11.12.2013

Journal cancer epidemiology impact factor wiki

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The demographic and social impact of HIV infection vary from different parts of globe and has been a lead indicator for policy makers to design future programs towards healthy world. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 U.S. Here we have reviewed and represented the different aspects of global HIV epidemiology in the form of maps and graphs indicating the easy interpretation of current status of HIV infections over the world population. New and investigational antiretroviral drugs for HIV infection: mechanisms of action and early research findings. Antiretroviral adherence, drug resistance, viral fitness and HIV disease progression: a tangled web is woven. HIV-1 evolution under pressure of protease inhibitors: climbing the stairs of viral fitness. Further, the status of current research progress for development of drugs for HIV treatment and near future projections have been included for new treatment possibilities along with discussion about existing drugs.
Apricitabine--a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection that is refractory to existing drugs. Development of vaginal microbicides for the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. Distinguishing HIV-1 drug resistance, accessory, and viral fitness mutations using conditional selection pressure analysis of treated versus untreated patient samples.
Strand transfer inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase: bringing IN a new era of antiretroviral therapy.
Pharmacophore development and docking studies of the hiv-1 integrase inhibitors derived from N-methylpyrimidones, Dihydroxypyrimidines, and bicyclic pyrimidinones. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development.
The newer retroviral drugs and molecules under clinical trial discussed here include NRTIs (Festinavir (BMS-986001), amdoxovir, elvucitabine, apricitabine, racivir), NNRTIs (etravirine, rilpivirine), microbicides (UC-781 (Thiocarboxanilide), TMC-120 (Dapivirine), MIV-150), protease inhibitors (darunavir, tipranavir), fusion and entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, sifuvirtide, AMD-070, BMS-663068, Cenicriviroc, INCB-9471, BMS-488043), CCR5 inhibitors (maraviroc, vicriviroc, PRO 140, PRO 542), CD4-receptor inhibitors (ibalizumab), integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir, GSK-1349572), maturation inhibitors (bevirimat), LEDGINs, Gene therapy (siRNA), Vaccine development and progress in genetic and immune therapy. Synthesis and evaluation of fatty acyl ester derivatives of cytarabine as anti-leukemia agents. Synthesis, anticancer activities, and cellular uptake studies of lipophilic derivatives of doxorubicin succinate. The current status of the NNRTI family of antiretrovirals used in the HAART regime against HIV infection. Cenicriviroc, an orally active CCR5 antagonist for the potential treatment of HIV infection.
CNT loading into cationic cholesterol suspensions show improved DNA binding and serum stability and ability to internalize into cancer cells. Broadly neutralizing antibodies and the search for an HIV-1 vaccine: the end of the beginning.
Novel strategy for anti-HIV-1 action: selective cytotoxic effect of N-myristoyltransferase inhibitor on HIV-1-infected cells. Synthesis and anti-HIV activities of symmetrical dicarboxylate esters of dinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. A guide to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease sequencing for drug resistance studies. Polymorphisms in Gag spacer peptide 1 confer varying levels of resistance to the HIV- 1 maturation inhibitor bevirimat. Adaptation to the interferon-induced antiviral state by human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.
Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. Apricitabine: a novel deoxycytidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of nucleoside-resistant HIV infection. MyristolyCoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase as a therapeutic target for inhibiting replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1. Synthesis and anti-HIV activities of glutamate and peptide conjugates of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of AIC292, a Novel HIV-1 Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor. Preclinical evaluation of the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor L'644 as a potential candidate microbicide. The current status and challenges in the development of fusion inhibitors as therapeutics for HIV-1 infection. Sphingopeptides: dihydrosphingosine-based fusion inhibitors against wild-type and enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1. Raltegravir is a potent inhibitor of XMRV, a virus implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Synthesis and properties of novel nanocomposites made of single-walled carbon nanotubes and low molecular mass organogels and their thermo-responsive behavior triggered by near IR radiation. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In vitro antiviral activities of myristic acid analogs against human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Synthesis and biological evaluation of fatty acyl ester derivatives of (-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine. Scaleable processes for the synthesis of (-)-beta-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane (Amdoxovir, DAPD) and (-)-beta-D-2-aminopurine dioxolane (APD). Acceptability and adherence: findings from a Phase II study of a candidate vaginal microbicide, 'Praneem polyherbal tablet', in Pune, India. Efficacy, stability, and biosafety of sifuvirtide gel as a microbicide candidate against HIV-1. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody ibalizumab exhibits breadth and potency against HIV-1, with natural resistance mediated by the loss of a V5 glycan in envelope. Second locus involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors.
Molecular mechanisms of retroviral integrase inhibition and the evolution of viral resistance. Comparison of raltegravir and elvitegravir on HIV-1 integrase catalytic reactions and on a series of drug-resistant integrase mutants.
Suppression of HIV-1 infection by APOBEC3 proteins in primary human CD4(+) T cells is associated with inhibition of processive reverse transcription as well as excessive cytidine deamination. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues.


Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'- dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine (D4FC) analogues: discovery of carbocyclic nucleoside triphosphates with potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Expanded safety study of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablet among HIV-uninfected women in Pune, India: a phase II clinical trial report. Detection of HIV-1 CXCR4 tropism and resistance in treatment experienced subjects receiving CCR5 antagonist-Vicriviroc.
Drug resistance during indinavir therapy is caused by mutations in the protease gene and in its Gag substrate cleavage sites. Comparative antiviral activity of integrase inhibitors in human monocyte-derived macrophages and lymphocytes.
New betulinic acid derivatives for bevirimat-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate.
Antiviral activity and tolerability of amdoxovir with zidovudine in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in HIV-1-infected individuals. Loss of raltegravir susceptibility by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is conferred via multiple nonoverlapping genetic pathways. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new derivative of bevirimat that targets the Gag CA-SP1 cleavage site. The interferon-induced protein BST-2 restricts HIV-1 release and is downregulated from the cell surface by the viral Vpu protein.
Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.
An exploratory analysis of spatial mobility of injection drug users in the northeast region of India. Impact of an intensive HIV prevention programme for female sex workers on HIV prevalence among antenatal clinic attenders in Karnataka state, south India: an ecological analysis. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: 2003 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel. 4-oxatetradecanoic acid is fungicidal for Cryptococcus neoformans and inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus I.
Randomized placebo-controlled study of the safety, tolerability, antiviral activity, and pharmacokinetics of 10-day monotherapy with BMS-986001, a novel HIV NRTI, in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects.
Bifunctional inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase: mechanism and proof-of-concept as a novel therapeutic design strategy.
Novel pyridinone derivatives as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with high potency against NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. Novel diarylpyridinones, diarylpyridazinones and diarylphthalazinones as potential HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Efficacy and safety of lersivirine (UK-453,061) versus efavirenz in antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: week 48 primary analysis results from an ongoing, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase IIb trial. Discovery of cyanovirin-N, a novel human immunodeficiency virus-inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope glycoprotein gp120: potential applications to microbicide development. Short-peptide fusion inhibitors with high potency against wild-type and enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1. Pharmacodynamics, safety, and pharmacokinetics of BMS-663068, an oral HIV-1 attachment inhibitor in HIV-1-infected subjects.
Identification and characterization of INCB9471, an allosteric noncompetitive small-molecule antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor 5 with potent inhibitory activity against monocyte migration and HIV-1 infection. Phase 2a study of the CCR5 monoclonal antibody PRO 140 administered intravenously to HIV-infected adults. Treatment of advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease with the viral entry inhibitor PRO 542. Antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics, and safety of BMS-488043, a novel oral small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor, in HIV-1-infected subjects.
Phase 2 study of the safety and efficacy of vicriviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, in HIV-1-Infected, treatment-experienced patients: AIDS clinical trials group 5211.
HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that compete with the target DNA substrate define a unique strand transfer conformation for integrase. A naphthyridine carboxamide provides evidence for discordant resistance between mechanistically identical inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase.
Diketo acid inhibitor mechanism and HIV-1 integrase: implications for metal binding in the active site of phosphotransferase enzymes. Resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase selected with elvitegravir confer reduced susceptibility to a wide range of integrase inhibitors. Cell-Permeable Stapled Peptides Based on HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Derived from HIV-1 Gene Products.
Influence of lipoplex surface charge on siRNA delivery: application to the in vitro downregulation of CXCR4 HIV-1 co-receptor. Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-alpha-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo. Limited information suggests health and exposure risks do exist in this area of the world, although accessing published and verified data is a challenge, because most sub-Saharan countries do not have operational health information systems or ground-based networks to monitor solar UVR. The aim of this review is to broaden the understanding of the effects of solar UVR on human health in sub-Saharan Africa by considering an update of relevant health outcomes and by documenting public perceptions and interventions.
Databases searched were African Journals Online, SABINET, Academic Search Premier, Pubmed, SciELO, Medline, JSTOR, Web of Science and Scopus. Reference lists of collected articles including reports of the World Health Organization (WHO) were examined. The websites of national departments of health and cancer associations were investigated for information on 'SunSmart' programmes and sun-related health statistics.
There are other major differences depending on skin colour.2 While BCCs represent about 80% of cutaneous tumours in fair-skinned people, they are the least common of the skin tumours in deeply pigmented people, in whom SCCs are the most frequent. In fair-skinned people, SCCs are found almost entirely on the most sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the face and ears. Unlike the situation in individuals with fair skin, the majority of melanomas in black skin occur on a lower extremity, particularly on the sole of the foot, a body site with little pigmentation.
However, the UVR-attributable disease burden caused by SCCs and BCCs for some of the countries in this region was calculated for the year 2000 using three levels of skin pigmentation, models for global assessment and country-specific population-weighted average daily ambient UVR.3,4 Using actual results, the annual incidence of SCC in Black individuals was estimated as 1 in 100 000 in a township near Soweto, Johannesburg in 1966-1975,5 whereas the age-standardised annual incidence of BCC in the Netherlands is currently more than 140 in 100 000.
Such data are needed to inform the public regarding photoprotection and to improve clinical awareness. For example, 51% of patients reported sun exposure as a triggering factor and 84% reported sun exposure as an aggravating factor in a study based in Tunisia, with a high lifetime sun exposure increasing the risk of severe melasma threefold.11 Melasma represents a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily because of its impact on quality of life. It is suggested to have a significant psycho-emotional effect on women.12 While different scales, including the Melasma Quality of Life scale, have been devised, these have not been tailored effectively for the cultural needs of multiethnic subpopulations.


SCCs of the neck and head are the most common cutaneous tumours seen in African patients with OCA,15 with melanomas occurring rarely.14 Ophthalmohelioses There is a range of eye diseases associated with sunlight exposure - ophthalmohelioses.
These diseases include photoconjunctivitis, photokeratitis and activation of ocular herpes simplex virus following acute exposure to solar UVR, and NMSCs of the lid and conjunctiva, ocular melanoma, pinguecula (local degeneration of conjunctiva), pterygium (inflammation, proliferation and invasive growth on conjunctiva and cornea), climatic droplet keratopathy (epithelial degeneration), age-related cataracts and possibly age-related macular degeneration following chronic exposure to solar UVR. The prevalence of functional low vision was highest in the northern part of Nigeria, which is drier and sunnier than the south. The pathways involved are complex,27 and may involve vitamin D which has many immunoregulatory properties.28 The majority of vitamin D in most people is produced as a result of sun exposure. In southern Africa, there is a relatively high prevalence of multiple sclerosis in White migrants from Europe with a lower prevalence in White African-born people, possibly as a result of the protective effect of early exposure to high levels of solar UVR.34 UVR not only causes mutations but also downregulates immunity, an effect which is recognised to be critical in the development of skin tumours.
For the same dose of UVR, fair-skinned people exhibit more DNA damage,35 a higher production of immune mediators and a higher degree of immunosuppression36 than those with darker skins.
This difference is likely to contribute to the increased susceptibility of individuals with fair skin to develop skin cancers compared with individuals with more pigmented skin. Tuberculosis presents a major public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with Nigeria having the fourth largest tuberculosis burden in the world and South Africa the fifth largest. Many of the new cases of tuberculosis are co-infections with HIV; currently sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 79% of the worldwide HIV-tuberculosis burden. From a survey of studies conducted in 11 countries or regions around the world (including South Africa), a seasonal pattern of tuberculosis is indicated with a peak in the spring and summer months.38 This pattern has been explained by low vitamin D levels in the winter leading to less effective control of microbial growth. If this heterogeneity is added to the range of environments and social conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, it can be anticipated that solar UVR will not have straightforward health outcomes.
In addition, the only country to possess solar UV monitoring instruments in this region is South Africa, where a four-station network has been in operation since the early 1990s. The network aims to provide measured data to the media daily to inform the public regarding times of intense solar irradiation. Most OCA cases present late in the tumour process and patients do not complete treatment because of a lack of funds or for cultural reasons.
Education regarding protective clothing, sunscreens, indoor occupations and early treatment of skin lesions would be beneficial.
An investigation in Tanzania of albinos' understanding of skin cancer risk and attitudes toward sun protection showed that 78% of respondents believed skin cancer was preventable, 63% knew that skin cancer was related to the sun and 77% thought sunscreens afforded sun protection.46 Reasons for not wearing a hat included fashion, culture and heat. Hat-wearing among children with OCA and visual impairment in northern South Africa was high (although the brim width was not always sufficient) and one-third used sunscreens.47 Few sub-Saharan countries have active, sun-related awareness and disease prevention campaigns although some work has been carried out to improve primary health care for the management of cataracts and skin cancer. The non-governmental African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer promotes cancer control and palliative care, and several sub-Saharan countries have cancer societies.
As outlined above, there are currently insufficient data to assess the extent of sun-related health effects and the relevance of any interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.
For this programme to be effective in sub-Saharan Africa, fundamental research is needed on local disease prevalence and incidence, exposure patterns (occupational, early life and recreational) and sun awareness, especially the lack thereof but also how awareness is affected by cultural beliefs and practices. The capacity to initiate and manage public health information to support such research is required.
For example, a National Cancer Registry has only recently been re-instated in South Africa. There are additional unknowns such as any consequence of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ground-based monitoring of ambient solar UVR is limited, mainly because of financial and personnel restrictions. Little research has been done on potential interactions of solar UVR with local diseases, such as HIV, AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, and with vaccine responses. Research is also needed on personal solar UVR exposure and sun protection studies on at-risk subpopulations should be conducted. The potential of solar UVR to decrease the efficacy of vaccination by immunosuppression also merits investigation.
Sun protection and health intervention programmes targeted at children with OCA have proved relatively successful48 and similar targeted interventions for groups at particular risk may be an appropriate way forward. A multidisciplinary approach for research and intervention programmes is essential, especially given the limited resources, capacity and infrastructure, and the high burden of communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Seeking health co-benefits that arise from dovetailing research with society and government priorities could be the best strategy to manage the health consequences of solar UVR in sub-Saharan Africa. Combating melanoma: The use of photodynamic therapy as a novel, adjuvant therapeutic tool. The effect of skin diseases on quality of life in patients from different social and ethnic groups in Cape Town, South Africa. Letter: Skin cancer in albinos at the University of Calabar teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Prevalence, causes, and risk factors for functional low vision in Nigeria: Results from the national survey of blindness and visual impairment. Prevalence and incidence of blindness due to age-related cataract in the rural areas of South Africa. A review of the critical role of vitamin D in the functioning of the immune system and the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency.
Low levels of serum calcidiol in an African population compared to a North European population.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls. A comparison of calcium, vitamin D, or both for nutritional rickets in Nigerian children. Sensitivity to sunburn is associated with susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of cutaneous immunity.
Reciprocal seasonal variation in vitamin D status and tuberculosis notifications in Cape Town, South Africa.
Attitudes and beliefs of an albino population towards sun avoidance: Advice and services provided by an outreach albino clinic in Tanzania. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa.
A health intervention programme for children with albinism at a special school in South Africa.




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