08.10.2014

Chinese traditional medicine rhino horn online

Millions of people believe it has the power to cure a multitude of illnesses; however, scientific research has shown that it does not provide any medical purpose.
Despite this research, a total of 333 rhinos were killed in South Africa in 2010, the highest number on record. In June 2011 it was discovered that there was a plot in China to breed imported white rhinos for their horns, which would then be used as medicine. To prevent further killings of rhinoceros species and to decrease trade of the rhino horn, education of the consumers of rhino horn is extremely important. Looking for a large lake with swimming beaches, sailing, water skiing, and fishing close to the city? It's a story that's gone viral - massively.But neither the western black rhino - nor any other subspecies - have just been made extinct.
He's right as it is the last male northern white rhino on earth but there are also four female northern white rhinos.
Between 1960 and 1995, it's been estimated that 98% of black rhinos were killed by poachers, mostly for their horns, which are prized in traditional Chinese medicine. Explore the BBC News News Sport Weather Shop Earth Travel Capital iPlayer Culture Autos Future TV Radio CBBC CBeebies Food iWonder Bitesize Travel Music Earth Arts Make It Digital Taster Nature Local Terms of Use About the BBC Privacy Policy Cookies Accessibility Help Parental Guidance Contact the BBC Advertise with us Ad choices Copyright © 2016 BBC. For the best experience, please follow the links below to update your preferred internet browser. During another trip abroad you find yourself strolling down a narrow side street in Beijing.
You point to a pile of waxy-looking round-shaped objects and ask the pharmacist what it is. You learn that rhino horn is processed into pills, tablets, treatments, and tonics and sold worldwide. Help WWF conserve the world's wildlife and their homes by symbolically adopting an elephant. WARNING: Images and Videos on this page may be disturbing and usuitable for young viewers. In an effort to educate the public about the alleged curative properties of rhino horn, several scientific studies have been commissioned. Testing was carried out in 1983 by researchers at Hoffmann-LaRoche, and followed up 25 years later with a study at the Zoological Society of London.
In a 2006 report commissioned by DEFRA (UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs) and IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare), both rhino horn and substitute plants were investigated. The usefulness of rhino horn as a medicine was also debunked by scientists at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, who published their findings in the research study, “Ethnopharmacology of Rhinoceros Horn.


In 1983 the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) published results of a pharmacological study which showed that rhino horn has no medicinal effects. This increase in the number of killings is thought to be due to the insatiable demand for rhino horn as a traditional medicine. All rhinoceros species and subspecies (except the southern white rhino) are listed under Appendix I of the convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a treaty that forbids international commercial trade in all rhino products. Chinese officials say there was no intention to farm rhinos for their horns; however, a reporter discovered business plans to sell and market rhino pills and generate a $60 million profit each year.
Currently, all but one species of rhinoceros is in danger of extinction due to the harvesting of their horns, three of which are recorded on the IUCN red list as critically endangered. Photo credit: Wikimedia CommonsThe problematic use of endangered species in TCM is not new. By 1980, there were 135 western black rhinos left, from an estimated one million (of all subspecies) in 1900. You stop in front of a teeny tiny pharmacy overflowing with mysterious-looking items and emanating unidentifiable odors. What the practitioner doesn't tell you (and, sometimes they don't know) is that rhinos are extremely endangered, mostly due to illegal trade.
They are killed as trophies, as well as for the mythical properties of their horn, which is highly valued in the Far East as a staple of traditional Chinese medicine.
Subsistence poachers poach to get food, or to sell the poached animal for a small amount of money in order to buy food.
Despite China being a signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and banning trade in rhino horn and its derivatives in 1993, current rhino poaching levels suggest that the use of rhino horn continues unabated in traditional medicine markets. Shockingly, so far in 2011, this high has already been topped as 340 rhinos have been recorded to have been killed in South Africa.
If this scheme had come to fruition, it would have gone against both national and international laws. A worldwide clamp down on the exports of rhino horn is also vital and Britain has currently has an agreement to restrict the illegal trade of rhinoceros horn. For centuries, rhino horn has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a wide variety of illnesses ranging from reducing fevers to stopping nosebleeds and preventing strokes. Additionally, research conducted in 1990 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong was unable to produce evidence to support the wild claims of rhino horns “curative” power.
The report identified nine potential botanical alternatives to rhino horn, based on tests conducted and evidence from published TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine).
Rhino horn has been a traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years and in certain parts of the world, is still encouraged as a suitable medicine.


If illegal trade is not snuffed out and rhino horn substitutes are not promoted by specialists as an acceptable alternative, it could mean certain extinction for some of the few species whose ancestors can be traced back to the dinosaur age. Only by curbing this demand, conservationists say, can the rhinos truly be protected.But is this approach to conservation an attack on traditional medicine and time-honored cultural practices?Some practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) believe that efforts to end the international trade of rhinoceros horn are, indeed, an affront to their culture.
They couldn't breed, weren't properly protected and were doomed to be picked off by poachers - the last one was spotted in 2001.
Studies conducted in 1983 and 2008 at the Zoological Society of London both concluded that rhino horn has no therapeutic value.A study conducted at Chinese University in Hong Kong in 1990 looked specifically at rhino horn's efficacy as a fever reducer.
Researchers found that in extremely large doses, rhino horn could slightly lower fever in mice.
As the concentrations were reduced, however, the ground horn quickly lost its power and, by the time it reached levels commonly prescribed, it had no impact whatsoever.Understanding TCMThese findings, of course, do not invalidate the entire practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. From those early notations it was modified and refined extensively, most notably between 300 - 100 BC and around 200 AD.In modern history, TCM branched with followers of the Jingfang school relying on documents from the Han Dynasty, and practitioners of the Wenbing school using more recent texts from the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The history of TCM, clearly, is long and its ability to change and adapt over time is likely why it remains relevant.Today, TCM exists as a parallel system to Western Medicine in much of East Asia. Instead, it is an economic system that spans borders and is driven by a lack of education at the consumer level and opportunism among dealers and traders.A Cross-Cultural SolutionThe solution, then, is one that considers the unique needs of all involved, including TCM practitioners and patients, conservationists, governments, and international governing bodies. Activists and policy makers must operate from a position of understanding, recognizing the proven value of TCM and focusing, specifically, on the problems TCM faces in countries increasingly eager to embrace Western culture. Practitioners, on the other hand, must continue to advocate for the sustainable use of natural resources but also focus efforts on educating patients on the essential value of alternatives.In the end, Traditional Chinese Medicine should not become a scapegoat for international conservation issues. The efforts of conservation police in Africa, while commendable, have not been able to keep pace with increasingly well financed and equipped poachers.2. Market demand in Asia (and yes, Yemen and other places) drives up the price of illegal animal products, making the financial payoff poachers stand to earn worth, in their eyes, the risk of arrest or death.3.
Traditional Chinese Medicine is a centuries-old cultural institution that has the ability to change. More importantly it has, like all cultural institutions, the ability to change how people think.



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