02.02.2014

Cure for cancer stem cells youtube

Emergency heart attack patients will be injected with their own stem cells in a dramatic new treatment.
The procedure, being pioneered by British doctors, holds out hope of a 'cure' as the stem cells repair damaged heart muscles.
The low-cost treatment, which involves removing stem cells from the patient's bone marrow, could be given within a few hours of a heart attack.
It is intended to stop patients suffering further attacks and developing heart failure, something existing treatments fail to do in many cases.
If the initial trials in London are successful, the treatment is likely to be extended to NHS hospitals across the country. As well as saving lives, it would also reduce the ?7billion-a-year burden of heart attacks on the economy through hospital admissions, drug prescriptions and lost working days. When a patient reaches Accident and Emergency, they are currently given a treatment called angioplasty to re-open the blocked artery that triggered the problem. Many people can end up with heart failure - in which the heart gradually loses its ability to pump blood and so leaves the person breathless and unable to move around.
Now two London NHS trusts - University College London Hospital and Barts and the London - plan to use stem cells to try to repair the damage immediately after a heart attack. Stem cells are the basic building block cells that can grow and change into different types of tissue. They have been shown to help people who already have heart disease by aiding the regrowth of damaged tissue. The new trials, however, would be the first in the world to give patients the cells within hours of their heart attack in a bid to prevent any heart failure developing at all.
People who suffer a heart attack and are taken to the London Chest Hospital or London Heart Hospital for treatment will be asked for written consent to take part in the study.
After their angioplasty, those who agree will have stem cells removed from their hip using a needle under local anaesthetic. The stem cells will then be placed in the same artery as the angioplasty - all within five hours of their original attack. Doctors will then monitor the patients over the following months to establish how effective the stem cell treatment has been at preventing heart failure and repairing the damaged organ. The research is being led by Professor John Martin, chair in cardiovascular sciences at the British Heart Foundation, and Dr Anthony Mathur of Barts and the London NHS trust. The research project, which is due to start after Christmas and will involve 100 patients, is being funded by the UK Stem Cell Foundation. It is a randomised doubleblind controlled study which means half of the patients will be given stem cells and the rest just blood serum, to act as a comparison group.
The doctors do not yet know whether the injected stem cells will turn into heart tissue and repair the damaged areas. This is because they are using adult stem cells from the patient's own bone marrow, which are not always very adaptable.
However, trials in other countries on heart patients - though not immediately after an attack - showed that their own stem cells successfully grew into heart tissue. A heart attack is caused by a blockage which prevents blood reaching the muscle and usually leads to a crushing pain in the chest, shortness of breath and dizziness.
However many will go on to suffer a cardiac arrest, which is when the heart stops and the person loses consciousness and stops breathing. Anyone who was unconscious at the hospital would not be able to take part in the trial as they could not give their consent. Professor Peter Weissberg, medical director of the British Heart Foundation, said: 'In the future, stem cells could herald a new frontier for heart patients. According to the American Cancer Society, AML accounts for nearly one-third of all new leukemia cases each year. The researchers first analyzed HSCs from three healthy individuals to determine normal methylation patterns. The researchers then tested their scoring method using data on 688 AML patients in three different clinical trials, In each of these groups, patients with low scores (methylation patterns similar to normal HSCs) had approximately twice the median survival time of patients with high scores. Patients with leukaemia were among the first to be given a treatment where transplants of blood stem cells made it possible to obtain cures. About leukaemiaLeukaemia is a term used to describe many different kinds of cancers of the blood.
We've worked with scientists and doctors to answer some of your most frequently asked questions about stem cell science and potential therapies. We had been waiting for the report from the National Cancer Institute to see if my blood matched either of my brothers’ blood. Unfortunately, only a sibling can provide the blood match, as parents divide their chromosomes among their offspring, making an exact match is impossible. Savanna Acosta, 23 months old, is hugged by her stem cell donor, Pam Dicaire during Fred Hutch's Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Reunion on Saturday.


On stage, the spunky girl cradled flowers, a thank you present for the woman who traveled 3,500 miles just to meet her. Under the rules of donation, their identities were kept mutually anonymous a€“ until Saturday when, finally, they shared a hug. Pam Dicaire presents a starfish necklace to Savanna Acosta, the young girl she donated her stem cells to last year. The survivor reunion is held roughly every five years to celebrate bone marrow donors and recipients. Thata€™s when Laurie Corner went to work at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutcha€™s treatment arm. Corner, who helps locate unrelated donors, began combing bone marrow registries around the world.
On her cell phone these days, Gomez keeps photos of her then-baby daughter before the transplant. Her mom describes Savanna as an outgoing girl who rarely naps and who loves car rides and playing in the dirt with her cat, Tigger. Both Gomez and Dicaire want to stay in touch as Savanna moves into her school years and beyond. Still deeply touched by the life and death of Kate, Dicaire recounted a story the teenager liked to tell about a boy who spotted scores of starfish stranded on the beach in the wake of an outgoing tide. On Saturday night, she handed a silver starfish necklace to Savanna, the one girl for whom she made a difference. Fred Hutch's Bone Marrow Transplant Reunion culminated in a celebration Saturday night at Seattle's Museum of History and Industry.
But Professor Martin said it would be very low as the cells come from the patients themselves, it does not prolong their hospital stay and the only expense is on needles and laboratory time separating out the muscle cells. Most medical research uses stem cells from human embryos because these are more adaptable and can grow into any type of bodily material. The researchers focused on one common epigenetic process known as methylation, in which methyl (CH3) groups attach in various patterns to the genes of human cells. They found that in the HSCs of healthy people, most DNA cytosines (one of four main components of DNA) are methylated.
Steidl and his colleagues are now studying the genes that are included in the aberrant signatures to determine if they play a role in causing AML. However, in all of these, too many white blood cells (also called leukocytes) are produced and these leukemic cells do not mature abnormally. Savanna's mom, Athena Gomez, left, holds flowers as Dicaire's daughter and husband look on. For the first time, she could see the living results of her own gift, a stem cell donation. The transplant eventually cured an immune disorder that otherwise would have killed the girl.
Pioneered at Fred Hutch 40 years ago, BMT became one of cancer treatmenta€™s largest leaps. The first sign of illness was a severe form of eczema that chafed her skin red and swelled her eyes. Suzanne Skoda-Smith, one of Savannaa€™s physicians, and clinical director for the Division of Immunology at Seattle Childrena€™s. If validated in clinical trials, the signature would help physicians better identify which AML patients would benefit from chemotherapy and which patients have a prognosis so grave that they may be candidates for more aggressive treatments such as bone-marrow transplantation.
Researchers have known that aberrations in the methylation of hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells (HSCs) can prevent them from differentiating into mature blood cells, leading to AML.
To find out, he and his colleagues at the Albert Einstein Cancer Center carried out a novel DNA methylation analysis on 561 genes in healthy HSCs at various stages of differentiation. They noted that where demethylation (removal of methyl groups) occurs, it’s limited mainly to one particular stage of HSC differentiation.
In order to qualify for the stem-cell transplant  trial, I had to have an exact blood match with one of my brothers.
But from their genetics, Corner determined some were only a€?suitable matchesa€? for Savanna, meaning they matched nine out of 10 white blood cell proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The doctors are in the process of immunizing her against infections; immunities acquired by the patient before a transplant are generally lost. The paper was published today in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
These leukaemic blasts are not able to perform the functions of normal mature blood cells which is to defend the body against infection and disease.
Some of her stem cells were harvested at a medical center in Halifax, Nova Scotia, four hours from her home. Troy Torgerson, director of the Immunology Diagnostic Lab at Seattle Childrena€™s Research Institute.


In most forms of acute leukaemia, these leukaemic blasts accumulate in the bone marrow as well as in the blood and and suppress the formation of normal white blood cells. Leukaemia patients demonstrating chemotherapy procedures released into the public domain by Bill Branson. Verma is associate professor of medicine and of developmental & molecular biology at Einstein and director, hematologic malignancies at the Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care.
Additional contributors are Ross Levine, at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, and Ari Melnick at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY. They are usually sub-classified as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) depending on the types of white blood cells that are affected.Chronic leukaemias are more slowly developing leukaemias that may escape diagnosis for several years before they are detected. Other known causes include accidental exposure to radiation and treatment with some types of anti-cancer drugs. However, in order for a full blown leukemia to develop, it is thought that several changes must be accumulated to alter the molecular programs that control cell behaviour. A large number of gene mutations have been linked to human leukaemias, and in some cases, the same mutation is consistently and uniquely associated with a particular type of leukaemia. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is an example of such a leukaemia where knowledge of a shared driver mutation led to the development of a drug (Gleevec) that is very successful in killing the leukemic cells in CML patients.
However, in most patients with leukaemia, it is not yet known which mutation or group of mutations are actually driving their disease.Because many types of leukaemia are thought to require several rare mutations in order to develop, the first change is assumed to occur in a cell that will remain in the body for a long time. If a stem cell is affected by a genetic change, all the cells it produces will inherit the same mutation.
However, cells go through a number of steps to develop from HSCs into specialised cells such as white blood cells.
For many leukaemias, a complex series of events is probably involved and it is not yet clear where the first important mutation occurs.How are healthy blood stem cells used to treat leukaemia?Acute leukaemia usually requires immediate and intensive treatment.
Depending on the particular type of leukaemia and many other things about the individual patient, treatment options might include chemotherapy, steroids or a more intensive procedure such as a haematopoietic stem cell transplant combined with high-dose chemotherapy followed by a transplant of healthy haematopoietic stem cells.High-dose chemotherapy is the most effective currently established method to kill leukaemic cells and can cure some patients.
However, it also severely damages the remaining normal blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. The cells for the transplant can be collected from the blood or bone marrow of a healthy donor.
In fact, such transplants are effective because they contain important immune cells that help to kill the leukaemic cells in addition to HSCs that rescue blood production. A patient’s own cells can sometimes be used for the transplant, if it is possible to collect enough healthy cells before the treatment is performed. Otherwise the transplanted donor cells can be attacked by the patient’s residual immune system and rejected.Intensive chemotherapy followed by a HSC transplant is very effective for treating many types of acute leukaemia. Careful observation, restricted access to other people and preventative treatment with antibiotics are used to reduce infection risks.Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) – This complication occurs when donor blood cells attack the patient’s own normal tissues. Other strategies to prevent GvHD include suppressing the immune system with drugs and removing a specific type of white blood cells (lymphocytes) from the transplant.Researchers and doctors are investigating ways to improve current transplantation approaches in order to address these limitations.
Newer forms of transplantation called mini-allografts or reduced-intensity allografts have been developed to reduce the risk. These procedures allow lower doses of chemotherapy to be used, which helps reduce the extent of damage to the bone marrow. Instead, donor immune cells are transplanted with and after the donor HSCs to attack and eliminate any remaining leukaemic cells.
Alternatively, attempts are being made to selectively remove the immune cells that cause GvHD from the transplant.Scientists and doctors are also currently investigating treatments that might reduce the time it takes for the patient’s immune system to recover after a HSC transplant.
One option is to treat the patient with selected proteins called growth factors, which can enhance the production of the particular immune cells needed to fight infections.
This can help reduce the risk of infection while the patient recovers.The future of haematopoietic stem cell treatments for leukaemiaStem cell research is a rapidly developing field.
New technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cells are already being used to study leukaemia in the lab.
Researchers can then study the cells to learn more about how the disease arises and is maintained, and to design and test new, potentially more effective and less toxic therapies. In the future, new methods for the lab-based production of HSCs that can be used in transplant patients may also be developed. This could revolutionize many of the current shortcoming of current transplants and lack of matched donors.



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