Cancer education journals youtube

Earlier this year, the AAFP sent a letter requesting that CMS initiate a national coverage analysis (NCA) for cervical cancer screening in women ages 30-65 that would involve a combination of cytology (Pap smear) and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every five years -- and the agency now has responded to that request in the affirmative. The AAFP currently recommends cervical cancer screening with Pap smear every three years in women ages 21-65 or with a combination of Pap smear and HPV testing every five years for women ages 30-65 who want to lengthen the screening interval. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Over the past year, IBM executives have come to believe that Watson represents the first machine of the third computer age.
This fall, after six months of teaching their treatment guidelines to Watson, the doctors at Sloan-Kettering will begin testing the IBM machine on real patients. Within a few years, for instance, Watson may be reaching well beyond oncology to assist patients suffering from any chronic disease and help general practitioners make diagnoses in their offices. Saxena now commands a team of about 200 people who are working to adapt Watson's skills for various IBM clients.
Over the past year, IBM executives have come to believe that Watson represents the first machine of the third computer age, a category now referred to within the company as cognitive computing. One result of information overload is a high rate of misdiagnosis and consequently incorrect treatment. To understand how Watson figures into the company's culture of ideas, or to see how it represents the kind of large-scale innovation that arguably lies beyond the capabilities of any startup, it helps to understand what the company actually does these days.
Watson's origins can arguably be traced back some years to a more modest annual initiative IBM calls the Global Technology Outlook, or GTO. Like Big Data or cloud computing, analytics is one of those contemporary catchphrases that everyone talks about but no one pauses to define.
Watson, too, fits into Meyerson's conception of analytics, though it aims to change not the future of a traffic jam but of illness and investing. I asked a number of people, both within IBM and outside of it, whether other organizations could have built this machine first.
From the start, the team that originally built Watson under David Ferrucci has worked out of a big room on the second floor of IBM's Hawthorne Labs in Westchester County, New York. Such is the course of technology: Electronic tools initially available only to the elite grow ever faster, smaller, cheaper. We have Provide the prestigious academic journal reviewer's team from various universities, colleges private or government sector, and Highly reputed company. InfoBase Index is a comprehensive, multipurpose database covering scholarly literature from all over the world. InfoBase Index indexes articles from all over the world, with the database growing every day. Most of the journal titles are peer-reviewed, with new journal titles being added to the collection regularly. InfoBase Index aims at increasing the visibility of open access scholarly journals, thereby promoting their increased usage and impact. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Our much-loved friend and colleague, Brenda Keogh, died recently after a brave battle with cancer.
Just yesterday, my daughter aged 17 years told me about her plans to use a puppet to explain to primary pupils about the importance of oral hygiene.
This issue provides a clinical overview of deep venous thrombosis, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and patient information.
The Academy recommends against screening for cervical cancer with HPV testing alone or in combination with a Pap smear in women younger than age 30. In this case, the task force gave an A ranking to its recommendation regarding combined HPV-Pap smear screening for these women, so it fits this CMS criterion.
17, the AAFP sent a follow-up letter to CMS praising the agency's decision to consider expanding its cervical cancer screening coverage.
Now Watson is poised to change the way human beings make decisions about medicine, finance, and work. Then he referred the patient to Mark Kris, an oncologist at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York. She happens to be a character within an app that IBM has created for Watson, its new computer. Watson has already consulted the latest medical literature, and it's been trained by the best cancer doctors in the world.
The initial goal is to help oncologists make better decisions for cancer treatment; eventually, the computer will also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of other chronic diseases. Watson then springs into action, using its massively parallel processors to review millions of pages of text in seconds. He and I are discussing his progress over lunch one day near IBM's upstate New York headquarters when he leans back and tells me that after creating two successful tech startups, both of which he sold (the second to IBM), his current job is far and away the most meaningful endeavor of his life. As Kelly describes it, the first generation of computers were tabulating machines that added up figures. IBM has fine-tuned its software and algorithms for medical applications (or, in the case of Citibank, financial services applications).
Some are on the premises of IBM clients, as with the insurer Wellpoint, while others are cloud based, which is how hospitals such as Sloan-Kettering will access Watson. The best computers of today have the extraordinary processing power needed to create, say, complex supply chains for building a new automobile or planning a satellite launch. By some estimates, Saxena tells me, 20% of initial diagnoses of cancer are eventually altered.
To delve into IBM's recent research, though, is to wonder if our perception of technological leadership sometimes suffers from the distortions of branding and familiarity.
IBM has operations in 172 countries and an organizational chart that resembles a vast Soviet bureaucracy.

A relentless focus on earnings and cost cutting has led to a significant offshoring of domestic jobs, and a vocal corps of disillusioned or laid-off IBMers regularly take to the web to lament that the company's best days are behind it. One way IBM tries to infuse the troops with a sense of mission is through its periodic attempts to create for itself a Grand Challenge, such as the construction of Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer, or, more recently, Watson.
Anyone at IBM can contribute to the outlook, and most of the results are eventually made public. Bernie Meyerson, IBM's VP of innovation, argues that the great promise of analytics is not just to spot trends or glean information for boosting sales but to use computers and software to change the future. He isn't sure whether selling Watson as a computer or marketing it as a service will make the most sense.
Hawthorne is a large glass cube of a building situated about 30 miles north of New York City. When I ask Jaime Carbonell, a computer science professor at Carnegie Mellon, he says he has no doubt the impact of Watson will be significant.
Kelly tells me he believes that eventually Watson will shrink to the size of a handheld device. All sorts of intriguing scenarios are presented to me—for instance, that Watson will soon analyze not just words but images, such as MRIs and EKGs. With InfoBase’s broad-ranging, authoritative coverage, you can be confident that you are not missing any critical information.
Brenda was a great supporter of ASE and an inspiration to all of those involved in primary science education. Here all the Millgate House publications; there, sitting on the couch, Jemima (or is it Jessica?) the puppet, given to me, as were many of the publications, by Brenda, one of the most generous souls one could hope to meet. It all started in a session at the ASE conference (where else?) where Brenda and Stuart ran a session about using cartoons in primary science. Instantly, I was reminded of wonderful workshops I'd attended at Science on Stage with "Ricky". The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program).
Currently, Medicare covers a screening pelvic examination and Pap test for all beneficiaries at 12- to 24-month intervals depending on specific risk factors. CMS said it is particularly interested in comments that include published clinical studies and other scientific information to provide evidential support for improving short- and long-term outcomes related to HPV screening. Seated alongside me in his office on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, Kris is showing me Ms. Watson's special talent, its reason for being, is a singular ability to grasp the intricacies of human language and answer exceedingly difficult questions. They believed Watson could help doctors make diagnoses and, even more important, select treatments.
Eventually, he thinks, Watson could provide any doctor anywhere with the world's best second opinion. Technicians feed Watson medical textbooks and journals, patient histories, and treatment guidelines.
It explores the patient's medical history, medications, and other existing conditions. Watson has shrunk, too, from a row of about a dozen server racks that would have filled a small bedroom to an assemblage about the size of a double-door refrigerator. This cache includes textbooks, medical journals, patient records, and nurse and doctor evaluations.
IBM has also had its share of technological stumbles, apparently bungling several high-profile government contracts in recent years (in Texas and Indiana, for example) that left the company embroiled in disagreements with unhappy clients.
The GTO tries to identify future business opportunities by putting a spotlight on various technology trends.
Inside the Watson work space are five fake wood-grained tables, each home to a group of computer engineers who sit around and alternately immerse themselves in their screens or break to discuss coding with a neighbor. Randy Katz, a computer science professor at UC Berkeley, sees a more approachable Watson, too. Watson has not yet saved a life or a dollar of medical costs, or added anything, really, to IBM's bottom line. The room was packed out – all floor and wall space was taken up and the door at the back was held open to let those in corridors hear whatever they could of what was going on inside. Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers.
Current coverage does not include HPV testing, even though HPV is associated with most cases of cervical cancer. Specifically, they thought Watson could be the perfect tool to chart the complex decision trees that cancer specialists like Kris negotiate every day as they weigh treatment options that might involve radiation, surgery, and any of countless chemotherapy drugs. It then combines this information with recent data from the patient's medical tests and may comb through studies of patient groups at Sloan-Kettering who have had similar types of cancer. These computers, such as Watson, can recognize important content within language, both written and spoken. But most of the world's information is more ambiguous and less precise and lies beyond their reckoning. In fact, medicine embodies so much unstructured information that its proliferation has, by the account of many medical professionals, far outstripped the ability of doctors to keep up.
And though these flare-ups may be uncommon, the company otherwise rarely quickens the pulse, with a long-standing reputation for being slow, steady, reliable, and maybe a little dull. Recently, at a public event, Meyerson was asked if IBM missed out by not building a tablet to compete with the iPad. Medical Licensing Examination, the complex test all med-school graduates must take before practicing.
It has not yet faced its resistors—doctors who may find the technology objectionable and slow its adoption.

It is such a saddening thought that these ideas and products were the output of an amazingly creative partnership, of which half is no more: Brenda and Stuart. Brenda and Stuart passed round sheets of A4 paper with very simple stick figure pictures and the now-famous speech bubbles offering different views on science ideas. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Usually, authorizations are evaluated by a team of trained nurses and can sometimes take weeks to come through.
What is more, Watson will be able to excavate facts beyond the ken of Sloan-Kettering's current lineup of specialists. IBM has been granted more patents than any other company in the world for 19 years in a row. He responded that as part of its Smarter Cities Initiative, IBM had just spent several years gathering all of the data on car transportation in Singapore; it then fed the data into a model it had built to predict the time and location of traffic jams. Saxena seems certain that Watson will be a multibillion-dollar business, though he will only go so far as to say that by 2015, IBM will have annual revenues of about $16 billion from its analytics portfolio, of which Watson will be a part. The company had its vast corporate lab, huge sums it was ready to invest, a profound expertise in hardware as well as software, and a collaborative culture that brought in lots of help from academia.
Like cell phones, which were big, clumsy things you could barely carry at first." Was there a year, or month, or day, he asks, when cell phones began to change the world? The room immediately became extremely animated – everyone chatting at once and debating and discussing science concepts.
Watson—with the goal of creating a question-and-answer technology that would be more authoritative and powerful than anything on the planet.
It can read all of the world's medical journals in less time than it takes a physician to drink a cup of coffee. Watsonizing the process would speed it up—a boon for a doctor like Kris, who now must wait while assistants exchange faxes with insurers before he can get clearance for any expensive tests. And perhaps most important, they can learn, so they improve without constant human instruction. You could wander around Watson and regard its blinking lights, as I did on a quiet midsummer afternoon at IBM's research labs, and not think something unusual is happening inside it. Yet since getting out of the laptop business in 2004, it has not produced a single product that it sells directly to the consumer. The credential would no doubt help Watson's standing with health insurers, doctors, and patients, too.
Together they have been through such an ordeal in recent years, as Stuart so memorably hinted in his address at the conference dinner. My group had one on light and shadows and I can remember a clear sense of having my somewhat woolly thinking challenged and broadened. The initial objective of the Watson group was simple: to win in the game show Jeopardy!, something Watson famously achieved in February 2011. In a few seconds, Watson offers three possible courses of chemotherapy, charted as bars with varying levels of confidence—one choice above 90% and two above 80%. At its main research center in Yorktown Heights, New York, a jet-age dream of glass curtain walls and rusticated stone designed by the Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen, IBM employs the bulk of what is likely the world's largest mathematics department, with 300 members. Indeed, Ferrucci, who sits off to the side, is a suburban dad who looks like he'd be just as comfortable standing in front of a grill with a basting brush as he is overseeing his team. It was obvious that Brenda and Stuart were onto something that was really going to help primary teachers and their pupils. Yet the group had a far more important goal: to turn Watson into a business, hopefully one of some scale. In the lingo of computer science, that makes the machine probabilistic rather than deterministic.
So any company that aspired to manage the data of all the world's businesses would today be able to analyze only a small part of it. The walls here are covered with huge whiteboards crammed with the hieroglyphics of computer science. So starting in late 2009, a business development team at IBM began holding meetings outside the company in an effort to understand the ultimate worth of this new technology. One might say this trait gives Watson a humanizing glow of humility and diminishes concerns that it marks a stride toward a computer-led dystopia. One person at IBM likens Watson's process to (1) gathering hundreds or thousands of possible solutions from a vast data bank, (2) pouring them into a giant funnel, (3) stirring with a dash of algorithms, and (4) letting only the best drip out of the bottom. Without the staff at Sloan-Kettering, where doctors like Mark Kris teach it oncology, Watson would not be nearly so smart.
Watson, in IBM's marketing schema, is here to help with our questions, rather than solve them. And it's precisely this facility that explains why IBM sees such a rich business opportunity here.
It so happens that cancer patients born in East Asia who have never smoked often have a particular mutation that responds well to a medication by the name of Erlotinib. Or it might get all sorts of things wrong, like Siri does, except you'll be looking not for a pizza parlor but for a tumor. Throughout it all Brenda was a joy to work with - knowledgeable, thoughtful and extremely hard-working. Very sadly many of the changes that we made in August did not make it through to the final cut but the new curriculum is very much better than it was.

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Comments to «Cancer education journals youtube»

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