17.11.2014

Healing cancer through mind

Friend, as earlier mentioned, Christian healing scriptures for cancer patients are a great way of praying for healing for cancer patients. Get Well Soon Messages for Friends: Help your friends recover by posting inspirational quotes on their Facebook, sending flowers, tagging them in cute tweets and sharing funny stuff on Pinterest. 1) Medicines will only cure your body but I promise, that our friendship will heal your soul. 2) I checked your doctor’s prescription and it was lacking the most important medicine of all – the company of a BEST FRIEND. 3) You can NEVER predict when you fall sick, but you can ALWAYS bank on friends like me to be by your side.
4) You were always a tough person and I know that coming out of your illness will only make you tougher. 6) It may take a doctor to diagnose someone’s disease, but it takes a friend to recognize someone’s suffering. 7) Don’t worry, I am taking boxing and karate classes so that I can punch and kick you illness away. 9) Not even cancer is strong enough to fight off the wishes and prayers of friends like me. 10) I wish you well not just because you are my friend, but because you are such a good human being. 15) Just think about the SWEET memories of our friendship… it will make the BITTERNESS of your sickness go away. 16) Cancer’s grip on you is bound to break free, because it is fighting a losing battle against prayers of friends like me.
18) If I could be anything I wanted just for day, I would be the warm soup that you can sip to drive your illness away. 22) I don’t want to boast but I can give you something the doctor can’t – warm hugs and precious smiles.
24) I wish that you can quickly leave that hospital bed, and spend that time with me instead.
28) Your sickness may be your body’s way to tell you to slow down, smell your coffee, relax and stroll around town.
34) The sweet healing touch of a friend like me is all you need to drive your bitter illness away. 36) Sweet memories and good friends, are the ultimate cure when medicines fail to make amends. 39) Your illness has reached a boiling point because I am boiling over with frustration since we can’t meet. 40) If I had the chance I would tell all the bacteria in your body, to take mine instead of yours. The majority of basal cell cancers occur on sun-exposed areas of the body, and are strongly influenced by sun damage. The only moist wound healing dressing with zeolit-iodine complex available on the market a€“ bioceramic anti-adhesive dressing pads.
If you have any questions or concerns following your minimal access thyroidectomy, you should speak to your local doctor, who will arrange to contact your thyroid surgeon.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Gastric Cancer Risk Diagnosis and Prevention in Subjects with Helicobacter pylori-related Chronic GastritisShotaro Enomoto1, Mika Watanabe1, Chizu Mukoubayashi1, Hiroshi Ohata1, Hirohito Magari1, Izumi Inoue1, Takao Maekita1, Mikitaka Iguchi1, Kimihiko Yanaoka1, Hideyuki Tamai1, Jun Kato1, Masashi Oka1 and Masao Ichinose1[1] Second Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Japan1.
EUROGAST Study Group.1993An international association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).1994Schistosomes,liver flukes, and Helicobacter pylori Working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. As carcinomas are characteristically malignant and particularly invasive, it is essential to have this form of skin cancer diagnosed and treated without delay.
Squamous cell carcinomas are seen more in cats that live at high altitudes and in cats that spend a lot of time in the sun. You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your cat’s health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition, such as a recent fight that might have led to skin injuries, or a flea infestation that would have left open sores from vigorous scratching. Because carcinomas are characteristically malignant and metastasize quickly, your veterinarian may also order x-ray images of your cat’s chest and abdomen so that a visual inspection can be made of the lungs and organs. The course of treatment will depend on how large your cat’s tumor is and how many tumors there are. If your cat only has one small tumor that has not spread to other organs, it may be removed by cryosurgery – freezing technique, or with a special type of light therapy called photodynamic therapy. If the tumor cannot be completely removed, your veterinarian may recommend radiation or chemotherapy after surgery. If you are treating your cat with a topical (external) medication for its sores, it is important to follow all of your veterinarian’s instructions. After your cat has recovered, your veterinarian will set up a schedule for regular progress checks. In Japanese folklore, eating the flesh of a ningyo, or mermaid, grants eternal life and youth.
The mermaid skin, so Rosa says, is genuine, taken from a real half-fish half-woman found in the Red sea. Rosa’s grandmother told Rosa’s mother that the piece of skin was worth $10,000, and Rosa’s mother imparted the information to Rosa, who in turn tells the story with a far-away look that rivals the Sphinx’s stony gaze. The next day Rosa glided in, looked at the mermaid skin and gave vent to a gleeful chuckle. A charge of grand larceny was placed against her and she was bound over to the circuit court for trial.
Rosa and Minnie [sic], who were working a double team cinch with the mysteries of the next world in Muncie, got into trouble with their business manager and the police pinched the bunch. It was well-known that the Red Sea, prison of malign spirits laid by prayer-reading parsons, was also the home of mermaids. Salame, in a recent publication, has stated that in the Red Sea he saw a Mermaid out of the water mast-high. Rosa and her sister Mabel seem to have been working this scam together, but it was actually Mabel who was arrested. Mabel and Rose Stanley, the dusky, but fetching Gypsy maidens who played the Muncie police and prosecuting attorney such a pretty game, and were given an auto ride by the prosecutor, are in the swim over at Frankfort now. The replevin suit against Chief of Police Van Benbow, of Muncie, and others to secure possession of a watch-charm and a diamond ring which belonged to the Stanley band of gypsies was dismissed in circuit court yesterday by the attorney for Rose Stanley. The ring and watch charm figured in a scrap the gypsies got into with their business manager, Levi Pritchett, while in Muncie, and caused lawsuits to be fought in several of the courts there and in a justice of the peace court at Anderson. She also impressed the courtroom with her knowledge of the solar system and “proved herself to be one of the brightest women ever on trial in Frankfort.” She told the state’s attorney the name of the star under which he was born, and added that she could tell him much more, if he cared to pay her for the information.
There is no word on what happened to the piece of mermaid skin and I have not searched for the further adventures of Rosa or Mabel. Chris Woodyard is the author of The Victorian Book of the Dead, The Ghost Wore Black, The Headless Horror, The Face in the Window, and the 7-volume Haunted Ohio series.
Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Friendship is all about standing together in times of need, and sickness is when your best friends need you the most. Doctors only know how to prescribe medicines, whereas friends like me know how to make you happy. Although this form of skin cancer is rarely life threatening it will continue to destroy surrounding tissue, and therefore required prompt treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis of gastric cancer development in subjects classified using the criteria of the serum pepsinogen (PG) test. Gastric cancer risk and prevention of gastric cancer based on Helicobacter pylori (HP)-related chronic gastritis stage.
Kaplan-Meier analysis of the proportion of subjects free of gastric cancer in the serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive group and the PG test-negative group according to Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status. Correa, 1992Human gastric carcinogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process-First American Cancer Society Award Lecture on Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. Jones, 2010Japanese apricots reported to inhibit inflammation and gastritis progression related to Helicobacter pylori infection.
Kimura, 1972Chronological transition of the fundic-pyloric border determined by stepwise biopsy of the lesser and greater curvatures of the stomach. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are typically fast growing tumors that get bigger with time and resist healing. White cats and light colored cats are more likely to get these tumors than other kinds of cats.
Once this history has been detailed, your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination on the cat, paying close attention to any growths on the skin or any sores that have not healed in several months. Likewise, if your cat has a tumor on one of its legs, your veterinarian will want to take x-rays of the leg to see if the tumor has spread to the bone underneath it. In some cases, when sores are diagnosed before they become cancerous, they can be treated with topical medication. During surgery, the tumor and a lot of the tissue surrounding it will be removed to ensure that all of the caner cells are removed. For example, tumors that are on the toes require amputation of the affected toe, and tumors on the nose will require a partial removal of the nose.
Sometimes, when surgery is impractical, chemotherapy and radiation are used solely to treat tumors. If your cat does not feel up to eating, you may need to use a feeding tube so that it is getting all of the nutrition it needs to completely recover. Recurrence is possible, so your doctor will check for any new tumors, and x-rays of the chest and abdomen will be taken to see if there are any new tumors in the lungs or internal organs. If your cat spends a lot of time on the window sill during the day, you might consider placing a window shade or reflector over the glass to block UV rays.
It was also said that Ningyo blood will cure any wound. Such beliefs were not usually found in the west, but in 1906 Mrs. Rosa’s grandmother, according to her dream, assisted in the capture of the anatomical wonder, which was a most beautiful specimen of the genus mermaid, having long, silky green hair, pink eyes, scales of velvety softness, pearly teeth, a ravishingly wonderful smile and a voice that surpassed in seductiveness the strident tones of a saloon piano on a hot night in August. Anyway, the skin looks like a piece of rawhide, but in it lies all sorts of merit, so says Rosa.
Hall, who had been a silent figure thus far, took a hand in the game and tipped off the gag to the police, who took Rosa in. Selections from the Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies Vol. The same Monconnys saw in the same place the skin of a mermaid, which was ten foot long, and thicker than the hide of the largest buffle, and harder than wood, of which they make targets that are musket-ball proof, as also soles for shoes, which last three years. After being rounded up in Anderson and turning their diamond loot over to their whimpering press agent Pritchett, the girls went to the Clinton county town, and Mabel is there yet.
Merritt at midnight for three nights she was interrupted by the state’s attorney, who asked her to whom she prayed, and as she told of her belief in a Supreme Being and that she prayed to the Savior of all mankind, there was a murmur of admiration in the court room and a few present started to applaud her. Merritt, we might say that while she heard the mermaids singing, the human voices of the law woke her and she drowned. She is also the chronicler of the adventures of that amiable murderess Mrs Daffodil in A Spot of Bother: Four Macabre Tales.


Bestselling authors Loretta Chase & Isabella Bradford gossip about history, writing, and yes, shoes. Good vibes and wishes that come straight from the heart can make a world of a difference in someone’s recovery. As soon as you feel better and you’re back on your feet, we’re going to party as soon as we meet. Among middle-aged healthy men, annual incidence of gastric cancer is shown for each population identified using various criteria for the serum PG test. This shows the stage classification for HP-related chronic gastritis based on the serum pepsinogen (PG) test and HP antibodies. In the serum PG test-positive group (extensive chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)), no reduction in gastric cancer incidence was observed with HP eradication. In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified HP infection as a definite class I carcinogen (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 1994). This layer of tissue covers the surface of much of the body, and lines the cavities of the body. Some cats can get as many as thirty sores on their skin, a condition called Bowen’s disease. Your cat’s lymph nodes will be palpated to determine if they are swollen, an indication that the body is fighting an invasive disease or infection, and a sample of lymph fluid will be taken for laboratory analysis. In some cases, so much tissue may be removed during surgery that skin will need to be taken from another area of the body and used to cover the area where the tumor was, a technique called skin grafting. In this case, the chemical treatment will keep the tumor from growing as quickly and help to make your cat more comfortable.
Use pain medications with caution; one of the most preventable accidents with pets is overdose of medication.
Your veterinarian will show you how to use the feeding tube correctly, and will assist you in setting up a feeding schedule.
If you must allow your cat outdoors during daylight hours, apply sunscreen to your cat’s ears and nose before it goes out in the sun.
Merritt, of Mulberry, Indiana, suffering from breast cancer, heard the siren-call of healing from a piece of mermaid skin. Rosa Stanley, one of the famous band of Stanley gypsies, who, with her dusky sister, has been going about the country alternately lavishing diamonds and law suits on men who found favor in their long-lashed Oriental eyes, is in the clutch of the village constable at Frankfort for trying to cure a cancer in the breast of Mrs. Backing off she swung her arms around several times and began to go into a long pipe with Mars. Merritt, hoping that she was at last to be rescued from the brink of the grave, sat up and took notice. Rosa posed like the goddess of liberty for a moment and during that time the planets ticked on a lengthy message on finance, using the wireless code.
She had ingratiated herself so far with the sheriff’s wife that she was allowed the use of the front parlor and was not put into a cell. For the rest, if, as I shall presently contend, the Mermaid is little better than an evil spirit, no place more likely to find one in than in the Red Sea!
She made a most favourable impression with all, telling her story in a straight-forward manner.
She died in 1907 and is buried next to her husband and son in Fairhaven Cemetery, Mulberry, Indiana. Even a thoughtful handwritten note or a greeting card sent along with a box of chocolates can make someone feel better. Basal cell carcinomas generally have a fleshy pink to red color, ulcerate often, and are often appear as if they are wounds that are slow to heal. Progression of chronic atrophic gastritis showed a significant stepwise increase in the incidence of gastric cancer.
Among middle-aged healthy men, the annual incidence of gastric cancer showed a significant stepwise increase from Group A to Group D according to stage progression. HP triggers chronic inflammation of the infected stomach mucosa and is considered a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) and associated precursor lesions. The presence of cancerous cells in the lymph glands will be indicative of metastasis through the body. These types of surgeries will result in a cosmetically different appearance for your cat, but otherwise, cats recover well from these surgeries. While your cat is in the process of healing, you may set the litter box up closer to where your cat rests, and make it so that it is easy to get in and out of the box.
A discussion of the wonders of the occult followed and Rosa confided in liquid tones that she could cure the cancer from which Mrs. That of which the account is cited by John Dory, of the date of 1565, had, let it be observed, a navel. Hall for the $50 to give to the gypsy and told him to keep it quiet because she knew her daughter would not approve. Mabel Stanley Hall, the gypsy woman who was arrested and tried on the charge of defrauding Mrs.
Regarding gastric cancer prevention based on stage, in Group B, with mild atrophy, prevention of gastric cancer mainly by HP eradication can be expected.
Long-lasting inflammation in the stomach mucosa leads to a cascade of molecular and morphological changes, representing the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-dysplasia-cancer sequence (Correa, 1992). Bazzoli, 2007Systematic review: Helicobacter pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer. Kodama, 1995Sensitivity and specificity of mass screening for gastric cancer using the measurment of serum pepsinogens.
Seibert, BS Reddy, 1998Chemopreventive activity of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, against colon carcinogenesis.
Warren, 1984Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. If the ulcers are diagnosed before they have had an opportunity to become malignant, this condition may be treated effectively in some cases.
Basic laboratory tests include a complete blood count and biochemical profile to confirm that your cat’s organs are functioning normally.
You will need to limit your cat’s activity while it heals, setting aside a quiet place for it to rest, away from household activity, children, and other pets. If you should notice any new sores or tumors, take your cat to the veterinarian as soon as possible so that it can be treated immediately.
Merritt [sic] , of Mulberry, Ind., a small piece of “mermaid cuticle” is the state’s most important evidence in trying to convict Rosa of grand larceny. Hall said that Rosa went into a long pipe with her and gassed glibly of the efficacy of mermaid hides, stars, and prayers.
The HP infection rate is higher in Japan than in Western countries, with nearly all cases of GC occurring in subjects with underlying HP-related chronic gastritis. Bernstein, 2008Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas in Los Angeles County. Futami, 1997Percentage changes in serum pepsinogens are useful as indices of eradication of Helicobacter pylori.
Araki, MA Fujino, 1999Accuracy of screening for gastric cancer using serum pepsinogen concentrations.
Tsugane, 2002Vegetables, fruit and risk of gastric cancer in Japan: a 10-year follow-up of the JPHC Study Cohort I. Watson, 1988Colorectal cancer risk, chronic illnesses, operations, and medications: case control results from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.
Herfarth, 1979Gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia versus benign ulcer in stomach and duodenum and gastric carcinoma-- a histotopographical study. Merritt that the stars prescribed a preliminary retainer fee of $50 to insure the skidoo of the cancer.
Ah!” Rosa started back with one hand pointed rigidly toward the mermaid skin and the other on her ear, just like Sarah Bernhardt about to perform a stage death.
Merritt [sic] of Mulberry out of $50 on the pretense that she could charm away a cancer by the use of a piece of mermaid’s skin, has been released from custody.
Kurihara, 2004Meta-analysis on the validity of pepsinogen test for gastric carcinoma, dysplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis screening. Perez-Perez, MJ Blaser, 1989Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic persons. Ichinose, 2010aNovel risk markers for gastric cancer screening: Present status and future prospects. Watanabe, 2002Anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of Bainiku-ekisu (concentrate of Japanese apricot juice). Hanada, 1999Development of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoid due to long-term Helicobacter pylori colonization in Mongolian gerbils.
Nasu, 1998Development of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma in Mongolian gerbils.
Hunt, 1998Meta-analysis of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and gastric cancer. The jury in her trial several weeks ago failed to agree and the prosecutor did not care to burden the county with the expense of another trial.
Elucidation of groups at high risk based on the natural history of GC is clearly necessary.
Du, RN , 1994Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression in human colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
Parsonnet, 1999Interobserver variability in application of the revised Sydney classification for gastritis.
Saito, 2006Metachronous gastric cancers after endoscopic resection: how effective is annual endoscopic surveillance? Perez-Perez, MJ Blaser, 1991Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese Americans in Hawaii.
In addition, in terms of GC prevention, it has become clear that HP-related chronic gastritis cannot be ignored as an origin of carcinogenesis.Here, we discuss the significance of serum pepsinogen (PG) as a marker of GC risk and GC high-risk groups based on HP-related chronic gastritis. Sitas, 1991Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. Asaka, 2008Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Tatematsu, 2002Synergistic promoting effects of Helicobacter pylori infection and high-salt diet on gastric carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils. Nomura, 1995Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. GC risk diagnosis based on the natural history of HP-related chronic gastritisNovel risk markers to identify GC high-risk groups based on a detailed natural history of HP-related chronic gastritis have long been awaited. Kurokawa, 1993Clinical application of serum pepsinogen I and II levels for mass screening to detect gastric cancer. Ichinose, 2004Progression of chronic atrophic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection increases risk of gastric cancer.
Ichinose, 2005Inhibitory effect of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.
Offerhaus, 1993Treatment of colonic and rectal adenomas with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis.
Blot, 1992Cigarette smoking and other risk factors for progression of precancerous stomach lesions.


However, accurately diagnosing the extent of CAG based on a few biopsy samples is difficult, because CAG together with intestinal metaplasia is a multifocal process. A test for CAG progression that is more convenient, free of discomfort or risk, economical and based on objective parameters is needed.PG is the inactive precursor of pepsin, a digestive enzyme specifically produced in the stomach. In contrast, PGII is produced not only by chief cells and mucus neck cells, but also in cardiac glands, pyloric glands, and Brunner’s glands, with localization of producing cells in a wide range from the stomach to the duodenum. The majority of PG produced (about 99%) is secreted in the stomach lumen and functions as a digestive enzyme.
However, a small amount of PG (about 1%) is also present in blood and can be evaluated by measuring serum PG levels.
Based on the results, accuracy of each criteria of the serum PG test for GC that occurred during the observation period was evaluated (Yanaoka et al, 2008a).
In the above-mentioned meta-analysis, many of the previously reported cases that were reviewed were from studies in populations in which GC screening by conventional barium X-ray had been conducted over a period of many years.
On the other hand, GC cases just after introduction of the serum PG test were excluded from our study, and observation was over a long period of 10 years. Accordingly, results for the detection of GC occurring during the observation period were more rigorously evaluated, and thus more correctly reflective of the accuracy for detecting GC by the serum PG test. Based on the above results, using the serum PG test alone for GC screening has limitations. GC risk in a serum PG test-positive groupPrevious studies have examined the accuracy of the serum PG test as a filter test for endoscopy. Recently, as part of an investigation into the natural history of GC occurrence, we evaluated GC risk in populations identified by each criteria for the serum PG test (Yanaoka et al, 2008a). In a population of middle-aged healthy men, in an atrophy-negative group, the annual incidence of GC was 0.07%.
2) Based on these results, PG test-positive groups, as assumed, are high-risk groups for GC. In other words, an individual who is serum PG test-positive, even if GC is not currently detectable, still has a high possibility of developing GC in the future. Natural history of HP-related chronic gastritis and GC riskIn addition to the serum PG test, the natural history of HP-related chronic gastritis and associations with GC risk have been examined by evaluating HP infection, as the major cause of onset and progression of chronic gastritis in Japan (Ohata et al, 2004; Yanaoka et al, 2008b). HP infection is diagnosed using anti-HP antibody titers, which, like the serum PG test, is a blood test that is easy to perform.
The stages of HP-related chronic gastritis, fromFigure 2.Kaplan-Meier analysis of gastric cancer development in subjects classified using the criteria of the serum pepsinogen (PG) test.
Based on these data, with progression in stage of HP-related chronic gastritis, a stepwise increase is seen for GC incidence (Fig.
During the 10-year follow-up study, all patients who developed GC were HP infection-positive. These results showed that in Japan, almost all cases of GC are associated with HP-related chronic gastritis.
Theoretically, based on this fact, not only a GC high-risk group, but also a GC low-risk group (group A), can be identified. Points in the diagnosis of GC risk using the serum PG testThe serum PG test is clearly a highly useful test for a GC risk marker.
However, the occurrence of GC (particularly diffuse-type GC) in PG test-negative groups (group B in the stage classification for HP-related chronic gastritis) cannot be ignored. In our study, even when using the PG test criteria considered as the most balanced in terms of test accuracy (PG index 1+), the fact remains that about 40% of GC cases are PG test-negative. When diagnosing GC risk using the serum PG test, this fact must be carefully considered.We therefore carefully investigated GC occurrence in a PG test-negative group. The results identified a new group at high risk of GC, with GC incidence in the ? group (high serum PGII levels and severe inflammation of the gastric mucosa) reaching 0.2%, predominantly involving undifferentiated GC (Yanaoka et al, 2008a).
This rate in the ? group, although not necessarily high among the PG test-negative group, still indicates a subgroup that deserves particular attention. In addition, a group with high HP antibody titer (a marker that, like serum PGII level, reflects severity of inflammation) showed higher incidence of GC compared to a low-titer group (Yanaoka et al, 2008b). Among PG test-negative groups, in group A of the stage classification for HP-related chronic gastritis (PG test-negative and HP-negative), we observed no occurrence of GC over a 10-year follow-up period. However, some cautionary points must be considered in a confirmatory diagnosis of Group A status.
First, with HP antibody assay kits showing low sensitivity, antibody titers may be negative despite prior HP infection.
Second, in HP-negative cases after eradication therapy, it should be kept in mind that “although HP is negative, the risk of GC is not zero.” Third, risk assessment by the serum PG test cannot be applied in subjects with post-gastrectomy,with renal insufficiency, using proton pump inhibitors, or showing an acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML). Prevention of GC based on the natural history of HP-related chronic gastritisThe evaluation of HP-related chronic gastritis is especially important in the analysis of GC prevention. Prevention of GC by HP eradicationMany previous studies have been conducted on the inhibition of GC by eradication therapy for HP, a major factor in gastric carcinogenesis. HP eradication therapy has recently been shown to prevent metachronous cancer after endoscopic resection of early GC (Fukase et al., 2008). However, in several reports to date, the effects on prevention of GC have not been as clear-cut as the effects of HP eradication on prevention of peptic ulcers. The studies that found inhibitory effects on gastric carcinogenesis were often non-randomized studies with a short observation period of 5 years (Fuccio et al., 2007).
On the other hand, absence of inhibition of GC, regardless of the presence or absence of precancerous lesions, has also been reported (You et al., 2006).
First, inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis by HP eradication is not complete, and even after eradication, more than a few GC cases have been observed. Second, the earlier during infection that eradication therapy is started, the greater the inhibitory effect on GC. Third, after a duration has elapsed, irreversible changes due to HP infection develop, representing a “point of no return”. Fourth, HP infection promotes the proliferation and growth of cancer cells that have already developed (promoter effect). During long-term observation, clear-cut inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis by HP eradication is not seen, but eradication groups with shorter observation periods may display apparent inhibition of GC, with slower growth rates, and without growth of cancer that can be clinically diagnosed. Fifth, besides promoter effects on GC, HP infection, as previously described in detail, is also involved in gastric carcinogenesis mediated through the development and progression of CAG and intestinal metaplasia. To achieve a reduction in GC risk by eradication, in addition to HP elimination, improvement of CAG and intestinal metaplasia is necessary.Based on these points, when evaluating the prevention of GC by HP eradication, evaluation of the equivalence of GC risk in the eradication group and non-eradication group (control) is necessary. With regard to this point, in almost all previous studies, either evaluation of CAG progression has been lacking, or even if evaluated, endoscopic or histopathologic findings, with strong subjective elements, were used. We therefore conducted a 10-year follow-up study in middle-aged healthy adults in whom progression of atrophic gastritis was monitored by serum PG (Yanaoka et al., 2009). In that study, although non-randomized, both the HP eradication and control groups showed equivalence with regard to CAG progression (an important risk factor), in addition to major risk factors for GC such as age, gender, and smoking.
In this study, no significant inhibition of GC was observed even with HP eradication.However, with assessment by the PG test, evaluation in the PG test-positive (extensive CAG) and PG test-negative (non-extensive CAG) groups showed that HP eradication in the PG test-positive group did not prevent GC, whereas HP eradication in the PG test-negative group only achieved significant inhibition of GC (Fig. These results confirm the Figure 4.Kaplan-Meier analysis of the proportion of subjects free of gastric cancer in the serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive group and the PG test-negative group according to Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status.
Only the PG test- negative group (non-extensive CAG) showed a reduction in gastric cancer incidence with HP eradication.previously mentioned results that assumed that no significant prevention of GC by HP eradication was achieved due to advanced CAG. Chemoprevention of GC by NSAIDsAlthough prevention of GC by HP eradication can be expected, from a more realistic perspective, the effectiveness may be somewhat limited.
In particular, among patients with advanced CAG, the chemopreventive effects of HP eradication therapy alone are unlikely to be sufficient. In populations where inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis cannot be achieved by HP eradication therapy alone, chemoprevention with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is promising as a treatment strategy.
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a rate-limiting enzyme of prostaglandin synthesis in the arachidonic acid cascade. Among COX isozymes, attention has been focused on inducible COX-2, which is expressed in inflammatory responses and cancer proliferation (Kujubu et al., 1991).
In a study of GC tissue types, a high rate of COX-2 expression was found in intestinal-type GC (Saukkonen et al., 2001). In a study of GC according to site, cancers of the gastric cardia showed decreased COX-2 expression compared to cancers of other gastric areas (Ratnasinghe et al., 1999). The results confirmed that treatment with etodolac early in HP infection completely inhibited gastric carcinogenesis, which usually occurs at a high rate. In this model, we confirmed that proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelial tissue was significantly inhibited by etodolac, and that the development of intestinal metaplasia, thought to be a precancerous lesion, was significantly inhibited. In addition, we conducted a clinical study of GC chemoprevention using a COX-2 inhibitor in patients with metaplastic gastritis (Yanaoka et al., 2010). This study, although non-randomized, included patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of intestinal-type GC with a background of metaplastic gastritis.
The incidence of metachronous cancer was evaluated in etodolac and non-treatment groups during a mean observation period of 4.2 years.
The diagnosis of metaplastic gastritis was based on serum testing, as previously described. Regarding HP-related chronic gastritis stage, these patients were classified as Group D [HP(-), PG(+)]. In this study, long-term treatment with etodolac as a selective COX-2 inhibitor effectively inhibited metachronous cancer development in curatively treated, early GC patients with metaplastic gastritis. These results are in line with the results of our previous animal experiment using HP-infected Mongolian gerbils, indicating that etodolac can prevent stomach carcinogenesis involving the CAG-metaplasia-dysplasia-cancer sequence.
Serious cardiovascular events, depending on the drug, have been reported with long-term administration of COX-2 inhibitors.
However, particularly among patients with extensive CAG, in addition to HP eradication therapy, aggressive chemoprevention using NSAIDs such as selective COX-2 inhibitors may effectively inhibit gastric carcinogenesis (Fig. Possible GC prevention by dietary habitsOn the other hand, HP eradication therapy and chemoprevention using NSAIDs were not carried out in all subjects, as problems exist with adverse effects of HP eradication or chemoprevention, drug-resistant bacteria, and medical economics.
Research into HP-related chronic gastritis and promoters and inhibitors of gastric carcinogenesis, and studies of alternative therapies, primarily in the form of functional foods, has thus been conducted. In the progression of HP-related chronic gastritis, besides HP virulence factors such as VacA and CagA (Hatakeyama, 2004), and host factors such as cytokine polymorphisms (El-Omar et al., 2000), environmental factors such as lifestyle and dietary habits have been shown to be involved. In particular, dietary factors have been highly implicated as the factors to which the gastric mucosa is most frequently and directly exposed. As a result, we found that consumption of JA is effective in inhibiting HP-related active inflammation of the stomach and CAG progression, and that development of GC may be inhibited by JA intake. Of course, because dietary habits are greatly influenced by other lifestyle factors, depending on the population being studied, the effectiveness achieved in preventing GC may differ.
However, promoting dietary habits that protect against GC, including JA intake, may be an ideal alternative strategy for GC prevention (Fig. ConclusionIn conclusion, based on the natural history of HP-related chronic gastritis from blood test data, including the serum PG test and HP antibodies, specific prediction of the risk of GC in each individual is now possible.



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