22.07.2016

Journal cancer metabolism 30s

The ability to detect breast cancer is now more accurate with three-dimensional mammography tests. A regular mammogram test scans an x-ray in two stationary positions, but the new three-dimensional tests take multiple x-rays from different angles and combine them together to create a more coherent image of the breast.
In the United States there are thirty-eight million mammograms administered every year at a cost of about $8 billion for patients and their insurance providers. A few scientists have complained that the new tests do not necessarily save lives and could give off additional radiation to patients. Other doctors have been just as positive saying that if a patient has the access to a three-dimensional mammography-imaging device then they should feel entirely comfortable using it, even as the only test. Following on the heels of recent revelations that x-ray mammography may be contributing to an epidemic of future radiation-induced breast cancers, in a new article titled, “Radiation Treatment Generates Therapy Resistant Cancer Stem Cells From Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells,” published in the journal Cancer July 1st, 2012, researchers from the Department of Radiation Oncology at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center report that radiation treatment actually drives breast cancer cells into greater malignancy.
The researchers found that even when radiation kills half of the tumor cells treated, the surviving cells which are resistant to treatment, known as induced breast cancer stem cells (iBCSCs), were up to 30 times more likely to form tumors than the nonirradiated breast cancer cells.
Last month, a related study published in the journal Stem Cells titled, “Radiation-induced reprogramming of breast cells,” found that ionizing radiation reprogrammed less malignant (more differentiated) breast cancer cells into iBCSCs, helping to explain why conventional treatment actually enriches the tumor population with higher levels of treatment-resistant cells.
A growing body of research now indicts conventional cancer treatment with chemotherapy and radiation as a major contributing cause of cancer patient mortality.
In order to understand how conventional treatment drives the cancer into greater malignancy, we must first understand what cancer is….
Tumors are actually highly organized assemblages of cells, which are surprisingly well-coordinated for cells that are supposed to be the result of strictly random mutation. Because tumors are not simply the result of one or more mutated cells “going rogue” and producing exact clones of itself (multi-mutational and clonal hypotheses), but are a diverse group of cells having radically different phenotypal characteristics, chemotherapy and radiation will affect each cell type differently. The most deadly cell type within a tumor or blood cancer, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs),has the ability to give rise to all the cell types found within that cancer.
They are capable of dividing by mitosis to form either two stem cells (increasing the size of the stem population), or one daughter cell that goes on to differentiate into a variety of cell types, and one daughter cell that retains stem-cell properties.
This means CSCs are tumorigenic (tumor-forming) and should be the primary target of cancer treatment because they are capable of both initiating and sustaining cancer. CSCs account for less than 1 in 10,000 cells within a particular cancer, making them difficult to destroy without destroying the vast majority of other cells comprising the tumor.
CSCs are slow to replicate, making them less likely to be destroyed by chemotherapy and radiation treatments that target cells which are more rapidly dividing.
Conventional chemotherapies target differentiated and differentiating cells, which form the bulk of the tumor, but these are unable to generate new cells like the CSCs which are undifferentiated.The existence of CSCs explains why conventional cancer treatment has completely missed the boat when it comes to targeting the root cause of tumors. The antibiotic, also, kills the other beneficial bacteria that help the body fight infection naturally, in the same way that chemotherapy kills the patient’s immune system (white blood cells and bone marrow), ultimately supporting the underlying conditions making disease recurrence more likely. The reality is that the chemotherapy, even though it has reduced the tumor volume, by increasing the ratio of CSCs to benign daughter cells, has actually made the cancer more malignant.
Radiotherapy has also been shown to increase cancer stem cells in the prostate, ultimately resulting in cancer recurrence and worsened prognosis. The primary reason why these substances are not used in conventional treatment is because they arenot patentable, nor profitable. The Human Body Cures Cancer By Itself (Immunotherapy) – Medical Discovery Thrilled The Whole World! Ginger Juice – The Amazing Drink That Melts Fat Off Your Waist Almost Immediately (1)Incredible Health Benefits, Urinary Tract Healing and Detoxing the Whole Body with This Amazing Oil! (1)Drinking This On An Empty Stomach Will Do You Miracles! Due to its rarity, treatment guidelines for vaginal cancer are extrapolated from institutional reports and prospective studies of cervical and anal cancer.
Surgical series have reported 5-year survival rates ranging from 53% to 92%[14-19] for women with early-stage disease who were treated with conservative excision or partial or total vaginectomy. You may want to think twice before ordering that second drink this weekend: New research suggests that alcohol is directly linked to at least seven types of cancer.
A study published in the journal Addiction on July 21 finds that “there is strong evidence that alcohol causes cancer at seven sites in the body and probably others,” and that “alcohol-attributable cancers at these sites make up 5.8% of all cancer deaths world-wide,” according to the abstract. While alcohol has never been considered an elixir of health, the study — conducted by researchers at New Zealand’s Otago University — pushes the argument further, saying that there isn’t just a link between alcohol and cancer, but that drinking alcohol directly causes it. Though researchers remain uncertain as to what exactly happens in the body for alcohol consumption to lead to cancer — some speculate that alcohol may mutate DNA, causing cellular abnormalities — the study’s authors stand firmly behind the fact that a causal relationship exists between alcohol consumption and cancer. Worse still is that, according to the study, cancer risk still exists for those who don’t drink heavily.


Connor arrived at her conclusions after reviewing a decade of studies conducted by cancer research organizations, including the World Cancer Research Fund, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the World Health Organization. Connor’s work has been well received by global health experts, who have expressed frustration about effectively communicating the relationship between alcohol and cancer to a global audience. Slide 3: Pelvis radiograph showed a large osteolytic lesion over right iliac bone near sacroiliac junction (white arrows).
Slide 4: A 70-year-old male with advanced prostate cancer presenting with hypercalcemia and diffuse osteoblastic bone metastases. The Poem that got Nelson Mandela through 27 years in Prison (&12 Wisdom Quotes from Madiba Himself). The Poem that got Nelson Mandela through 27 years in Prison (& 12 Wisdom Quotes from Madiba Himself).
95 years old, 27 of them in prison. He was born just after World War I and he lived to see a black man elected president of the USA. If anyone’s interested in learning more about this mans life I highly recommend his autobiography Long Walk to Freedom.
Founded as a print magazine in 2002, we went national in 2005 and then (because mainstream magazine distribution is wildly inefficient from an eco-responsible point of view) transitioned online in 2009. He was an exemplary statesman–before and during his long years as prisoner, and then as President.
A new scientific study published by The Journal of the American Medical Association says that the 3D tests, also called tomosynthesis, are more effective at detecting breast cancer than normal mammograms, and also create false alarms less often.
This enables doctors to more clearly detect if there is a tumor or growth that may be hidden underneath breast tissue.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the 3D x-ray machines and the practice of using them in the United States in 2011. The doctors at the 13 medical centers who provided information for the study said they used both the 3D tests and conventional digital tests, thus doubling the amount of radiation a patient received.
The FDA originally stated that the new test should be done in addition to standard 2D digital mammograms, but in 2013 decided that the system could be used by itself. The medical community has been downplaying the true harms from low dose x rays for decades.
In other words, the radiation treatment regresses the total population of cancer cells, generating the false appearance that the treatment is working, but actually increases the ratio of highly malignant to benign cells within that tumor, eventually leading to the iatrogenic (treatment-induced) death of the patient. They are capable of building their own blood supply (angiogenesis), are able to defend themselves by silencing cancer-suppression genes, secreting corrosive enzymes to move freely throughout the body, alter their metabolism to live in low oxygen and acidic environments, and know how to remove their own surface-receptor proteins to escape detection by white blood cells. One reason for this is because existing cancer treatments have mostly been developed in animal models where the goal is to shrink a tumor. Cancer stem cells may also explain why castration therapy often fails in prostate cancer treatment. Sadly, the criteria for drug selection are not safety, effectiveness, accessibility and affordability. THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES DON’T WANT YOU TO KNOW THE COMBINATION OF THESE 3 SIMPLE INGREDIENTS – IT’S AGAINST THEIR ECONOMIC INTERESTS! This theme are SEO Optimize with Schema markup, HTML5 Compatible and many more built in premium options such as Google web fonts, advertisement options and slider options. Lee, MD, Anuja Jhingran, MD, Elizabeth Kidd, MD, Higinia Rosa Cardenes, MD, PhD, Mohamed A. An expert panel was convened to reach consensus on the selection of imaging and therapeutic modalities. Due to these limitations, management guidelines for vaginal cancer are currently extrapolated from reported clinical experience and prospective studies of cervical and anal cancer, given the similarities in disease etiology and the desire for organ preservation.
As in cervical cancer staging, FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, although in historic series and resource-poor settings the imaging findings may not be used to determine the stage, in order to preserve the FIGO system.
CT is primarily used for 3-D conformal treatment planning for radiotherapy delivery (see Variant 1).
The treatment approaches for early-stage disease include surgical resection or definitive radiotherapy.
Indeed, the study found that giving up alcohol can actually reverse risk of certain cancers, and that the risk goes down the longer an individual abstains from alcohol.
Then, take a look at this map revealing all the world’s countries ranked by alcohol consumption.


Source: Chih-Yu Chen, Yong-Te Hsueh, Tsung-Yu Lan, Wei-Hsin Lin, Karl Wu and Rong-Sen Yang. Abdominal radiograph showing osteoblastic changes of spine, pelvic, and femoral bones (arrows).
It is easy to criticize what he did not accomplish, but it is impossible to ignore how much he did accomplish–and how skillfully and gracefully.
Truly Nelson Mandiba Mandela will live in my heart forever, his words shall resound loudly for generations to come. The false alarms are when a scan shows something that could look like cancer, but after more tests turns out to be nothing. Overall the tomosynthesis scans detect one additional breast cancer growth for every one thousand scans when compared to regular digital mammograms. According to Hologic, the only company who makes the machines permitted by the FDA, there are about 1,1000 3D mammography units in the United States and around 6 million American women will use the devices in 2014. The equipment used in the study gave off more radiation than regular mammography scans, but Hologic says that have created a newer version that uses the exact same amount. The detection rating for more invasive cancers also went up by 41 percent according to the study.
In a previous article titled “Is Cancer An Ancient Survival Program Unmasked?” we delved deeper into this emerging view of cancer as an evolutionary throw-back and not a byproduct of strictly random mutation.
Because mice are most often used and their life spans do not exceed two years, tumor relapse is very difficult, if not impossible to study. The goal is to use repeated treatment cycles (usually six) to regress the tumor population down to zero, without killing the patient.
If this were so, natural compounds would form an integral part of the standard of care in modern cancer treatment. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The advantages of surgery are the preservation of ovarian and sexual function and elimination of the risk of radiation-associated malignancy.[12] Lesions that are well-circumscribed in the upper vagina may be amenable to conservative excision or upper vaginectomy, which is performed in conjunction with radical hysterectomy for patients with an intact uterus. He is a great inspiration, demonstrating how much one man can do to benefit the lives of so many.
A senior director for the screening of caner at the American Cancer Society, Robert Smith said the added radiation is offset by the benefit of detecting more cancer, but agreed that more data and analysis needs to be done in the long-term. That is good news for women, as breast cancer detection can now be even easier and more accurate with 3D mammography tests.
The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) used by the panel to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. Bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection is required, given the extensive lymphatic network of the vagina and the risk of occult nodal spread.
In a study of 11 patients with FIGO stage II disease who were treated with 3 cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin and paclitaxel prior to radical vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, complete and partial clinical response rates were 27% and 64%, respectively, and 73% were disease-free at the last follow-up.[22] In patients with an incomplete resection or pathologically involved lymph nodes, adjuvant radiotherapy is delivered with 5-year survival rates of 100% for stage I disease and 40%–69% for stage II disease[14,16-18] (see Variant 2).
Also not as many insurance companies cover the new 3D mammography tests that the study shows makes detection more accurate for breast cancer.
In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
Surgical series have reported rates of pathologic nodal involvement that range from 6%–14% for stage I disease and from 26%–32% for stage II disease.[13,14] For distal vaginal lesions, the surgical approach involves total vaginectomy, or vulvovaginectomy, and inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Anterior, posterior, or total exenteration is performed less commonly for early-stage disease, as radiation therapy is the preferred modality for organ preservation. Group members reached consensus on the appropriateness of the pretreatment evaluation and therapeutic interventions.
This article represents the consensus opinion of an expert panel and may be used to inform clinical recommendations in vaginal cancer management.




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