08.08.2015

Cancer cell journal ranking

Smokers who've received a clean bill of health from their doctor may believe cigarettes haven't harmed their lungs.
The study, published today in the journal Stem Cell, compared cells that line the airway from healthy nonsmokers with those from smokers with no detectable lung disease.
The researchers found that in the cells lining the airways of the smokers's lungs, human embryonic stem cell genes had been turned on. This loss of control allows cancerous cells to multiply without restraint and enables them to migrate to other organs because the genetic programming that keeps them on task is in disarray. In the study, 21 healthy nonsmokers were compared to 31 smokers who had no lung disease symptoms and had normal X-rays as well as normal chest examinations.
The results of a prospective study showed that the risk of developing melanoma is higher for white women with a history of strong sun exposure during childhood and adolescence, rather than adulthood.
Women who had at least five strong sunburns accompanied by blistering between the ages of 15 and 20 had a 68% increased relative risk for nonmelanoma skin cancers and an 80% increased relative risk for melanoma. However, a new study by researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College has found that even smokers who seem healthy have damaged airway cells, with characteristics similar to cells found in aggressive lung cancer.
The smokers' cells showed early signs of impairment, similar to that found in lung cancer -- providing evidence that smoking causes harm, even when there is no clinical evidence that anything is wrong.
These are genes that are normally expressed in developing embryos -- soon after eggs are fertilized -- before cells are programmed with their specific assignment.


Although all of the body's cells contain the same genes, genes are only "turned on" for each cell's defined task. It doesn't necessarily mean you will develop cancer, but that the soil is fertile to develop cancer", says Dr. All individuals were evaluated at Weill Cornell's Clinical and Translational Science Center and Department of Genetic Medicine Clinical Research Facility.
Understanding these very early events will give us clues and help us develop ways to protect the lungs." said Dr.
For nonmelanoma skin cancers—basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)—exposure during both childhood and adulthood appear to be important. During adulthood (past the age of 20), cumulative exposure to high amounts of ultraviolet (UV) radiation had different effects on skin cancer risk.
Therefore, healthy lung cells only express genes related to lung function, while brain cells express brain-specific genes. By sending a thin tube called a bronchoscope and a fine brush into the lungs, investigators gently brushed the inside of the airways to collect cells from the airway's lining. The study followed 108,916 women in the United States as part of the Nurses’ Health Study II and was published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
The women with the highest cumulative exposure to UV radiation during adulthood had the same risk of melanoma as women with the lowest cumulative UV exposure (P = .38).


Researchers examined these cells, called the airway epithelium, which come into contact with cigarette smoke and are where cancer begins, Dr.
The women filled out a medical and sun exposure questionnaire at the time of enrollment and updated their health records every 2 years, which included family history, use of tanning beds, sun exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index. The study took into account the sun exposure in different US geographies in order to calculate the cumulative UV exposure per participant.Among the study participants, 779 were diagnosed with melanoma (including 445 with invasive disease), 6,955 with BCC, and 880 with SCC during the study period.
Twenty-four percent of the women said that they had painful blistering sunburns prior to age 20, and about 24% had a history of using tanning beds.Family history was a significant risk factor for melanoma.
For BCC, the number of blistering sunburns between the ages of 15 and 20 years was a risk factor, while sunburn reaction during childhood and adolescence was an additional risk factor for SCC. Sunburn reaction in childhood and adolescence, red hair, and the number of blistering sunburns between the ages of 15 and 20 years were all factors able to predict risk of all three types of skin cancer.The finding that cumulative UV exposure correlates with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancers is consistent with previous studies, according to Abrar A.



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