30.09.2013

Chinese general hospital via lrt

The medical device market size in Taiwan was 1.75 billion dollars in 2009, the 4th largerst in Asia, and over 75% of the market is still supplied by imports.
All new medical devices are reviewed and approved by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and Department of Health (DOH) before market access. HTA Division: The Health Technology Assessment Division was officially approved by the Board of CDE on December 20, 2007, and has been 100% funded by the DOH on an annual basis starting in 2008. Regulatory framework for a medical device in Taiwan covers product classification, quality system and GMP manufacturing, registration of products, labeling control, commercial advertisement control, control of clinical investigation, adverse event reporting, and sales and distribution control.
The manufacturer shall first identify if his product is a medical device under the meaning of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act (Article 13), then the device classification shall be determined. AMTAC, BSI PS, DEKRA (KEMA), DGM, G-MED, MEDCERT, MDC, NSAI, SGS UK, TUV PS, TUV Rheinland, and UL UK. Clinical data may also be required for certain Class 3 devices, or devices with new technology, material, and no existing predicate device in Taiwan.
The TFDA requires adverse event reporting and post market surveillance (PMS) program for certain medical devices. The reimbursements of the new medical devices are determined by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI). Between 1998 and 2002, the BNHI phased in a global budgeting systemfor each medical sector (e.g. In 2010, the BNHI launched the Tw-DRGs payment system for certain inpatient diagnosed groups, in which hospitals are reimbursed as a package for the entire treatment of a particular episode for a patient. The new medical device submission process requires manufacturers to complete a New Product Application form after they have received the marketing approval granted by the TFDA.
When assigning a reimbursement price for a new product, the BNHI will compare the new product with similar products currently on the market. In this case, the medical device company will most likely meet their desired profitability in their product’s market. For this outcome, the company may not have reasonable profit margins since the distributors may have to pay the discount to the hospitals.
Periodically (usually every other year), the BNHI puts both drugs and medical devices through an exercise known as the Price-Volume Survey (PVS).
Details on specific data requirements and tools needed to support these decisions (for example health technology assessment, health economic analysis, budget impact, etc.), are included in the documents, whenever applicable. Evidence-based decision-making in Asia-Pacific with rapidly changing health-care systems: Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Xue Grace Chiou, MS,PhD Candidate, Health Policy Administration, School of Public Health, Univ.


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! It was commissioned by the Department of Health (DOH) of Taiwan on July 13, 1998, as a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization.
The MDEC consists of clinical specialists, health economists, material experts, nurses and officers from BNHI.
According to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act Article 13, medical devices mean apparatuses, appliances, instruments and their accessories, fittings, and parts, which are used to diagnose, treat, relieve or prevent human diseases or may have an effect on the structure and function of human bodies. A manufacturer may submit an application for device classification determination to the TFDA if their device class is unknown. Before submission of the product registration, the manufacturer shall meet the requirements of GMP by submitting Quality System Documentation (QSD) Registration.
The product approval license, valid for 5 years, is issued to the Taiwan agent who is authorized to register the product.
There are two reimbursement types for medical devices established by the BNHI: a fee-for-service (FFS) schedule and, Taiwan-Diagnosis Related Groups (Tw-DRGs). However, unlike all other countries, Taiwan is simultaneously and continually setting reimbursement prices for individual medical devices used in the DRGs procedures. Under the Balance Billing program, the NHI system also covers a number of newly developed and more advanced products that provide better health benefits.
The submission form and guidance notes on how to complete it are provided on the BNHI website. Once a product is listed for reimbursement, it cannot switch to the self-paid (non-reimbursed) market.
The additional expenses incurred by the distributors could also impact their ability to promote the product efficiently. The objective is to ensure that reimbursement rates reflect the real prices that hospitals are paying the vendors. However, there is no requirement for the comparative data or source of the data (from a head-to-head RCT, from an indirect comparison of two sets of RCTs involving a common comparator, or from non-randomized studies).
The Coronado and other LCS ships are supposed to fill the role of frigates, which the Navy retired en masse in the late 2000s.
The Department of Medical Devices and Cosmetics, under the TFDA, is responsible for the implementation of the regulations and standards of medical devices, such as implementing quality manufacturing systems for medical devices, implementing GCP inspections, overseeing product registrations and evaluating clinical trials.
The CDE evaluates new drugs and new medical devices for regulatory requirements and offers consultation services to related parties. The major functions of the HTA division are to provide the evidences report to the decision makers in the BNHI for every new drug submitted to the BNHI for reimbursement purposes, and to provide research reports for those temporarily raised issues during DBC appraisal meetings.


Once a product is added to the reimbursement list by the BNHI, its reimbursement price will be determined by the Medical Device Division in the BNHI, and can be used at any of the healthcare facilities in Taiwan.
They are responsible for providing recommendations to the BNHI regarding new medical device reimbursement: whether to list them or not as well as on the presence of any restrictions on coverage. A manufacturer should put into consideration the expiration date of the product license and QSD to ensure that renewal are submitted in porper time for anA  uninterrupted market authorization. The medical expenditure negotiation committee (MENC) sets the budget and distribution plan of a medical sector's medical expenses for each fiscal year. For patients who choose to use more expensive medical devices, the NHI system covers the standard fee it would pay for similar conventional medical devices, while patients cover the additional cost. The Medical Device Experts Committee consists of BNHI officers, physicians, and economists. The main tasks of the CDE include: review of new drug applications, evaluation of pre-marketing approvals and clinical trial protocols for medical devices, review of clinical trial protocols for new drugs, bridging study evaluation, Taiwan's critical path program (of bio-medical product development), and consultation.
For some contentious cases, the expert committee will request an economic evaluation by the Health Technology Assessment Division (HTA Division) within the Center for Drug Evaluation (CDE). Consequently, health fields will provide medical services within the scope of their fixed budget. The Committee has regular meetings to discuss new medical device cases submitted by the providers. The system is primarily funded by the premiums paid collectively by the insured, employers, and governments. Through these, the CDE plays a pivotal role in enhancing the quality and efficiency of drug evaluations for appropriate and timely access to innovative medicine, thus promoting health and welfare of the public. If the total services performed exceed the field's budget quota, the FFS reimbursement ratio would start to deflate, which would shrink payment for each service performed by the medical field.
The Committee is responsible to make two recommendations to the BNHI regarding new medical device reimbursement: listing or not, and any restrictions on coverage. The National Health Insurance system offers a comprehensive and uniform benefits package to all those covered by the program, and with a valid health insurance IC card, the insured have access to more than 18,000 contracted health care facilities around the country, offering comprehensive inpatient and outpatient services, dental services, and traditional Chinese medicine therapies. Once a product has been added to the reimbursement list by the BNHI, its reimbursement price will be determined by the Medical Device Division in BNHI, and it can be used at any healthcare of the facilities in Taiwan. Using the global budget system and fee-for-service mechanism, the healthcare providers claim for services provided.



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