17.03.2016

Lab test liver cancer

The blood urea nitrogen or BUN is a blood test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the bloodstream. When a person is dehydrated, false results might be obtained as BUN levels increase when blood is concentrated. Elevated BUN levels indicate dehydration, excessive protein intake and impaired renal function.
Measuring urinary creatinine clearance during unilateral kidney impairment is insignificant as the healthy kidney can still excrete creatinine through the urine. During dehydration, hematocrit tests may reveal false results as the blood is concentrated. There are two kinds of lipoproteins – the low density lipoprotein or LDL and high density lipoprotein or HDL.
On the other hand, an increase in serum potassium levels is called hyperkalemia which may elicit symptoms like increased irritability, diarrhea and ECG changes. Serum potassium levels should be closely monitored for people with renal failure, diabetes, burns and electrolyte imbalance.
When there is an abnormally high ammonia levels in the blood, liver impairment should be suspected.
Conclusion: These results indicate that levels of GGT were raised with increased waist girth, BMI, blood pressure TG and low HDL, all of these are the features of metabolic syndrome according to ATP III criteria.
The liver is a large, complex organ that is well designed for its central role in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Among the measures of abdominal obesity, high WC was defined as >90 cm in males and >80 cm in females.
In this study 100 normal subjects were taken as control and their values of BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, blood sugar levels and blood pressure were compared with 47 type 2 diabetic patients. In Table-1 comparison of anthropometric measurements and blood pressure was done in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects. In Table-2 the comparison of lipid profile and liver enzymes was done between normal subjects and type 2 diabetics.
In Table-3 Pearson correlation two tailed study the value of GGT and blood sugar levels and blood pressure values were compared between normal and in diabetics. Figure is comparing the values of fasting blood sugar and random blood sugar with serum levels of GGT. This study was done with the purpose to identify the effects of raised blood sugar levels on liver enzymes. Our study is in total agreement with this study however we have excluded subjects with any history of alcohol. Our results suggest that liver enzymes are closely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and that among these enzymes serum GGT is the most powerful risk indicator for developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
9.National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. ABCD sponsors treatment for those in need regardless of gender, race or creed, helping them to reach their full potential, to live life with dignity and to take their rightful place in their community. ABCD works through local Palestinian partners, the Bethlehem Arab Society for Rehabilitation (BASR) based in Beit Jala, The Sheepfold in Beit Sahour and two UNWRA Refugee Camps in Jalazone and Nour Shams. Funding is constantly needed for new projects and to update and refurbish existing facilities. When mammalian whole blood is subjected to centrifugation (5000 x g, 5 min.), the cellular components collect at the bottom of the tube to form a pellet. The normal mammalian red blood cell is a flexible biconcave disc, approximately 7 - 8 micometers in diameter.


Since mature mammalian red blood cells lack nuclei, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum, they do not contain DNA and consequently cannot divide. When the pancreas is damaged, both lipase and amylase are also released into the bloodstream. However, amylase returns to normal levels within 3 days while lipase remains elevated within 7-10 days.
Correct levels of sodium and chloride in the blood help in maintaining normal osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and nerve impulses. Normal levels of potassium in the blood are essential in regulating electrical conduction within the muscles. People taking diuretics and digitalis should also be monitored for changes in serum potassium levels. Troubles in starting and stopping urine flow, blood in urine and back pain when urinating are other symptoms indicative for a PSA test.
In preparing for ammonia plasma test, the person being tested should refrain from smoking several hours prior to the test. We excluded patients with acute or chronic liver, kidney and heart disease, history of alcohol addiction, patients taking drugs affecting liver enzymes, patients suffering from cancer, and pregnant women.
The table is showing significantly increased levels of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and decreased HDL among diabetic subjects. The regression value "r" in diabetic was significant with FBS, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The fasting and random blood sugar levels were divided into normal and high according to WHO criteria.
In the present study comparison of high sugar levels was done with BMI, waist hip ratio, liver enzymes, lipid profile and blood pressure. Previous study18 on patients with type 2 diabetes after a three year follow-up period had showed that raised gamma GT was correlated with the central obesity, increased fasting glucose, Triglycerides, and blood pressure in both sexes.
Our results are consistent with those of previous studies8,20 and indicate that elevated serum GGT is associated with an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Genetic covariation between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
Liver enzymes as a predictor for incident diabetes in a Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with the metabolic syndrome. Gammaglutamyltransferase is a predictor of incident diabetes and hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
Since the red blood cells are the most dense of all the cells, they collect at the very bottom.
They also cannot synthesize RNA nor synthesize any new proteins, and consequently have a limited life span.
The opposite happens for urinary creatinine clearance; during renal impairment, urinary creatinine is extremely low.
High hematocrit levels may indicate dehydration, polycythemia vera and lung or heart diseases. A decrease in potassium levels is called hypokalemia which may elicit symptoms like dysrhythmias, weakness, decreased reflexes and ECG changes. The pearson regression analysis showed a positive relation with systolic, diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar.


Prospective studies have found that high levels of hepatic enzymes including ALT6 and GGT7 are associated with later development of diabetes. The table also compared the levels of liver enzymes between normal and type 2 diabetics and showed significant increase in GGT, SGPT, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase in diabetics.
The table showed that as the levels of blood sugar were increased both in fasting and random conditions the levels of GGT were also raised.
The significant correlation with GGT, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found with increase in blood sugar levels. In another study when results of GGT, FPG, and Triglycerides were compared,19 the concentrations of FPG and triglycerides markedly increased among the higher GGT categories. Thirteen and one-half years of folow up of the participants in a study of sweedish men born in 1913. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The white cells and platelets form a sometimes inconspicuous buffy coat on top of the red cells.
At the same time, ultrasonographic and pathological series have shown that excess deposition of fat in liver, usually termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, has strong cross-sectional associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.8 The aim of the present study is to measure the levels of liver enzymes among normal subjects and then compare them in known type 2 diabetic subjects.
The blood sugar level was analyzed by dividing them into normal and high sugar levels and then liver enzymes and lipid profile was compared with them using independent t test. Similar studies on the relationship between liver enzyme and diabetes in both sexes in general population12,13 have found higher levels of gamma GT.
Similarly, the frequency of FPG and hypertriglyceridemia increased steadily with levels of GGT.
In addition, certain mechanisms related to oxidative stress might play a role because cellular GGT has a central role in glutathione homeostasis by initiating the breakdown of extracellular glutathione, a critical antioxidant defense for the cell.1 Increases in serum GGT activity may be a response to oxidative stress, making increased transport of glutathione into cells. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
All participants were asked to fast at least 12 hours and to avoid heavy physical activity for at least 2 hours before the examination.
Pearson correlation 2 tailed was done with GGT and blood sugar levels and with GGT and blood pressure.
A significant positive associations of GGT and ALT with diabetes were seen with, BMI, waist hip ratio, and alcohol consumption. Study on diabetic individuals and patients of metabolic syndrome14 shows that the values of waist circumference, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, fasting glucose, AST, ALT, fasting insulin increased according to the increase level of serum GGT in both genders. Height was measured in standing position without shoes while the shoulder was in a normal position. All participants went through a clinical examination with measurement of; resting blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumference. Recent studies on diabetic middle aged men and women15-17 have showed increased levels of GGT when compared with age, ALT, AST, alcohol consumption, and BMI. It is therefore strongly suggested that GGT is advised in patients who are suspected to develop metabolic syndrome. Daily physical activity, addiction history, history of previous illnesses and types of medication use was also recorded.
GGT was also correlated with insulin resistance-markers, waist-circumference, Triglycerides, Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Although the study does not elaborate mechanism of how serum GGT is associated with a higher risk of diabetes and how obesity may modify or strengthen this associations but their significance is certainly highlighted.



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