Cancer studies and molecular medicine impact factor

Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology is an interdepartmental program that offers graduate training towards the PhD degree. Our research includes the cytoskeleton, cell surface molecular biology, stem cells, lens, corneal and retinal biology, protein processing and sorting, signal transduction, airway biology, regulation of gene expression in development, podocyte biology, cancer biology, neuromuscular development, malignant transformation, growth factors, epithelial cell biology, organogenesis and tissue repair, pattern formation in early development, RNA localization, mitochondrial molecular biology and cancer therapeutics. There are unique opportunities in the medical school for relating PhD training to clinical problems, especially in the area of cancer. We seek students with superior achievements who have a strong background in science, particularly biochemistry and cell biology. Research by researchers in France has demonstrated for the first time that identifying patterns of gene expression can be used to predict response to therapy in patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer.
Dr Maguy Del Rio, a scientist at the Institut de Recherche en Cancrologie de Montpellier (Montpellier, France), presented a study to the 20th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Geneva today (Wednesday) [1] in which she and her team had identified an 11-gene signature that could be used to separate those patients who would respond to a particular chemotherapy (FOLFIRI leucovorin, fluorouracil and irinotecan) from those who would not.
Dr Del Rio said: "Gene expression signatures are a new class of molecular diagnostic tests for cancer. About half of patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases during the course of their disease. The scientists used microarray analysis to identify gene expression levels in samples taken from 19 colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases who had still not started chemotherapy. Dr Del Rio said: "The fact that we achieved 100% accuracy could be due to our small sample size of 19 patients. At present, the test for the 11-gene signature takes about three days to run, with several steps involved: surgical removal of tumour tissue, histologic validation, RNA extraction, chip hybridization, comparative analysis of gene expression and patient's classification.
Did you know?Research by researchers in France has demonstrated for the first time that identifying patterns of gene expression can be used to predict response to therapy in patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer. Scientists at IRB Barcelona and CSIC have discovered that the combination of two molecular signals determines which cells that have already differentiated can regain their stem cell properties. Their studies on fruit flies advance the field of regenerative medicine and confer a better understanding of processes involved in cancer. Facultative stem cells are increasingly being identified in human tissues and organs, but little is known about them compared to typical stem cells, which have distinct morphological traits. In spite of considerable research efforts around the world, we still do not know the determining factors that confer stem cells their main particular features: capacity to self-renew and to divide and proliferate.
The study, performed with fruit flies, describes a gene that determines whether a specialized cell conserves the capacity to become a stem cell again. The protein E-Cadherin (E-Cad) is a kind of adhesive that keeps cells tightly bound together, thus favouring the organisation of tissues and organs. The cells of an organism interact not only with each other but with the extracellular matrix that surrounds them. Scientists at Michigan State University have discovered a new kind of stem cell, one that could lead to advances in regenerative medicine as well as offer new ways to study birth defects and other reproductive problems. Stem cells are an effective tool for repairing or replacing damaged or diseased tissues, but only if they can be reliably developed from their flexible 'pluripotent' state into a mature 'differentiated' state.
It's summertime, and the fields of Yolo County are filled with ranks of sunflowers, dutifully watching the rising sun.
The cost and environmental impact of producing liquid biofuels and biochemicals as alternatives to petroleum-based products could be significantly reduced, thanks to a new metabolic engineering technique. Scientists have tracked the flight paths of a group of bumblebees throughout their entire lives to find out how they explore their environment and search for food. Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have made a major advance in understanding how the cells of an organism, which all contain the same genetic information, come to be so diverse.
Duke Health-led researchers have discovered new information about the signaling mechanism of cells that could one day help guide development of more specific drug therapies.
A newly-named fossil whale species had superior high-frequency hearing ability, helped in part by the unique shape of inner ear features that have given scientists new clues about the evolution of this specialized sense. Prostate ducts (white spaces) are seen lined with cancer cells (stained purple) with connective tissue (stained blue).
Fred Hutch leads the Pacific Northwest Prostate Cancer Consortium, which is comprised of more than 50 researchers who are conducting studies aimed at unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of prostate cancer and the development of new therapeutic strategies that use precision-medicine approaches to improve survival and reduce treatment-related side effects. Fred Hutch recently launched Mpower, a prostate cancer registry to build community among men, researchers and physicians to build a better understanding of the experiences of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and collect trends that will lead to better diagnosis, treatment and quality of life.
Prostate cancer affects the prostate, a walnut-sized male sex gland located just below the bladder, and occurs most often in men older than 55. The majority of prostate cancers that are detected by screening tend to be small and grow slowly. Prostate cancer ranks as the most common form of cancer among men in the United States and is second only to lung cancer in the number of annual cancer deaths among U.S. Predicting high-risk prostate cancer a€“ Results from a multicenter study coordinated by Fred Hutch researchers indicate that two investigational urine-based biomarkers are associated with prostate cancers that are likely to be aggressive and potentially life-threatening.
Deep-fried foods increase riskA a€“ Regular consumption of deep-fried foods such as French fries, fried chicken, fried fish and doughnuts is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, and the effect appears to be slightly stronger with regard to more aggressive forms of the disease. Omega-3 a€“ A second large, prospective study by scientists at Fred Hutch has confirmed the link between high blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and an increased risk of prostate cancer. Selenium and vitamin E - A multi-center study led by Fred Hutch has found that high-dose supplementation with both the trace element selenium and vitamin E increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Estrogen pathway genesA a€“ Variations in estrogen-related genes may contribute to prostate cancer risk, according to a population-based case-control study conducted by Fred Hutch investigators and colleagues. Family history a€“ The Prostate Cancer Genetic Research Study (PROGRESS) is a nationwide research project exploring why some families have several men, often in multiple generations, who develop prostate cancer. HOXB13 genetic mutationA a€“ An association of a rare HOXB13 gene mutation with prostate cancer risk in the general population suggests that the mutation may be associated with features of more aggressive disease, according to a study co-authored by Drs.
Medication a€“ Fred Hutcha€™s Program in Prostate Cancer Research studies several types of commonly used medications to determine if they affect prostate cancer risk or outcomes.
Statin and decreased mortality risk a€“ Statins taken to lower blood cholesterol levels a€” taken before and at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis are associated with a decrease in risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality, according to a Fred Hutch study conducted by Drs. Metformin a€“ Men taking the diabetes drug metformin had significantly lower risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis, according to a population-based case-control study by Drs.
Obesity a€“A Obesity has a profoundly different effect on prostate cancer risk in African-American as compared to non-Hispanic white men. Tea and risk reduction a€“ Consuming two or more cups of A tea daily reduces the risk of developing prostate cancer, which is the most common form of cancer among men, according to findings from a study conducted by Drs.

Fred Hutch researchers are at the forefront of improving how prostate cancer is detected and diagnosed, with the goal of identifying when the disease is truly lethal. Improving existing detection methods a€“ Measuring a man's prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, level is the most common test for early detection of prostate cancer, but studies have shown the method may detect tumors that would never require treatment while failing to find some aggressive cancers. Tools to determine individual risk and prevent over diagnosis a€“ Fred Hutch and UW researchers have developed a personalized tool that can predict the likelihood of prostate cancer overdiagnosis.
Identifying aggressive prostate cancer a€“ Although most forms of prostate cancer are slow growing, the disease does have aggressive forms that can spread and become life-threatening. Biomarkers a€“ Investigators may have discovered two urine-based biomarkers associated with prostate cancers that are likely to be aggressive and potentially life-threatening among men who choose to delay treatment after diagnosis in favor of a watchful approach.
DNA errors a€“ Researchers have discovered recurrent genetic mistakes that are common to advanced prostate cancer that may contribute to disease progression. Long-term impact of prostate cancer treatments a€“ A study that compared the long-term (15 years) impact of therapy on urinary, bowel and sexual function among men undergoing radical prostatectomy or external-beam radiation therapy found no significant relative differences in disease-specific functional outcomes. Understanding resistance to treatment a€“ A new study shows that a certain type of prostate cancer, after months or years of testosterone deprivation, can develop a lethal sensitivity to testosterone in a new treatment approach a€” a€?bipolar androgen therapya€? a€” which combines high-dose testosterone with androgen-blocking therapy. Patients have access to cancer treatment developed by Fred Hutch at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, our clinical care partner. Clinical trials are vital to the development of innovative treatments for cancer and other related diseases. The MS programs in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and in Biotechnology hold tri-annual poster presentations that showcase student's capstone internship research projects.
The Masters in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology program at Georgetown University is a  basic science program that infuses core concepts of biochemistry and molecular biology as applied to biomedical sciences and biotechnology, providing students with a rigorous and challenging curriculum to succeed in their post-academic and professional endeavors. Core concepts and skills are taught through a sequence of required core courses, with the remaining coursework consisting of advanced electives and special topics courses chosen in consultation with the Program Director.
Our program offers a well-organized intensive internship program that culminates in students presenting their research at tri-annual poster presentation sessions.The four-credit internships are performed with research mentors in various GUMC laboratories on campus or off campus in government agencies such as NIH and FDA, as well as the MD Biotechnology Industry corridor. In order to provide a wide range of current research opportunities, this program is interdepartmental, comprised primarily of the faculty of the Department of Cell Biology and includes additional faculty from several other departments and centers on the medical campus.
The Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center provides a forum for a multidisciplinary approach to cancer research. Graduates of our doctoral program have found careers in research institutions, medicine and biotechnology with most obtaining faculty positions in universities after postdoctoral training.
FOLFIRI is one of the most usually used, first-line therapys for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Dr Del Rio said: "When this happens, it is critical for the success of overall therapy to chose a chemotherapy regime that is most likely to induce a maximal response during the first course of therapy. They followed the patients to see who responded to the chemotherapy and who did not, and, using this information, found a pattern of 11 genes that clearly separated responder and non-responder patients.
Obviously, it is essential to validate and, if necessary, to improved the gene signature in a larger independent cohort of patients. The scientists hope that this process could be speeded up, but the ability to choose the correct first-line therapy is a big step forward. Djabrayan and Jordi Casanova from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and CSIC, have identified two molecular signals and the pathway of events that allows cells in a tissue that are already specialized to undifferentiate into stem cells. Externally, there is no difference between the Tr2 segment, where facultative stem cells are found, and Tr3, which indicates the rest of the cells in the tissue. Using the same model, the scientists now want to investigate which mechanisms allow differentiated cells to maintain their plasticity and how they go from being a differentiated cell to a stem cell and vice versa. Many men with small cancers will not benefit from treatment, because the cancer grows so slowly that it will cause no problems.
These markers could lead to a urine test that could complement prostate biopsy for predicting disease aggression and progression.
Jonathan Wright and colleagues have determined that circumcision before a males first sexual intercourse is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, which may be related to the procedures ability to hinder infection and inflammation that may lead to prostate cancer.A  The study, which included Drs. But importantly, this risk depends upon a mana€™s selenium status before taking the supplements. Discovering the inherited genetic mutations for prostate cancer in families and how they work will hopefully provide new clues to help diagnose, treat, cure and even prevent prostate cancer in future generations. Stanford, Ziding Feng, Peter Nelson and Ulrike Peters that was published in 2010 observed a 21 percent reduction in prostate cancer risk among regular aspirin users.
Stanford showed that obese men who take statins to control their cholesterol, particularly for extended durations, have an increased risk of prostate cancer. Mary Redman and colleagues associated with the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial determined that finasteride (Proscar), a common therapy for the treatment of an enlarged prostate or BPH, helped reduce the incidence of prostate cancer by about 25 percent. Obesity in black men substantially increases the risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer, while obesity in white men moderately reduces the risk of low-grade cancer and only slightly increases the risk of high-grade cancer. A significant portion of the Fred Hutcha€™s research in prostate cancer is dedicated to diagnosing aggressive forms the disease and identifying indicators of its presence or development.
The results were produced by the Prostate Active Surveillance Study, a multicenter study coordinated by Fred Hutch and lead by principal investigator Dr. Janet Stanford and an international team of scientists have identified five inherited genetic variants strongly associated with aggressive, lethal prostate cancer.
Mary Redmand and colleagues found that participants who took finasteride (Proscar), a common therapy for the treatment of enlarged prostate, had their high grade tumors detected earlier and at a less extensive stage.
Peter Nelson are using genetic information of metastatic prostate cancer to develop advanced, more precise treatments.
Valeri Vasioukhin and colleagues have uncovered a key driver behind the progression of prostate cancer a€” a discovery that could spawn new treatments to prevent the cancer's spread and improve survival rates.
Janet Stanford and colleagues have shown that survival rates are comparable for the two major treatments for prostate cancer a€” radiation and prostate-removal surgery. Stanford and colleagues also completed the first comprehensive study of sexual and urinary function among men who underwent radical prostatectomy a€” that is, surgery to remove the entire prostate a€” for early-stage cancer. Our program is targeted to those interested in pursuing academic, medical, or biotechnology industry research careers, those who wish to enhance their current careers by reinforcing their biomedical backgrounds, those making career shifts to positions that require additional background in biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as those seeking advanced study in preparation for entry into Ph. At least 30 graduate credits with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater are required for the MS degree. Trainees in the program in recent years have been drawn from all parts of North America and Europe, together with Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

It is more difficult to predict responses to anticancer drugs than it is to predict prognosis.
It is a major clinical challenge to identify a subset of patients who could benefit from a particular chemotherapy, and to identify those who will not and therefore need to be treated using an alternative therapy". They designed a mathematical model that was able to predict and classify the eight responding and 11 non-responding patients with 100% accuracy.
The study offers new information about how cells become differentiated and how this type of facultative stem cell is activated, which is of particular interest in cell reprogramming, regenerative medicine, and in understanding cancer.
Then, when the transition occurs, a second signal is triggered by hormones that prompts the reactivation of the stem cell programme. Snoo and Dpp Act as Spatial and Temporal Regulators Respectively of Adult Progenitor Cells in the Drosophila Trachea, PLOS Genetics (2016). Prostate cancer development follows a multistage process, as demonstrated by the identification of precursors of prostatic adenocarcinoma such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH). But it isn't yetA possible to determine which prostate cancers will grow rapidly, making treatment decisions very difficult.
Daniel Lin and Janet Stanford, included 3,399 men and determined that circumcised men were 15 percent less likely to develop prostate cancer than uncircumcised men. Alan Kristal and colleagues, found indications that high concentrations of EPA, DPA and DHA, the three anti-inflammatory and metabolically related fatty acids derived from fatty fish and fish-oil supplements, are associated with a 71 percent increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. A whole-exome sequencing project in multiple members of selected hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) families recently revealed two genetic mutations that may contribute to risk of HPC. Inflammation may play in the development of prostate cancer, so the use of aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a growing focus for scientists and requires additional research. The study also observed that statins taken before or at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis were unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence or progression.
Additionally, researchers found that participants who took finasteride and did develop high-grade cancer had their tumors detected earlier and at a less extensive stage. The study, published in 2013, joins a growing body of research linking tea consumption to reduced prostate cancer risk. Ruth Etzioni and colleagues were among the first to formally evaluate the test's ability to distinguish between true cancers and benign conditions. The discovery could lead to a simple blood test that would help determine which men should receive the most aggressive treatment options. Peter Nelson, along with colleagues from the Hutch and University of Washington, also identified several instances of genetic a€?hypermutationa€? that could cause the cancer to become resistant to therapies commonly used to slow the progression of advanced prostate cancer.
The research, conducted through the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, also discovered finasteride helped reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. Researchers are identifying the genomic alterations that my indicate sensitivity to specific treatments.
Stanford, David Penson and collaborators from the Hutchinson Center and five other cancer centers. The researchers found that a protein called hepsin caused prostate-tumor cells to lose their grip from the surrounding tissue and spread from the prostate to bone, lung and liver.
The research shows that radiation therapy is better for avoiding urinary incontinence and impotence, but surgery is better for avoiding complications of bowel function.
The team found the impotence rate among these men was much higher than previously reported. Our courses expose students to advanced methods in biochemistry, molecular biology and cell biology, laboratory research and literature-based research, and include a significant number of “hands on” lab-based courses that develop expertise in biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and biotechnology concepts and skills. However, in the future it could be used to identify a subset of patients would could benefit from chemotherapy and lead to an improvement in response to metastatic therapy for colorectal cancer. This signal reaches all cells in the tissue, but only those that have been marked previously with the spatial signal are reactivated as stem cells. Most prostate cancer develops from a background of proliferative but seemingly benign epithelium.
Additional research may assess genetic variants in genes that are part of this pathway in specific subsets of patients with particular environmental exposures or genetic backgrounds.
The studya€™s findings warrant further investigation, particularly since some studies have suggested that statins may be associated with reducing cancer risk. Wright is now studying metformin as a cancer therapy as well as the druga€™s effect at the tissue level. Alan Kristal and Wendy Barrington found that black men who are obese (a body-mass index of 35 or higher) had a 122 percent increased risk of low-grade and an 81 percent increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer compared to those who were of normal weight (a BMI of 25 or lower).
They have concluded that a variation on the PSA test that uses two types of PSA measurements could improve the test's accuracy for men with borderline-normal total PSA levels, potentially leading to a significant drop in medical costs and complications for this group of men. The discovery of these genetic mutations should provide clues that illuminate why some prostate cancers are lethal, and potentially could be used to develop screening tests for early detection or drug targets to slow or halt cancer growth.
This and our prior study [2] are the first that demonstrate the utility of gene expression profiling for the prediction of response in colorectal patients".
Few studies have been carried out on the proliferative stage, but some epigenetic and genome abnormalities have been found. In addition, Center investigators are collaborating with multiple groups in the discovery and validation of genetic markers called SNPs that are associated with risk of developing prostate cancer in both HPC families and among men without a strong family history. Stanford, co-director of the Fred Hutcha€™s Program in Prostate Cancer Research, is planning additional studies with collaborators to better understand the research findings. More abnormalities have been found at the cancer precursor stage but there is still a lack of association of this stage of tumourigenesis with specific genes. Stanford contributes to the African American Genome-wide Association Study and the international PRACTICAL Study that recently validated 23 SNPs that are associated with risk of developing prostate cancer.
Several genes appear to be associated with invasion or metastasis development, including those regulated by epigenetic changes (e.g.

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