13.04.2015

Journal materials science medicine

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A 3D printer in action at Makers Party Bangalore 2013, an event hosted by Mozilla India and Hive Learning Center. Three-dimensional printing, which has barely arrived on the scene, is already in danger of being eclipsed by another innovation that provides an upgrade to its functionality: Four-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing entails printing finished objects from data sent to a 3D printer through a process of additive layering, in which successive layers of material are aggregated incrementally until the product is finished. While 3D printing is purposed around building static items, 4D printing employs dynamic materials that evolve or adapt to their external environment in real-time and in direct response to changing conditions.
If 3D printing has broken ground by devising new methods to build objects from scratch, 4D printing’s greatest innovation lies in the extraordinary potential of “smart” materials to incorporate the necessary information for self-assembly. Adaptive and biomimetic composites and responsive materials that react to external stimuli could revolutionize manufacturing by making it easier to build in extreme environments.
These and other concerns must be integrated into the guidelines and regulatory frameworks that will come to govern 3D and 4D printing. Features publishes timely analysis and commentary by academics, diplomats, and business leaders on a wide range of issues in the news. Win An Amazon Gift Card!ATTENTION GJIA READER: As we look to the future, we ask that you help us better cater our material to your needs. A team of archaeologists has discovered a collection of textiles of diverse dye colors and designs about 3,000 years old in an Edomite tin mine in Israel. The tiny pieces of fabric, some only 5 x 5 centimeters in size, vary in color, weaving technique and ornamentation. Copper was used to produce tools and weapons and was the most valuable resource in ancient societies.
The interior of an aluminium smelter demonstrates the harsh conditions that must be withstood by the components of electrolytic cells. Derek Fray is in the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK. Learn spelling worksheet, Letter b words reading, writing, and coloring preschool worksheets, Letter b coloring picture, free online Letter b words unscramble games, kids puzzle, and match games for kids. Learn spelling worksheet, Letter c words reading, writing worksheets, Letter c coloring pages, preschool learning games, kids puzzle, and connect words to images games for kids. Coloring pages with letter h words, h words writing worksheets, preschool reading worksheets, and tracing worksheets to help kids with their reading skills.
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The technology currently services both corporate manufacturing and private use, and is employed in multiple fields ranging from electronics, aerospace, and the automotive industry to medical efforts to create new human tissues, prostheses, and hearing aids.
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where the technology was pioneered, have worked to incorporate an additional dimension into the 3D printing process: time. Prior programming enables them to “learn” the thresholds of energy to which they then respond dynamically. Nevertheless, both the constructive potential and disruptive capacity of the new technology have been taken seriously.
In the realm of infrastructural projects, this is particularly relevant for the functioning of water pipes, which have long been considered a fixed capacity.
Ultimately, its frontiers are expected to shift from the inorganic world to the realm of organic life, where nanotechnology and the science of bio-programmable matter could converge to offer unprecedented solutions to current global issues. Its benefits, however—especially in terms of cost-savings, adaptability, and customization—are offset by many technical and legal challenges that need to be addressed. Programmable matter prompts special concern for intellectual property law and patenting (particularly in terms of reproducibility).
Recent technological advances in material science, nanotechnology, and other fields have converged to unprecedented levels, enabling technologies such as programmable matter to become a real possibility.
Please take two minutes to fill out this survey, the results of which will help us serve you. Textiles this old are rare because they are made of organic materials and usually disintegrate long before modern times. Erez Ben-Yosef has uncovered an extensive fabric collection of diverse color, design and origin. Some of the seeds were subjected to radiocarbon dating, providing robust confirmation for the age of the site.
The latest discovery of fabrics, many of which were made far from Timna in specialized textile workshops, provides a glimpse into the trade practices and regional economy of the day. The housing and construction industries might well be next in line, following the recent full 3D printing of a house in China in the span of less than a day—and using waste-free materials to boot. This not only allows objects to be custom-tailored but also makes them programmable for changes after fabrication. Objects created through 4D printing are programmed to self-assemble and alter their structure when the material of which they are composed comes in contact with different conditions, such as moisture or humidity.
The materials involved are not necessarily new; instead, they derive mostly from existing substances, such as plastics or fibers, combined in ways that change their properties under specific environmental conditions. The concept of “adaptive infrastructure” has already started to gain purchase in some businesses and industries, of which sportswear is one example.
Using 4D printing, pipes could be designed to adapt, expand, or contract based on their surroundings. Four-dimensional printing is a natural extension of the military’s underlying objective to maintain technological superiority on the battlefield and beyond, especially because it could optimize the functionalities of other emerging or existing technologies. Particular areas of concern include design, standardization and certifications, affordability, and recycling. The question of responsibility, which often arises in debates regarding artificial intelligence and robotics, also looms large over 4D printing: which party is to blame, for instance, if an item or any one of its functions fails? The world must be prepared to both welcome their benefits and, simultaneously, prepare to mitigate their potential risks.


Antony’s College at the University of Oxford and Senior Fellow and Head of the Geopolitics and Global Futures Programme at the Geneva Centre for Security Policy. Additionally, your participation will enter you into a raffle for a $25 Amazon gift card.Thanks so much in advance for your participation! This is the first discovery of textiles dating from the era of David and Solomon, and sheds new light on the historical fashions of the Holy Land.
Orit Shamir, a senior researcher at the Israel Antiquities Authority, who led the study of the fabrics themselves.
Miners in ancient Timna may have been slaves or prisoners — theirs was a simple task performed under difficult conditions.
As MIT’s Skylar Tibbits, one of the project’s lead developers, recently explained, 4D printing is essentially nothing new—the innovation instead lies in what happens after printing has occurred. The ultimate goal is to create stimuli-responsive components, materials that modify their own form or self-assemble new patterns automatically and in predictive ways. Indeed, 4D printing can be viewed as simply a logical extension of its 3D counterpart and other existing technologies: As smart materials develop to the level of nano-composites and computing becomes both smaller and cheaper, programmable capabilities have emerged as a natural next step. Four-dimensional programming has been tested to develop smart shoes with the ability to turn into running or basketball shoes or, alternatively, to become waterproofifit is raining or adapt according to the surrounding temperature, atmospheric pressure, or other external conditions. Similarly, this adaptability could permit a range of innovative capacities such as “self-healing” pipes and equipment to counteract cracks or wear as well as “self-disassembling” materials to facilitate recyclability. For instance, uniforms made of 3D printed material could adapt to camouflage, cool, or insulate soldiers in different environments. The so-called Autodesk Initiative has already embarked on an ingenious project called “DNA origami,” which builds nano-scale protein structures whose purpose is to create nano-robots precisely designed to target and kill cancerous cells in the body.
Like any emerging technology, 4D printing also brings to the fore numerous other risks, including possible dual-use or misuse for criminal or otherwise harmful purposes. Most recently, he is the author of The Politics of Emerging Strategic Technologies: Implications for Geopolitics, Human Enhancement and Human Destiny, published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2011. The textiles also offer insight into the complex society of the early Edomites, the semi-nomadic people believed to have operated the mines at Timna. But the act of smelting, of turning stone into metal, required an enormous amount of skill and organization.
Similarly, an adaptive printed metal could adapt to specific environmental conditions to improve the performance of vehicles like tanks or trucks. A part of this initiative called Project Cyborg similarly works on a meta-platform of programming matter to set parameters and create specialized designs for biomaterial that can then grow or change their properties. The smelter had to manage some 30 to 40 variables in order to produce the coveted copper ingots. The use of these design platforms could vary widely, from tissue-engineering to the self-assembly of biomaterials.



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