndromes, induced by the secretion of hormones and peptides by the tumor, are manifested through signs which appear at distance from neoplasia, they may precede by months to years the tumor manifestations, disappear after treatment and occur in case of relapse. General symptoms, include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anorexia, aversion to tobacco in smokers. Chest radiography is fundamental, but unfortunately, many times, when lung cancer is evident radiographically, the diagnosis is delayed. CT scan is useful for determining the nature of a chest mass, based on tomographic density, highlighting the mediastinal lymph damage, emphasizing the extension of lung cancer in the mediastinum, pleura and ribs.
Bronchoscopy is a important paramount because it allows the biopsy of the tumors and assessment of tumor extension. Laboratory tests, provide little information such as acceleration of ESR, serum calcium, serum sodium levels, potassium levels can be changed.
Functional respiratory exploration (spirometry) indicates whether surgery is possible or not.
Other paraclinical: brain CT, scintigraphy, bone MRI, marrow biopsy, abdominal ultrasound to detect metastases. Lung cancer prognosis is restricted because of late diagnosis, but also because of the early metastasis of this type of cancer.
Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. Smoking--once a socially accepted behavior--is the leading preventable cause of death and disability in the United States.
Large epidemiologic studies conducted by Ernst Wynder (see box) and others in the 1940s and 1950s linked cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Early in the 20th century, several events coincided that contributed to increases in annual per capita consumption, including the introduction of blends and curing processes that allowed the inhalation of tobacco, the invention of the safety match, improvements in mass production, transportation that permitted widespread distribution of cigarettes, and use of mass media advertising to promote cigarettes (6,7). Changes in the social norms surrounding smoking can be documented by examining changes in public policy, including availability of Fairness Doctrine counteradvertising messages on television and radio and increased restrictions on tobacco advertising beginning with the ban on broadcast advertising in 1971. One of the most effective means of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use is by increasing federal and state excise tax rates.
The November 1998 Master Settlement Agreement marks the end of the 20th century with an unprecedented event. Second, decreasing prevalence among adults since the mid-1960s has not continued (Figure 2). Fourth, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home and at work is a substantial problem. Much remains to be done despite the public health achievements in reducing tobacco use in the 20th century.
Reported by: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Statistics Advertise with us ContactWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. In the Philippines, cancer is the third leading cause of death, or almost 10 percent of all deaths.
If you are exposed to these materials at work, ask your health and safety advisor about how to protect yourself. It may take years for the cancer to grow, and there are usually no symptoms at the onset of the disease.
Apart from the physical challenges of the disease and its treatment, people with cancer may have worries and feelings that can make life difficult. Be sure that you understand what your doctors are telling you, and share your questions and concerns.
In pulmonary cancer counts the number of cigarettes smoked per day, length in years of this habit, the onset of smoking at young ages, the presence of cigarette filter. In industrialized regions, the rate of death by lung cancer is 2-5 times higher than in rural areas.


Recent studies confirm an inverse relationship between cancer and consumption of fruits and vegetables, and the existence of protective substances, like antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E and selenium).
Metastasize early, diffuse and varied, being considered the most aggressive form of cancer.
Has a severe evolution, because of early metastasis and is less sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pulmonary cancer is currently the only way to improve the prognosis of this disease. Coughing can occur in a smoker patient but also in nonsmokers and has the following characters: persistent, dry, irritating nature, rebellious to treatment with antitussives. The most common organs in which metastasize lung cancer are: bone, brain, adrenal glands, bone marrow, lymph nodes. During the first decades of the 20th century, lung cancer was rare; however, as cigarette smoking became increasingly popular, first among men and later among women, the incidence of lung cancer became epidemic (Figure 1). In 1964, on the basis of approximately 7000 articles relating to smoking and disease, the Advisory Committee to the U.S. Cigarette smoking among women began to increase in the 1920s when targeted industry marketing and social changes reflecting the liberalization of women's roles and behavior led to the increasing acceptability of smoking among women (8,9). The percentage of adults who never smoked increased from 44% in the mid-1960s to 55% in 1997.
Cigarette advertising no longer appears on television or billboards, and efforts to restrict sales and marketing to adolescents have increased. A 10% increase in the price of cigarettes can lead to a 4% reduction in the demand for cigarettes. Although admitting no wrongdoing, the tobacco companies signed an agreement with the attorneys general of 46 states. Prevalence among high school seniors today is highest among whites and lowest among blacks (18).
One study found that 87.9% of children and adult nonusers of tobacco had detectable levels of serum cotinine (20).
Because of the increase, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Tobacco Free Initiative, and the World Health Assembly unanimously approved the development of a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The American Cancer Society has set goals for 2015 of a 25% reduction in cancer incidence and a 50% reduction in cancer mortality rates (23). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking.
State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children's and adolescents' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke--United States, 1996.
Lung cancer is the most common formof cancer in the Philippines, with an estimated 17,000 new cases in 2005. It might also be used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may have been left behind in the lung. Experts on living with serious illnesses agree that a positive outlook can improve the patient's quality of life, and may even increase survival.
If your side effects are really bad, or if they last longer than expected, talk to your doctors and nurses. Lung cancer incidence is increasing in proportion to the frequency of smoking and air pollution, age of maximum incidence is between 45 and 60. Usually, it is considered that at the time of diagnosis, cancer reached the systemic dissemination stage and, therefore, is inoperable. Surgeon General concluded that cigarette smoking is a cause of lung and laryngeal cancer in men, a probable cause of lung cancer in women, and the most important cause of chronic bronchitis in both sexes (3). Annual per capita cigarette consumption increased from 54 cigarettes in 1900 to 4345 cigarettes in 1963 and then decreased to 2261 in 1998 (10,11).
This reduction is the result of people smoking fewer cigarettes or quitting altogether (15).
This agreement settled lawsuits totaling $206 billion; however, the agreement did not require that any of the state money be spent for tobacco use prevention and control. The recent increases in prevalence highlight the need for a nationwide comprehensive prevention program focused on this age group. The distribution of serum cotinine levels is bimodal: one peak for nonsmokers exposed to ETS and a higher one for smokers (Figure 4).
Approximately 50% of that goal can be achieved with a 40%-50% reduction in smoking prevalence by 2005. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and CDC, 1995. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Smoking and Health, 1980.
Although much progress has been made inthe treatment of lung cancer, it is still the most common cause of cancer death. Also,  a cancer support group can give you a safe place to share with others who can relate. Aujourd?hui, et sans doute a cause du tabac, il est devenu la premiere cause de deces chez les hommes et commence a rattraper les cancers du sein chez les femmes.
Other diseases and conditions now known to be caused by tobacco use include heart disease, atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease, laryngeal cancer, oral cancer, esophageal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birthweight. Some decreases correlate with events, such as the first research suggesting a link between smoking and cancer in the 1950s, the 1964 Surgeon General's report, the 1968 Fairness Doctrine, and increased tobacco taxation and industry price increases during the 1980s (Figure 1). With a growing awareness of the danger of smoking came the first filter, which was designed to reduce the tar inhaled in the smoke.


Smoking is no longer permitted on airplanes, and many people, including 12.5% of adult smokers with children, do not smoke at home (14). Studies show that low-income, adolescent, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black smokers are more likely than others to stop smoking in response to a price increase (15).
The American Legacy Foundation was established as a result of a provision in the Master Settlement Agreement that called for a foundation with a mandate to conduct effective tobacco education programs based on scientific research. Parallel to the health burden is the economic burden of tobacco use, which amounts to at least $50 billion in medical expenditures and $50 billion in indirect costs.
Both the number of smokers in the household and the hours exposed at work were associated with increased serum cotinine levels among nonsmokers. Commensurate with the cost of the harm caused by tobacco, resources must be expended, including programs preventing adolescents from starting to smoke, getting adults and young people to quit smoking, and eliminating exposure to ETS and disparities among population groups. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, CDC, 1964 (PHS publication no. Rockville, Maryland: National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1999 (NIH publication no. During the latter part of the 20th century, the adverse health effects from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke also were documented. With the subsequent decline in smoking, the incidence of smoking-related cancers (including cancers of the lung, oral cavity, and pharynx) have also declined (with the exception of lung cancer among women) (4).
Later, low tar cigarettes were marketed; however, many smokers compensated by smoking more intensely and by blocking the filter's ventilation holes (13).
Now 42 states have restrictions on smoking at government work sites and 20 states have restrictions at private work sites.
If trends continue, approximately 5 million children living today will die prematurely because as adolescents they started smoking cigarettes (16).
These include lung cancer, asthma, respiratory infections, and decreased pulmonary function (2). Smokeless tobacco use has changed little since 1970, with a 5% prevalence in 1970 and a 6% prevalence in 1991 among men, and 2% and 1%, respectively, for women.
Adenocarcinoma has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the leading cause of lung cancer-related death in the United States.
Advances have been made in knowledge of tobacco use and its effect on health; intervention strategies to reduce these effects remain serious challenges. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use is highest among high school males, with prevalence being 20% among white males, 6% among Hispanics males, and 4% among blacks males.
This increase in adenocarcinoma parallels the changes in cigarette design and smoking behavior (13). Prevalence of use tends to be lower in the northeastern region and higher in the southern region of the United States. La plupart des cancers du poumon sont lies au tabagisme, a l'exception de l'adenocarcinome. Total consumption of cigars decreased from 8 million in 1970 to 2 million in 1993 but increased 68% to 3.6 million in 1997 (13). Autrefois il touchait surtout les hommes, mais comme le tabagisme s?est developpe chez les femmes, il touche de plus en plus de femmes et est en phase de passer devant le cancer du sein.Surtout qu?il ne s?agit pas ici seulement du fumeur en lui-meme.
Vivre dans un environnement dont l'air est fortement pollue, ou avoir un emploi ou l?on manipule des mineraux radioactifs ou de l'amiante, peut aussi augmenter le risque de cancer du poumon. La recherche a permis de mieux comprendre comment ces facteurs de risque entrainent certains changements de l'ADN dans les cellules du poumon qui entrainent une croissance anormale des cellules et la formation de tumeurs cancereuses.Les symptomesAvant de pouvoir se prononcer sur le traitement, il faut evaluer le stade d'avancement du cancer, c'est-a-dire determiner son degre d'evolution. Selon le type de cancer, les evolutions sont differentes.Les premiers symptomes d'un cancer du poumon apparaissent malheureusement tardivement, quand la tumeur est deja bien installee. La tumeur peut aussi entrainer une pneumonie, qui s'accompagne de toux, de fievres, de douleur thoraciques et d'essoufflements.Lorsque la tumeur cancereuse envahit le poumon, la quantite d'oxygene dans le sang diminue forcement et entraine une insuffisance cardiaque.
Les cellules cancereuses exercent parfois une pression sur le poumon au risque de l'ecraser et lorsque la tumeur presse sur la moelle epiniere, on ressent de la douleur ou on presente un trouble de la fonction des nerfs.Le diagnosticPour depister ces cancers le plus tot possible, le medecin utilise la radiographie pulmonaire.
Si vous etes fumeur, faites en une au moindre signe inhabituel et chaque annee, si possible. En cas d?anomalie detectee, comme une zone d?ombre sur le poumon, c?est ensuite au medecin de juger ce qui doit s?ensuivre. Cependant, plutot qu?une simple ablation de la tumeur tout le lobe est enleve pour diminuer le risque de reapparition.
Les auteurs de l?etude tentent maintenant d?identifier les substances chimiques dans l?haleine qui revelent la presence d?un cancer.
Votre nom Adresse E-mail de votre ami Vous devez indiquer votre nom Commentaires Publier un commentaire Laissez un commentaire sur cet articleMerci de soigner l'orthographe, la grammaire et éviter le langage SMS. PseudoCommentaireVous devez indiquer un message Ludo Je cherche a savoir quelles sont les etudes qui permettent de liee cancer du poumons a la cigarette.Y a t' il autre chose que des statistiques et des presomption ? Du coup, je recherche des trucs pour arriver de fumer moi aussi car a 1 paquet etdemi par jour jy arrive pas!!
J'ai entendu parle dun centre pour l'arret du tabac, apparemment cest un hypnotiseur qui fait ca et il utilise une methode venue d'Australie. 18 juin 2012 à 12h27 Le cancer du poumon est la premiere cause de deces chez les hommes.
Lire la suite Le cancer du sein Le cancer du sein est le premier cancer feminin dans les pays occidentaux.



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