30.01.2015

El cancer en el higado es curable wikipedia

El Sector de Admision de Emergencias fue a capacitacion en las instalaciones del Hospital “Vidal” de Corrientes capital. Convenio de Cooperacion mutua entre la Direccion del Hospital San Jose y la Direccion del Colegio Secundario Paso de los libres.
Durante la visita del equipo tecnico provincial se visito los distintos Sectores de Enfermeria Pediatrica, Clinica Medica, Cirugia, Esterilizacion, Maternidad, Emergencias, y gran parte del Nosocomio para conocer su funcionamiento, y dialogar con el personal. Quedo el compromiso de los Responsables en realizar las gestiones correspondientes para aumentar el numeros de enfermeros. La leche materna debe ser el unico alimento que recibe el bebe durante los primeros 6 meses de vida porque le brinda todos los elementos que necesita para su crecimiento y desarrollo saludables El nino no debe recibir jugos, agua, te ni ningun otro liquido ademas de la leche materna. Ademas, la lactancia materna favorece y fortalece la relacion de afecto entre la mama y el bebe, y contribuye al desarrollo de ninos capaces, seguros y emocionalmente estables. Significa que se debe alimentar al bebe cada vez que lo pide, durante el dia y la noche, durante todo el tiempo que quiera. Una buena prendida al pecho favorece que tanto el bebe como la mama disfruten de la lactancia; que el nino obtenga leche sin dificultad y que la madre conserve sanos sus pezones, sin molestias ni grietas. Asimismo, por la Ley 26.873 de Promocion de la Lactancia Materna el Estado nacional promueve la generacion de “Espacios Amigos de la Lactancia” en los ambitos de trabajo, un lugar higienico y privado para que la mujer pueda extraerse leche y refrigerarla.
El amamantamiento es una tarea en la que deben involucrarse los padres, la familia, los amigos, los equipos de salud y la sociedad en general. Es importante generar espacios amigables para que las madres y bebes amamantados sean bienvenidos en todas partes. Los papas o la pareja de la mama pueden dar al bebe todo el cuidado, igual que lo hace la madre. El Gobierno Provincial trabaja para mejorar la alimentacion de los ninos correntinos a traves de un novedoso programa que fue presentado este ano.
Los mismos reciben en los centros de atencion primaria y hospitales de la provincia un kit alimentario para todo el mes que consiste en Papilla lactea fortificada y un Suplemento infantil con proteina lactea fortificada (postre). Queremos por este medio agradecer la donacion de mantas  para recien nacidos de una persona solidaria anonima. Oral or pharyngeal cancer will be diagnosed in an estimated 28,000 Americans this year, and will cause approximately 7,000 deaths. With early detection and timely treatment, deaths from oral cancer could be dramatically reduced.
The five-year survival rate for those with localized disease at diagnosis is 81 percent compared with only 30 percent for those whose cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Two lesions that could be precursors to cancer are leukoplakia (white lesions) and erythroplakia (red lesions). If these problems persist for more than two weeks, a thorough clinical examination and laboratory tests, as necessary, should be performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis.
Oral cancer is typically a disease of older people, usually because of their longer exposure to risk factors. A thorough head and neck examination should be a routine part of each patient's dental visit and general medical examination.
Follow-up to make sure a definitive diagnosis is obtained on any possible signs or symptoms of oral cancer. LIPS: (Figure 2) Begin examination by observing the lips with the patient's mouth both closed and open.
LABIAL MUCOSA: (Figures 3 and 4) With the patient's mouth partially open, visually examine the labial mucosa and sulcus of the maxillary vestibule and frenum and the mandibular vestibule.
GINGIVA: (Figure 7) First, examine the buccal and labial aspects of the gingiva and alveolar ridges (processes) by starting with the right maxillary posterior gingiva and alveolar ridge and then move around the arch to the left posterior area. TONGUE: (Figure 8) With the patient's tongue at rest, and mouth partially open, inspect the dorsum of the tongue for any swelling, ulceration, coating, or variation in size, color, or texture. FLOOR: (Figure 12) With the tongue still elevated, inspect the floor of the mouth for changes in color, texture, swellings, or other surface abnormalities. PALATE: (Figures 13 and 14) With the mouth wide open and the patient's head tilted back, gently depress the base of the tongue with a mouth mirror. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of asymptomatic persons for oral cancer by primary care clinicians.
The principal screening test for oropharyngeal cancer in asymptomatic persons is inspection and palpation of the oral cavity.
10 Mehta found a 59% sensitivity and 98% specificity for lesions appropriately referred to dentists by the basic health care workers.9 No outcome data were reported in these studies, and it is unclear how these findings relate to the very different, lower prevalence population of the United States.
14 but further research is needed to evaluate the accuracy and acceptability of these techniques before routine use in the general population can be considered. No controlled trials of screening for oral cancer that include data on clinical outcomes have been reported. 2 Because of the possible effects of lead-time and length bias, however, these observational data are not sufficient to prove that screening and earlier detection improve the prognosis in patients with oral cancer.
Several studies have examined treatment of oral leukoplakia, a form of premalignancy, as a means of preventing oral cancer.
Primary prevention strategies, such as counseling patients regarding the use of tobacco and alcohol, may have a greater impact on the morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancer than measures aimed at early detection. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of asymptomatic persons for oral cancer by primary care clinicians (“C” recommendation). Appropriate counseling should be offered to those persons who smoke cigarettes, pipes, or cigars, those who use chewing tobacco or snuff, and those who have evidence of alcohol abuse. Researchers supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, part of the National Institutes of Health, report that their initial success using a customized optical device that allows dentists to visualize in a completely new way whether a patient might have a developing oral cancer. Because changes in the natural fluorescence of healthy tissue generally reflect light-scattering biochemical or structural changes indicative of developing tumor cells, the VELScope allows dentists to shine a light onto a suspicious sore in the mouth, look through an attached eyepiece, and watch directly for changes in color.
Testing the device in 44 people, the results of which are published online in the Journal of Biomedical Optics, the scientists found they could distinguish correctly in all but one instance between normal and abnormal tissue. Currently, the early detection of oral cancer depends on a thorough oral cancer examination, usually by a dentist or other qualified health care provider, for possible signs and symptoms of this disease. The next important step is to turn these scientific findings into clinical tests that can be used for early oral cancer detection. In a related study, further illustrating the importance of saliva as a diagnostic tool, scientists at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the Federal Government's National Institutes of Health (NIH), have studied the protein profile in the saliva of patients with Sjogren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system cells attack the saliva- and tear-producing glands, causing them to become inflamed.
This booklet is about cancers that occur in the mouth (oral cavity) and the part of the throat at the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the neck, the lungs, and other parts of the body. Research has shown that people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop oral cancer.
Alcohol: People who drink alcohol are more likely to develop oral cancer than people who don't drink. The Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER can talk with callers about ways to quit smoking and about groups that offer help to smokers who want to quit. Some studies suggest that not eating enough fruits and vegetables may increase the chance of getting oral cancer. If you think you may be at risk, you should discuss this concern with your doctor or dentist. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons recommend that everyone perform an oral cancer self-exam each month. Your regular checkup is a good time for your dentist or doctor to check your entire mouth for signs of cancer. Mixed red and white patches (erythroleukoplakia) are more likely than white patches to become malignant. Red patches (erythroplakia) are brightly colored, smooth areas that often become malignant.
Anyone with these symptoms should see a doctor or dentist so that any problem can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
If you have symptoms that suggest oral cancer, the doctor or dentist checks your mouth and throat for red or white patches, lumps, swelling, or other problems. Dental x-rays: An x-ray of your entire mouth can show whether cancer has spread to the jaw. Chest x-rays: Images of your chest and lungs can show whether cancer has spread to these areas. CT scan: An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your body. MRI: A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of your body. Many people with oral cancer want to take an active part in making decisions about their medical care. Before starting treatment, you might want a second opinion about the diagnosis and the treatment plan. The Cancer Information Service, at 1-800-4-CANCER, can tell you about nearby treatment centers. A local or state medical or dental society, a nearby hospital, or a medical or dental school can usually provide the names of specialists in your area. The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) has a list of doctors who have had training and exams in their specialty. The American Dental Association (ADA) Web site provides a list of dentists by specialty and location.
The choice of treatment depends mainly on your general health, where in your mouth or oropharynx the cancer began, the size of the tumor, and whether the cancer has spread. At any stage of disease, people with oral cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms, to relieve the side effects of therapy, and to ease emotional and practical problems. You may want to talk to the doctor about taking part in a clinical trial, a research study of new treatment methods. Internal radiation (implant radiation): The radiation comes from radioactive material placed in seeds, needles, or thin plastic tubes put directly in the tissue. Because treatment often damages healthy cells and tissues, unwanted side effects are common.
The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) also provides helpful materials. It takes time to heal after surgery, and the time needed to recover is different for each person. Almost all patients who have radiation therapy to the head and neck area develop oral side effects. Your dentist may suggest that you use fluoride gel before, during, and after radiation treatment.
Infection: Dry mouth and damage to the lining of the mouth from radiation therapy can cause infection to develop. Delayed healing after dental care: Radiation treatment may make it hard for tissues in the mouth to heal.
Jaw stiffness: Radiation can affect the chewing muscles and make it difficult for you to open your mouth. Denture problems: Radiation therapy can change the tissues in your mouth so that dentures do not fit anymore.
Changes in the sense of taste and smell: During radiation therapy, food may taste or smell different. Changes in the thyroid: Radiation treatment can affect your thyroid (an organ in your neck beneath the voice box). Although the side effects of radiation therapy can be distressing, your doctor can usually treat or control them. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can cause some of the same side effects, including painful mouth and gums, dry mouth, infection, and changes in taste. Blood cells: These cells fight infection, help your blood to clot, and carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Eating well during cancer treatment means getting enough calories and protein to prevent weight loss, regain strength, and rebuild healthy tissues.


If your mouth is dry, you may find that soft foods moistened with sauces or gravies are easier to eat. Some people with oral cancer may need to have plastic or reconstructive surgery to rebuild the bones or tissues of the mouth. If you are thinking about reconstruction, you may wish to consult with a plastic or reconstructive surgeon before your treatment begins. If oral cancer or its treatment leads to problems with talking, speech therapy will generally begin as soon as possible. People who have had oral cancer have a chance of developing a new cancer in the mouth, throat, or other areas of the head and neck. The NCI has prepared a booklet for people who have completed their treatment to help answer questions about follow-up care and other concerns.
The Cancer Information Service can provide information to help patients and their families locate programs, services, and publications.
People who join clinical trials may be among the first to benefit if a new approach is shown to be effective. If you are interested in learning more about joining a clinical trial, you may want to talk with your doctor. Cancer Information Service (CIS) Provides accurate, up-to-date information on cancer to patients and their families, health professionals, and the general public.
This Clearinghouse is a service of the Federal Government's National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). NIDCR directs the health awareness campaign, Oral Health, Cancer Care, and You: Fitting the Pieces Together. NIDCR can supply free information about oral cancer and taking care of your mouth during cancer treatment. Treatment of oral cancer depends on the location, size, type, and extent of the tumor, as well as the age and health of the patient. Surgery to remove the tumor in the mouth is the usual treatment for patients with oral cancer. Julio Agustin Mortola, de nuestra localidad, participaron de una importante Reunion con la Jefa del Area de Enfermeria del Ministerio de Salud Publica y su equipo de trabajo. Es un concentrado de nutrientes y anticuerpos que el bebe debe recibir cuanto antes, porque es tan importante como una vacuna para prevenir las infecciones mas comunes.
El bebe debe estar en contacto con el pecho de su madre al nacer y debe ser amamantado dentro de la primera hora de vida. No hay que esperar a que llore para amantarlo, el nino lo indicara chupandose el dedo o moviendose mucho. Para ello puede extraerse manualmente su leche y conservarla en cadena de frio, en un recipiente limpio y tapado, hasta que el bebe la consuma.
Hay distintas posiciones para amamantar, es conveniente variar las posiciones para prevenir dificultades.
179° garantiza que toda madre trabajadora disponga de dos descansos de media hora para amamantar a su hijo en el transcurso de la jornada de trabajo, al menos durante todo el primer ano de vida del nino. Tienen derecho a dar el pecho en escuelas, restaurantes, transporte publico, centros de trabajo, visitando a los amigos, en el hospital o mientras estan de compras. Pueden acunarlo, hablarle, cambiarlo, banarlo, ayudarlo a dormir, jugar con el bebe, cargarlo, etc. Se trata del Programa nutricional Materno Infantil 1 Dias, destinado a todos los ninos correntinos de entre 6 meses a dos anos y medio que se realicen los controles de salud correspondientes a su edad. Con la Semana Mundial se conmemora la Declaracion de Innocenti, formulada por altos cargos de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y el Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) en agosto de 1990 con el fin de proteger, promover y respaldar la lactancia materna.
In the US, oral cancer will be diagnosed in an estimated 30,000 Americans this year and will cause more than 8,000 deaths.
Tissue changes in the mouth that might signal the beginnings of cancer often can be seen and felt easily. Although less common than leukoplakia, erythroplakia and lesions with erythroplakic components have a much greater potential for becoming cancerous. Note the color, texture and any surface abnormalities of the upper and lower vermilion borders.
Observe the color, texture, and any swelling or other abnormalities of the vestibular mucosa and gingiva.
Examine first the right then the left buccal mucosa extending from the labial commissure and back to the anterior tonsillar pillar. Drop to the left mandibular posterior gingiva and alveolar ridge and move around the arch to the right posterior area.Second, examine the palatal and lingual aspects as had been done on the facial side, from right to left on the palatal (maxilla) and left to right on the lingual (mandible). Also note any change in the pattern of the papillae covering the surface of the tongue and examine the tip of the tongue.
All patients should be counseled to discontinue the use of all forms of tobacco (see Chapter 54) and to limit consumption of alcohol (see Chapter 52). Studies indicate that many oral cancers occur on the floor of the mouth, the ventral and lateral regions of the tongue, and the soft palate, anatomic sites that may be inaccessible to routine visual inspection.7 The recommended examination technique involves a careful visual examination of the oral cavity and extraoral areas using a dental mirror, retracting the tongue with a gauze pad to visualize hard-to-see areas. Some authors have questioned the effectiveness of early detection in improving prognosis.15 Prospective trials of screening for oral cancer, although difficult and expensive to conduct in the general population, might be feasible in high-risk populations in which the incidence of oral cancer is substantially greater.
Although direct evidence of a benefit is lacking, clinicians may wish to include an examination for cancerous and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity in the periodic health examination of persons who chew or smoke tobacco (or did so previously), older persons who drink regularly, and anyone with suspicious symptoms or lesions detected through self-examination.
Persons with increased expo - sure to sunlight should be advised to take protective measures when outdoors to protect their lips and skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays (see Chapter 12). Cigarette smoking—attributable mortality and years of potential life lost—United States, 1990.
Detection of oral cancer using basic health workers in an area of high oral cancer incidence in India.
Reproducibility of an oral cancer and precancer detection program using a primary health care model in Sri Lanka. Final evaluation of tolonium chloride rinse for screening of high-risk patients with asymptomatic squamous carcinoma.
Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Management of oral mucosal dysplasia with ?-carotene retinoic acid: a pilot crossover study. Remission of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers and maintenance of the protective effect of ?-carotene or vitamin A. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. Regression of oral leukoplakia with alpha-tocopherol: a Community Clinical Oncology Program chemoprevention study. The device is called a Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELScope), and it's a simple, hand-held device that emits a cone of blue light into the mouth that excites various molecules within our cells, causing them to absorb the light energy and re-emit it as visible fluorescence. Normal oral tissue emits a pale green fluorescence, while potentially early tumor, or dysplastic, cells appear dark green to black.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC) make up over 90% of all oral cancers, and because of its appearance it has been difficult to differentiate from the other relatively benign lesions of the oral cavity. Scientists are working on technologies and biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. Patients suffer from constant dryness of the mouth and eyes, as well as many other systemic problems. Greenberg, professor and chairman or oral medicine early detection is our most important weapon in our fight against oral cancer. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. The cells spread by breaking away from the original cancer (primary tumor) and entering the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Also, quitting reduces the chance that a person with oral cancer will get a second cancer in the head and neck region. If the oral and maxillofacial surgeon agrees that something looks suspicious, a biopsy may be recommended. If you are at high risk for oral cancer — smoker, consumer of alcohol, user of smokeless tobacco, or snuff — you should see your general dentist or oral and maxillofacial surgeon for an annual exam.
Regular checkups can detect the early stages of oral cancer or conditions that may lead to oral cancer. This exam includes looking carefully at the roof of the mouth, back of the throat, and insides of the cheeks and lips.
The stage is based on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body. Specialists who treat oral cancer include oral and maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctors), medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and plastic surgeons. Other health care professionals who may work with the specialists as a team include a dentist, speech pathologist, nutritionist, and mental health counselor.
Some insurance companies require a second opinion; others may cover a second opinion if you or your doctor requests it. You can find this list in the Official ABMS Directory of Board Certified Medical Specialists. You will have other chances to ask your doctor to explain things that are not clear and to ask for more information. The section on "The Promise of Cancer Research" has more information about clinical trials. Patients go to the hospital or clinic once or twice a day, generally 5 days a week for several weeks. If I need dental treatment, how much time does my mouth need to heal before radiation therapy starts? It is called systemic therapy because it enters the bloodstream and can affect cancer cells throughout the body. If I need dental treatment, how much time does my mouth need to heal before the chemotherapy begins? These side effects depend mainly on the location of the tumor and the type and extent of the treatment. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth, Chemotherapy and Your Mouth, and other booklets are available from NIDCR.
That is why it is important to get the mouth in good condition before cancer treatment begins. Some side effects in the mouth go away after radiation treatment ends, while others last a long time.
Good mouth care can help you keep your teeth and gums healthy and can help you feel better.
It helps to check your mouth every day for sores or other changes and to tell your doctor or nurse about any mouth problems. It helps to have a thorough dental exam and complete all needed dental treatment well before radiation therapy begins. Because of soreness and dry mouth, some people may not be able to wear dentures for as long as one year after radiation therapy.
If your thyroid does not make enough thyroid hormone, you may feel tired, gain weight, feel cold, and have dry skin and hair. It helps to report any problems that you are having so that your doctor can work with you to relieve them. The problems you have depend on the type and amount of anticancer drugs you receive, and how your body reacts to them.
When drugs affect your blood cells, you are more likely to get infections, bruise or bleed easily, and feel very weak and tired.
The hair grows back, but sometimes the new hair is somewhat different in color and texture. A feeding tube is a flexible plastic tube that is passed into the stomach through an incision in the abdomen. You can have reconstructive surgery at the same time as you have the cancer removed, or you can have it later on.


Even when the cancer seems to have been completely removed or destroyed, the disease sometimes returns because undetected cancer cells remained in the body after treatment.
From time to time, your doctor may do a complete physical exam, order blood tests, and take x-rays. Facing Forward Series: Life After Cancer Treatment provides tips for making the best use of medical visits. You may worry about caring for your family, keeping your job, or continuing daily activities.
In these groups, patients or their family members meet with other patients or their families to share what they have learned about coping with the disease and the effects of treatment. And if participants do not benefit directly, they still make an important contribution to medical science by helping doctors learn more about the disease and how to control it.
Information Specialists translate the latest scientific information into understandable language and respond in English, Spanish, or on TTY equipment. It offers current information on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, genetics, supportive care, and ongoing clinical trials. If you are in the United States or one of its territories, you may order these and other NCI booklets by calling the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER. NIDCR's mission is to promote the general health of the American people by improving their oral, dental, and craniofacial health. The campaign addresses the importance of preventing and managing the oral side effects of cancer treatments.
En 1993 se produjeron en Estados Unidos 170 000 casos nuevos de cancer pulmonar, que causaron 150 000 muertes.
En la oportunidad se hizo un mapeo situacional de la realidad y la problematica imperante, en cuanto a la falta de recursos humanos. Para que la mama pueda producir la leche que su bebe necesita, el nino debe ser amamantado con frecuencia.
Para que no pierda sus propiedades, es necesario entibiarla siempre a bano maria y nunca hervirla ni calentarla en microondas. Si el bebe no esta cerca, ella podra sumar esos descansos y trabajar una hora menos por dia durante el periodo indicado. Ellos no pueden amamantar pero si pueden darle al bebe, con taza o cuchara, la leche materna que dejo la madre. La distribucion es a traves de los centros de salud de toda la Provincia, y para ello se capacito a mas de 3 agentes sanitarios de toda la Provincia quienes tienen el contacto directo con las madres para la implementacion de este programa.
Note any change in pigmentation, color, texture, mobility, and other abnormalities of the mucosa, making sure that the commissures are examined carefully and are not covered by the retractors during the retraction of the cheek. Clinicians should remain alert to signs and symptoms of oral cancer and premalignancy in persons who use tobacco or regularly use alcohol.
In contrast, cancer of the pharynx accounts for 31% of new cases of oral cancer but 50% of deaths.1 The median age at diagnosis of oral cancers is 64 years, and 95% occur in persons over age 40.
All patients, especially those at increased risk, should be advised to receive a complete dental examination on a regular basis (see Chapter 61). Frame, MD, based on materials prepared for the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination by Carl Rosati, MD, FRCSC. Early OSCC and potentially malignant lesions can appear as a white patch (leukoplakia, or as a reddened area (erythroplakia), or as a red and white (erythroleukoplakia) mucosal change under standard white light examination.
Saliva, an easy-to-obtain and non-invasive body fluid, has recently been shown to harbor highly informative biomarkers for oral cancer detection.
This is the first standardized saliva-based test for clinical oral cancer detection and will have enormous clinical value in reducing the mortality and morbidity for oral cancer patients, as well as improving their quality of life.
In this recent study, the scientists analyzed saliva from patients with and without Sjogren's syndrome to find out whether the amounts and types of salivary proteins differed. The survival rate for this prevalent cancer is only 40 per cent overall, but survival rates increase to greater than 80 per cent if the cancer is found early.
For example, if oral cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually oral cancer cells.
The use of other tobacco products (such as bidis and kreteks) may also increase the risk of oral cancer. Your health care team will probably tell you that not using tobacco and limiting your use of alcohol are the most important things you can do to prevent oral cancers. A biopsy involves the removal of a piece of the suspicious tissue, which is then sent to a pathology laboratory for a microscopic examination that will accurately diagnose the problem. Ask your doctor or dentist about checking the tissues in your mouth as part of your routine exam. The doctor or dentist also gently pulls out your tongue so it can be checked on the sides and underneath. The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) to check your throat, windpipe, and lungs. To help remember what the doctor says, you may take notes or ask whether you may use a tape recorder.
You will want to consider how treatment may affect normal activities such as swallowing and talking, and whether it will change the way you look.
Side effects may not be the same for each person, and they may even change from one treatment session to the next. These materials also may be ordered by calling the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER. See "National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Information Resources" for a list of publications. Seeing a dentist two weeks before cancer treatment begins gives the mouth time to heal after dental work. You may find it helpful to drink lots of water, suck ice chips or sugar-free hard candy, and use a saliva substitute to moisten your mouth. Your doctor also may suggest special rinses to numb the throat and mouth to help relieve the soreness. Health care providers often suggest opening and closing the mouth as far as possible (without causing pain) 20 times in a row, 3 times a day.
After the tissues heal completely and your mouth is no longer sore, your dentist may need to refit or replace your dentures.
Radiation directed at the neck may cause your larynx to swell, causing voice changes and the feeling of a lump in your throat. You may have these problems only during treatment or for a short time after treatment ends. Rehabilitation may include being fitted with a dental prosthesis (an artificial dental device) and having dental implants. Doctors strongly urge their patients to stop using tobacco and drinking to cut down the risk of a new cancer and other health problems. It describes how to talk to your health care team about creating a plan of action for recovery and future health.
You may have concerns about treatments and managing side effects, hospital stays, and medical bills. Although clinical trials may pose some risks, researchers do all they can to protect their patients. The NCI also offers an easy-to-read brochure called If You Have Cancer…What You Should Know About Clinical Trials. It also provides information about NCI's research programs and funding opportunities, cancer statistics, and the Institute itself. It also provides national and state telephone quitline numbers and access to printed materials about quitting tobacco. Through the conduct and support of research and the training of researchers, the NIDCR aims to promote health, prevent diseases and conditions, and develop new diagnostics and therapies.
It is a partnership among NIDCR, NCI, National Institute of Nursing Research, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Complete descriptions of the recommended techniques have been published.8 There is little information, however, on the sensitivity of this procedure in detecting oral cancer or on the frequency of false-positive results when a lesion is found. All adolescent and adult patients should be asked to describe their use of tobacco (Chapter 54) and alcohol (Chapter 52). However, these cellular changes are often non-detectable to the human eye (even with magnification eyewear) under standard lighting conditions. They found that saliva from the patients with Sjogren's has both increased amounts of proteins related to inflammation and a decreased amount of proteins produced by salivary glands. With the engineers and cytologists at Oral Scan Systems, a New York-based health devices company, a dentist who finds an area of concern runs a small round brush - similar to a mascara wand over the suspicious lesion.
The computer is so exacting, Green berg said, that the false negative rate, which was as high as 30 per cent using the scraping method, dropped to nil in the clinical trials. Almost all oral cancers begin in the flat cells (squamous cells) that cover the surfaces of the mouth, tongue, and lips. Also, if you spend a lot of time in the sun, using a lip balm that contains sunscreen and wearing a hat with a brim will help protect your lips.
The biopsy report not only helps establish a diagnosis, but also enables the doctor to develop a specific plan of treatment. You may also want to have a family member or friend with you when you talk to the doctor—to take part in the discussion, to take notes, or just to listen. You and your doctor can work together to develop a treatment plan that meets your needs and personal values. Before treatment starts, your health care team will explain possible side effects and suggest ways to help you manage them. Also, the National Cancer Institute booklet Eating Hints for Cancer Patients contains many useful ideas and recipes. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team can answer your questions about treatment, working, or other activities. Research has already led to advances, and researchers continue to search for more effective approaches.
These NCI publications describe how research studies are carried out and explain their possible benefits and risks. The majority of oral cancers are diagnosed in late stages, which accounts for the high death rates. The abbreviated oral inspection that is more typical of the routine physical examination is also of unknown accuracy and predictive value. Future studies are planned to determine whether these protein levels could be useful in diagnosing Sjogren's syndrome. The "National Cancer Institute Information Resources" section tells how to get this publication. Your doctor will probably encourage you to inspect your mouth regularly and continue to have exams when you visit your dentist.
Meeting with a social worker, counselor, or member of the clergy can be helpful if you want to talk about your feelings or discuss your concerns. The NCI's fact sheets "Cancer Support Groups: Questions and Answers" and "National Organizations That Offer Services to People With Cancer and Their Families" tell how to find a support group.
The high mortality rate is directly related to the lack of early detection of potentially malignant lesions.
In fact, three out of four oral cancers occur in people who use alcohol, tobacco, or both alcohol and tobacco.
Often, a social worker can suggest resources for financial aid, transportation, home care, or emotional support. When diagnosis and treatment are performed at or before a Stage 1 carcinoma level, the survival rate is more than 90%. It is therefore extremely important to detect oral cancer as early as possible, when it can be treated more successfully, thus enhancing the rate of survival.



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