11.08.2013

Forensic medicine case studies

Avoid discussing your health, who you are dating, personal brouhaha’s you may or may not have with others on Facebook. Now, check out an excerpt from the case below where an attorney told his client to delete the client’s facebook page. Murray instructed a paralegal to tell Lester to “clean up” his Facebook page because, “we don’t want blowups of this stuff at trial,” the assistant, Marlina Smith, said in a deposition. On March 26, 2009, according to the judge’s order, Murray came up with a scheme to take down or deactivate Lester’s Facebook account so that he could respond that he had no Facebook page on the date the discovery request was signed. When defense attorneys filed a motion to compel, Murray instructed Lester to reactivate the account.
Murray is also accused of withholding the email from Smith instructing Lester to clean up his Facebook page when he was ordered to produce it shortly before the trial began.
Until the 19th century, the main sources of information about ancient Egyptian medicine were writings from later in antiquity.
The Greek historian Herodotus visited Egypt around 440 BC and wrote extensively of his observations of their medicinal practices. In 1822, the translation of the Rosetta stone finally allowed the translation of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyri, including many related to medical matters (Egyptian medical papyri).
The Edwin Smith Papyrus (see below) is a textbook on surgery and details anatomical observations and the "examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis" of numerous ailments It was probably written around 1600 BC, but is regarded as a copy of several earlier texts.
Advances in modern medical technology also contributed to the understanding of ancient Egyptian medicine.
Other documents as the Edwin Smith papyrus (1550 BC), Hearst papyrus (1450 BC), and Berlin papyrus (1200 BC) also provide valuable insight into ancient Egyptian medicine. Among the treatments are closing wounds with sutures (for wounds of the lip, throat, and shoulder), preventing and curing infection with honey, and stopping bleeding with raw meat.
The procedures of this papyrus demonstrate an Egyptian level of knowledge of medicines that surpassed that of Hippocrates, who lived 1000 years later. The papyrus was in the possession of Smith until his death, when his daughter donated the papyrus to New York Historical Society.
The first translation of the papyrus was by James Henry Breasted, with the medical advice of Dr.
From 2005 through 2006, the Edwin Smith Papyrus was on exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus dating to circa 1550 BC.
The papyrus was written in about 1500 BC, but it is believed to have been copied from earlier texts, perhaps dating as far back as 3400 BC. Along with the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (circa 1800 BC), the Edwin Smith papyrus (circa 1600 BC), the Hearst papyrus (circa 1600 BC), the Brugsch Papyrus (circa 1300 BC), the London Medical Papyrus (circa 1300 BC), the Ebers Papyrus is among the oldest preserved medical documents. The Ebers Papyrus is written in hieratic Egyptian writing and preserves for us the most voluminous record of ancient Egyptian medicine known. The Egyptians seem to have known little about the kidneys and made the heart the meeting point of a number of vessels which carried all the fluids of the body - blood, tears, urine and semen.
The descriptions of these disorders suggest that Egyptians conceived of mental and physical diseases in much the same way.
Asthma: A mixture of herbs heated on a brick so that the sufferer could inhale their fumes. Cancer: Recounting a "tumor against the god Xenus", it recommends "do thou nothing there against". Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm): Wrap the emerging end of the worm around a stick and slowly pull it out.
Medicinal use of ochre clays: One of the common remedies described in the papyrus is ochre, or medicinal clay. Like the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Ebers Papyrus came into the possession of Edwin Smith in 1862. The Papyrus was purchased in 1872 by the German Egyptologist and novelist Georg Ebers (born in Berlin, 1837), after whom it is named. Ebers retired from his chair of Egyptology at Leipzig on a pension and the papyrus remains in the University of Leipzig library. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (also Kahun Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, or UC 32057) is the oldest known medical text of any kind. The text is divided into thirty-four sections, each section dealing with a specific problem and containing diagnosis and treatment; no prognosis is suggested. The first seventeen parts have a common format starting with a title and are followed by a brief description of the symptoms, usually, though not always, having to do with the reproductive organs. The second section begins on the third page, and comprises eight paragraphs which, because of both the state of the extant copy and the language, are almost unintelligible. The fourth and final section contains two paragraphs which do not fall into any of the previous categories. Oil was produced from the linseed plant and there was a limited selections of spices and herbs. Institutions, so called Houses of Life, are known to have been established in ancient Egypt since the 1st Dynasty and may have had medical functions, being at times associated in inscriptions with physicians, such as Peftauawyneit and Wedjahorresnet living in the middle of the first millennium BC.
Medical knowledge in ancient Egypt had an excellent reputation, and rulers of other empires would ask the Egyptian pharaoh to send them their best physician to treat their loved ones.
They also must have had a general idea of the location in the body cavity of the inner organs, which they removed through a small incision in the left groin. Egyptian physicians were aware of the existence of the pulse and of a connection between pulse and heart. Quite a few medical practices were effective, such as many of the surgical procedures given in the Edwin Smith papyrus.
Although other records describe initiates into the religious orders as involving circumcision which would imply that the practice was special and not widespread.
Prosthetics, such as artificial toes and eyeballs, were also used; typically, they served little more than decorative purposes.
The extensive use of surgery, mummification practices, and autopsy as a religious exercise gave Egyptians a vast knowledge of the body's morphology, and even a considerable understanding of organ functions. Dentistry was an important field, as an independent profession it dated from the early third millennium BC, although it may not have never been prominent.
Dental treatment was infective and the best sufferers could hope for was the quick loss of an infected tooth. The widespread belief in magic and religion may have resulted in a powerful placebo effect; that is, the perceived validity of the cure may have contributed to its effectiveness.
Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of an epidemic in Egypt so terrible that one ancient writer believed the world was coming to an end. A 3,000-year-old skeleton from a conquered territory of ancient Egypt is now the earliest known complete example of a person with malignant cancer spreading from an organ, findings that could help reveal insights on the evolution of the disease, researchers say. In a recent issue of the journal Cephalalgia, the researchers report on their study of papyrus scrolls dating from the early New Kingdom period of Egyptian history, about 1550 BC. Headache, that timeless bane of humanity, was usually ascribed to the activity of "demons," the German researchers write, although over time Egyptian physicians began to speculate that problems originating within the body, such as the incomplete digestion of food, might also be to blame.
Still, the gods may have ignored the pleas of many patients, who also turned to medicine for relief. It is all a new emerging field and as an avid blogger and a trial lawyer, it only makes sense I naturally gravitate towards this new field that is full of so much legal drama.
Your facebook emails are an entire different ball game and depending on the facts, trial lawyers could have a field day arguing whether your Facebook emails are discoverable. Attached was a photo of Lester wearing a “I [heart] hot moms” t-shirt, and holding a beer can with other young adults. Murray falsely claimed after the trial that the omission was the paralegal’s mistake, according to the court order.
This young 22-year-old British exchange student from the University of Foreigners was found stabbed and posed in a provocative manner in her bedroom located in a cottage shared by three other roommates. The resultant interest in Egyptology in the 19th century led to the discovery of several sets of extensive ancient medical documents, including the Ebers papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Hearst Papyrus, the London Medical Papyrus and others dating back as far as 3000 BC. 1550 BC is full of incantations and foul applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons, and also includes 877 prescriptions.
Paleopathologists were able to use X-Rays and later CAT Scans to view the bones and organs of mummies.
The Edwin Smith papyrus for example mentioned research methods, the making of a diagnosis of the patient, and the setting of a treatment. The recto, the front side, is 377 lines long, while the verso, the backside, is 92 lines long.
The majority of the papyrus was written by one scribe, with only small sections written by a second scribe.
Form and commentary included in the papyrus give evidence to the existence of an earlier document.
The papyrus begins by addressing injuries to the head, and continues with treatments for injuries to neck, arms and torso.[9] The title of each case details the nature of trauma, such as OPractices for a gaping wound in his head, which has penetrated to the bone and split the skullO. Immobilization is advised for head and spinal cord injuries, as well as other lower body fractures. Due to its practical nature and the types of trauma investigated, it is believed that the papyrus served as a textbook for the trauma that resulted from military battles. Egypt was ruled from Thebes during this time and the papyrus is likely to have originated from there.
Arno B Luckhardt, in 1930 BreastedOs translation changed the understanding of the history of medicine. Among the oldest and most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, it was purchased at Luxor, (Thebes) in the winter of 1873?74 by Georg Ebers. The Brugsch Papyrus provides parallel passages to Ebers Papyrus, helping to clarify certain passages of the latter. It notes that the heart is the center of the blood supply, with vessels attached for every member of the body.
The papyrus contains chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses and tumors, bone-setting and burns.
The source of the papyrus is unknown, but it was said to have been found between the legs of a mummy in the Assassif district of the Theban necropolis.


In 1875, Ebers published a facsimile with an English-Latin vocabulary and introduction, but it was not translated until 1890, by H.
Dated to about 1800 BCE, it deals with women's healthNgynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. Treatments are non-surgical, comprising applying medicines to the affected body part or swallowing them.
Despite this, there are several paragraphs that have a sufficiently clear level of language as well as being intact which can be understood.
Among those materials prescribed for contraception are crocodile dung, 45ml of honey, and sour milk. Other methods include the placing of an onion bulb deep in the patients flesh, with the positive outcome being determined by the odor appearing to the patients nose. The Ancient Egyptians were at least partially aware of the importance of diet, both in balance and moderation. Consumed in the form of loaves which were produced in a variety of types through baking and fermentation, with yeast greatly enriching the nutritional value of the product, one farmer's crop could support an estimated twenty adults. Meat (sheep, goats, pigs, wild game) was regularly available to at least the upper classes and fish were widely consumed, although there is evidence of prohibitions during certain periods against certain types of animal products; Herodotus wrote of the pig as being 'unclean'. By the time of the 19th Dynasty their employees enjoyed such benefits as medical insurance, pensions and sick leave.
But whether this knowledge was passed on to the practitioners of medicine is unknown and does not seem to have had any impact on their medical theories. The author of the Smith Papyrus even had a vague idea of a cardiac system, although not of blood circulation and he was unable, or deemed it unimportant, to distinguish between blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. Mostly, the physicians' advice for staying healthy was to wash and shave the body, including under the arms, and this may have prevented infections. The Egyptian physicians recognized three categories of injuries; treatable, contestable, and untreatable ailments. Though its performance as a procedure was rarely mentioned, the uncircumcised nature of other cultures was frequently noted, the uncircumcised nature of the Liberians was frequently referenced and military campaigns brought back uncircumcised phalli as trophies, which suggests novelty. The only known depiction of the procedure, in the The Tomb of the Physician, burial place of Ankh-Mahor at Saqquarra, shows adolescents or adults, not babies. In preparation for burial, missing body parts would be replaced (but these do not appear as if they would have been useful, or even attachable) before death. The function of most major organs were correctly presumed - for example, blood was correctly guessed to be a transpiration medium for vitality and waste which is not to far from its actual role in carrying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide - with the exception of the heart and brain whose functions were switched. The Egyptian diet was high on abrasives such as sand left over from grinding grain) and so the condition of their teeth was quite poor, although archaeologists have noted a steady decrease in severity and incidence throughout 4000 BC to 1000 AD probably due to improved grain grinding techniques.
Dental disease could even be fatal, such as for Djedmaatesankh a musician from Thebes who dies around the age of thirty five from extensive dental diseases and a huge infected cyst. The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq contains the maxim "There is no tooth that rots yet stays in place". Evil gods and demons were thought to be responsible for many ailments, so often the treatments involved a supernatural element, such as beginning treatment with an appeal to a deity. The impact of the emphasis on magic is seen in the selection of remedies or ingredients for them. Here, the skeleton (called Skeleton Sk244-8) in its original burial position in a tomb in northern Sudan in northeastern Africa, with a blue-glazed amulet (inset) found buried alongside him; the amulet shows the Egyptian god Bes depicted on the reverse side. Why not try an incantation to falcon-headed Horus, or a soothing poultice of "Ass's grease"? One incantation sought to evoke the gods' empathy, imagining that even immortals suffered headache pain. I have said, in the past, anything you say and do on Facebook can and will be used against you in the court of law. As a recap, if you get sued, you should not try to destroy, modify, alter, tamper with or do anything to evidence stemming or related to the litigation in dispute. Two of the roommates were older Italian women who were several years older then Kercher and were employed, not students at the university. 33rd century BC until the Persian invasion of 525 BC, Egyptian medical practice went largely unchanged and was highly advanced for its time, including simple non-invasive surgery, setting of bones and an extensive set of pharmacopoeia. 800 BC remarked in the Odyssey: "In Egypt, the men are more skilled in medicine than any of human kind" and "the Egyptians were skilled in medicine more than any other art". Hippocrates (the "father of medicine"), Herophilos, Erasistratus and later Galen studied at the temple of Amenhotep, and acknowledged the contribution of ancient Egyptian medicine to Greek medicine. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is credited as the original author of the papyrus text, and founder of ancient Egyptian medicine. It may also contain the earliest documented awareness of tumors, if the poorly understood ancient medical terminology has been correctly interpreted.
Electron microscopes, mass spectrometry and various forensic techniques allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago.
Aside from the fragmentary first sheet of the papyrus, the remainder of the papyrus is fairly intact.
The text is attributed by some to Imhotep, an architect, high priest, and physician of the Old Kingdom, 3000-2500 BCE,.
In 1948, the New York Historical Society and the Brooklyn Museum presented the papyrus to the New York Academy of Medicine, where it remains today. It demonstrates that Egyptian medical care was not limited to the magical modes of healing demonstrated in other Egyptian medical sources. Allen, curator of Egyptian Art at the museum, published a new translation of the work, coincident with the exhibition.
It contains many incantations meant to turn away disease-causing demons and there is also evidence of a long tradition of empirical practice and observation. The papyrus was published and translated by different researchers (the most valuable is German edition Grundriss der Medizin der alten €gypter, and based on this Paul Ghalioungui edition). The womb is at times seen as the source of complaints manifesting themselves in other body parts. Due to Egypt's great endowment of fertile land food production was never a major issue although of course no matter how bounteous the land paupers and starvation still exist.
Under him were the superintendents and inspectors of physicians, and beneath then were the physicians. For example, in the classic mummification process, mummifiers knew how to insert a long hooked implement through a nostril, breaking the thin bone of the brain case and remove the brain. They also advised patients to look after their diet, and avoid foods such as raw fish or other animals considered to be unclean. Female circumcision may have been practiced, although the single reference to it in ancient texts may be a mistranslation.
If an individuals teeth escaped being worn down, cavities were rare in consequence of the rarity of sweeteners. No records document the hastening of this process and no tools suited for the extraction of teeth have been found but some remains show sign of forced tooth removal. There does not appear to have existed a clear distinction between what nowadays one would consider the very distinct callings of priest and physician. Ingredients were sometimes selected seemingly because they were derived from a substance, plant or animal that had characteristics which in some way corresponded to the symptoms of the patient. Homeopoetic amulets portray an animal or part of an animal, from which the wearer hopes to gain positive attributes like strength or speed.
According to researchers, 3,500-year-old papyri show ancient Egyptians turning to both their gods and medicine to banish headache pain.
Indeed, while the head was considered the "leader" of the body, the brain itself was considered relatively unimportant--as evidenced by the fact that it was usually discarded during the mummification process.
On one 4,000-year-old scroll, a boastful druggist claims that his headache cure is prepared by the goddess Isis herself. So, if you do not want, in the event of a lawsuit, attorneys subpoenaing and snooping into your life, then be sure what you post on Facebook is what you would be comfortable seeing and hearing in front of a  jury, media (depending on the case) and the public at large. The remaining roommate, Amanda Knox, was a 21-year old exchange student from Seattle, Washington.Soon after the homicide, Amanda Knox was arrested along with two other individuals, charged and sentenced in 2009 to 26 years for the murder. Other information comes from the images that often adorn the walls of Egyptian tombs and the translation of the accompanying inscriptions. Each case details the type of the injury, examination of the patient, diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment.The verso side consists of eight magic spells and five prescriptions.
It contains the first known descriptions of the cranial sutures, the meninges, the external surface of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the intracranial pulsations.
The later Berlin Papyrus and the Ramesseum Papyrus IV cover much of the same ground, often giving identical prescriptions.
Egyptian doctors were very advanced in their knowledge of herbal remedies and surgical techniques. Known ancient Egyptian specialists are ophthalmologist, gastroenterologist, proctologist, dentist, "doctor who supervises butchers" and an unspecified "inspector of liquids".
Contestable ailments were those where the victim could presumably survive without treatment, so patients assumed to be in this category were observed and if they survived then surgical attempts could be made to fix them. Replacement teeth have been found to exist although it is not clear whether or not this is just post-mortem cosmetics.
The healers, many of them priests of Sekhmet, often used incantations and magic as part of treatment. This is known as the principle of simila similibus ("similar with similar") and is found throughout the history of medicine up to the modern practice of homeopathy. In 2011, an appeals court overturned the conviction and Knox returned home to the United States. While other papyri, such as the Ebers Papyrus and London Medical Papyrus, are medical texts based in magic, the Edwin Smith Papyrus presents a rational and scientific approach to medicine in Ancient Egypt. The spells of the verso side and two incidents in Case 8 and Case 9 are the exceptions to the practical nature of this medical text. Also part of Egyptian medicine were magic, charms, and spells, which had only psychological effects, if any, on a patient.
The ancient Egyptian term for proctologist, neru phuyt, literally translates as "shepherd of the anus".
Surgical tools uncovered in archaeological sites have included knives, hooks, drills, forceps and pinchers, scales, spoons, saws and a vase with burning incense.


Thus an ostrich egg is included in the treatment of a broken skull, and an amulet portraying a hedgehog might be used against baldness.
Theophoric amulets represented Egyptian gods; one represented the girdle of Isis and was intended to stem the flow of blood at miscarriage. Saint Cyprian was a bishop of Carthage (a city in Tunisia) who described the plague as signaling the end of the world. The following account of the days leading up to the trial will provide a prime example of illegal investigative and interrogation techniques, poor evidence collection, packaging and storage, as well as unacceptable forensic analysis and testimony.Who Is Amanda Knox? The doctors were asked to clarify each point raised by Dr Sharma and they have responded to the same, concluding that the death was indeed a case of 'suicidal hanging' and not 'homicidal hanging'.
Knox arrived in Perugia to study at the University of Foreigners with little comprehension of the Italian language even though she majored in Italian at the University of Washington (Rich, 2011).
The incantation continues with the sun god Ra ordering the patient to recover "up to your temples," while the patient threatens his "headache demons" with terrible punishments ("the trunk of your body will be cut off"). The doctors are prosecution witnesses and only after going through all direct and indirect evidences in the case, have we registered the offence under section 306. She was often described as eager to help a stranger and threw caution to the wind when it came to public interaction. Knox discovered a small cottage close to the University and moved in with three other roommates. Although she seemed to get along with Kercher more than her other two older roommates, Kercher’s mother claimed that Kercher complained that Knox was a slob and irritated her with loud singing and ridiculous behavior (Rich, 2011).
As per the findings of the post-mortem report of the deceased Jiah Khan, the possibility of 'asphyxia due to ligature constriction of neck' being the cause of death in this case cannot be ruled out.Q. Before long, Knox met a 23-year old young man studying computer science named Raffaele Sollecito. Along with school and spending her time with Sollecito, Knox worked as a waitress in a bar called Le Chic. The night of the murder, she had been scheduled to work but was contacted by the bar owner, Patrick Lumumba, and informed there was no need to work that evening due to the slow (Rich, 2011).Murder in Perugia November 1 is referred to as All Saints Day in Italy and is a work holiday for most citizens. Owing to the presence of vital signs such as colour changes of the injuries, congestion and edema of underlying tissues, the possibility of the injuries on the chin and around the neck of the deceased being ante-mortem (before death) in nature cannot be ruled out.Q. November 2 is considered a Holy Day where dead relatives are celebrated with feasts and gifts (Latto, 2007). Can the ligature marks seen on the neck of the deceased be caused by the dupatta as found in i) suicidal hanging or ii) homicidal hanging. Since Amanda Knox was released from work on All Saints Day, she spent the night with Sollecito at his apartment.
The apartment had a plumbing problem that resulted in leaking pipes every time the kitchen sink was used.After the two had prepared dinner the evening of November 1st, there were puddles of water on the floor. Sollecito did not own a mop so the two retired for the evening planning to clean the mess up the next morning.
As per the findings of the post-mortem report of the deceased, in the absence of struggle marks over the body, the possibility of suicidal death cannot be ruled out.
When she arrived, she noticed the front door was open which was odd because she knew Kercher was the only roommate in town for the weekend.Upon entering the residence Amanda noticed Kercher’s bedroom door was closed so she assumed she was asleep and quietly went and showered. She also noticed feces in the toilet which oddly enough worried her more then the open door or blood and she rushed back to Sollecito’s apartment with the mop.Knox phoned her other roommates and returned to the cottage with Sollecito where on closer inspection they found a broken window in roommate Filomena Ramanelli’s room. For some unknown reason the postal police arrived rather than the Italian military police along with Ramanelli and Ramanelli’s boyfriend. Postal police only respond to misdemeanor crimes and have no experience in violent crimes (Rich, 2011).At this point, the scene was severely contaminated. Not only had the two roommates and their boyfriend’s entered the crime scene but two postal inspectors. They proceeded to breakdown the door to Kercher’s room where she was found stabbed and naked from the waist down.Arrested for Murder Over the next few days Knox and Sollecito were repeatedly called down to the police station and questioned. By November 5, authorities began to get desperate and began a much more unethical series of interrogations which resulted in both questioning their memory and changing their story. Sollecito claimed that it would have been possible for Knox to have left his apartment in the middle of the night without him knowing it.
Knox stated she had a vision in her head that involved her boss at work, Patrick Lumumba, killing Kercher and Knox witnessing it with her hands over her ears screaming.Knox claims the interrogators actually hit her in the back of the head that night and were verbally abusive.
Totally exhausted by the middle of the night on November 6, Knox signed two statements indicting her involvement in the crime and was arrested and jailed. Authorities arrested Lumumba as well and took two weeks to release him based on a rock solid alibi.Evidence Collection Kercher was found on her back naked from the waist down, her shirt pulled up, and a pillow propped up under her hips. There were blood drops on the floor and the slats of the bed where the mattress had been slightly moved. She appears to have been stabbed on the bed but struggled to the other side of the room where her desk was located.
Forcibly removed hair, shoe prints in blood, and blood drops were located by the desk chair. The door to the wardrobe next to the desk had aspirated blood on the front of it and there were blood smears on the floor in front of the wardrobe. Kercher’s bloody fingerprints were on the inside of the wardrobe wall as well, indicating a last attempt to rise from the floor. Drag marks were in the center of the room indicating the killer had dragged her away from the wardrobe and desk area (Hendry, 2011).The clothing found at the scene exhibited forensic evidence including an inside-out jacket that appeared to have been pulled off of the victim, a t-shirt, sweatshirt, a pair of bloody boots, and a bra with broken straps containing aspirated blood.
Clothing was strewn everywhere, drawers were emptied, and, however, all her jewelry was still present in both Romanelli’s room and Kercher’s room. The items that appeared stolen from Kercher were her house keys, two cell phones, two credit cards, and some cash (Burleigh, 2011).
Along with the broken window in Romanelli’s room, was a rock on the floor in Romanelli’s room, and blood in several areas of the bathroom shared by Kercher and Knox.Forensic Evidence Analysis The police processed the crime scene by dusting with fingerprint powder to reveal fingerprints. Of the numerous fingerprints found at the scene, only one print on a water glass in the kitchen was identified as Amanda’s print. This was identified as belonging to Rudy Guede, a black immigrant with a history of petty theft and break-ins who often was seen partying with local college students and who had recently met Kercher at a party thrown by basement occupants of the cottage where Knox and Kercher lived (Sayahg, 2010).There were numerous bloody shoe and footprints analyzed from the scene due to the apparent struggle during the attack.
Five Nike shoe prints were found in blood around the body and leading out the front door and one bloody barefoot imprint on the bathmat in the shared bathroom. The shoeprints in Kercher’s bedroom and leading outside the front door were identified as belonging to Guede.
Enormous amounts of blood at the scene and tracked throughout the residence resulted in extensive DNA analysis being conducted.
Results showed Guede’s DNA mixed with Meredith’s blood on her purse, on her sweatshirt, in excrement found in the toilet of the bathroom shared by Knox and Kercher, as well as inside Kercher’s body.
Although not identified as seminal DNA, epithelial cells known as Touch DNA were found inside Meredith’s vagina (Burleigh, 2011).A cooking knife collected from the drawer in Sollecito’s kitchen was found to contain minute samples of DNA from Knox.
Knox’s DNA was also mixed with DNA samples of Meredith’s blood found on the sink in the bathroom the two shared.
A broken bra clip found in Kercher’s bedroom collected six weeks after the murder was identified by the Italian forensic expert Patrizia Stefanoni as containing minute samples of DNA traced back to Sollecito (Waterbury, 2011).Gross Negligence The crime scene was compromised as soon as the police arrived.
Several individuals tried to open Kercher’s door and two officers entered the room without proper clothing and gloves to prevent contamination. Later evaluation of a video taken during processing of the crime scene proved items such as the bloody boots and purse had been moved, items had been shoved around creating new bloodstains, and the blanket had been removed from the victim without gloves. It was also later determined that investigators moved the nightstand by the bed covering a bloodstain crucial to the reconstruction of the crime.When bloodstains didn’t match up with items at the scene such as the purse on the bed and the bloody boots, investigators claimed the killer engaged in scene staging after the murder (Hendry, 2011).
The bra clip collected weeks after the initial crime scene search was handled by several different police investigators before finally being bagged as evidence (Burleigh, 2011).Forensic analysis by Stefanoni would have been thrown out in a United States courtroom.
Her laboratory was not certified to conduct traditional DNA analysis much less Touch DNA analysis better known as Low Copy DNA Profiling (Waterbury, 2011).
The knife she tested from Sollecito’s kitchen tested negative for blood, however, was determined to have been bleached. That result was later refuted when the substance on the knife was actually identified as potato starch (Rich, 2011).
The knife was also determined to have been too large to have created two of the three wounds in Kercher’s neck and also too large to have left the impression in blood on the bed sheet at the crime scene (Waterbury, 2011).It is important to emphasize here that not a trace of Amanda Knox’s DNA or fingerprints were located in Meredith’s bedroom where the crime occurred. The mixture of DNA from the bathroom could have easily been the result of trace amounts of Knox’s DNA being spread throughout the bathroom during daily use and Kercher’s blood being mixed when investigators swabbed the area. The only indication that Amanda’s boyfriend was present in the cottage was a trace amount of Sollecito’s DNA on the bra clip that could have been transferred from other areas of the cottage such as Kercher’s door to investigators gloves (Sayagh, 2010).Another crucial error by Stefanoni was not taking a body temperature reading of the victim on November 2 when she was found. He claimed they engaged in heavy petting but halted short of intercourse because he had to use the bathroom.
While in the bathroom he decided to listen to his iPod and therefore did not hear the intruder who broke in the window, sexually assaulted Kercher, and brutally killed her.
Guede then says he attempted to save Kercher and when he realized she was dead panicked and ran off (Unknown, 2009).Conclusion In the summer of 2011, 20 United States forensic experts as well as two independent Italian experts reviewed the evidence in the Knox trial.
They all came to the same conclusion that the knife had not been cleaned and that the technique used to detect DNA on the knife was not reliable.
The second piece of key evidence, the bra clip, revealed no evidence of Sollecito’s DNA according to the independent analysts (Niiler, 2011).Many other aspects of the case were criticized such as the scene entry process, safety precautions used, and packaging and storage of evidence.
Items that contained blood were found to be packaged in plastic bags which are not proper protocol. Prior to working for a local police department, Ms Weiss was a serologist for the Florida Department of Law Enforcement in Tampa, Florida. She has been actively working crime scenes and examining fingerprints for more then sixteen years.
She has provided testimony for over 200 Federal and Circuit court cases.ReferencesBurleigh, N.
There is no solid, real evidence that supports Amanda Knox having any part in this murder conducted by Rudy Guede who has a long history of robberies, break-and-enter cases, selling drugs and now a brutal murder. The Italian justice system is now ready to release him back again onto society in 2014 and already had day passes to get out of jail.



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