19.11.2015

Australian college of natural medicine box hill hospital

In November 2004, the National Museum of Australia announced the acquisition of a collection from the Springfield property near Goulburn, New South Wales. First settled by William Pitt Faithfull in 1828, the estate, which became known as Springfield a decade later, grew over the generations to become a successful and profitable sheep stud.
Throughout Florence's many decades at Springfield, the house was not renovated, and she threw nothing away.
The Museum was delighted with this substantial gift that spanned a large part of Australia's colonial history. The collection is one of the largest and most wide-ranging to have been gifted to the National Museum. There is no other collection in the National Historical Collection [which makes up the bulk of the Museum's collections] to match the Springfield Collection in terms of diversity of material, temporal coverage, strength of provenance or relevance to the National Museum's collecting priorities. The large number of objects from one family can now be used to illustrate themes and stories from different times over the last 170 years.
A medicine chest in the collection was the trigger for my research into the family and its experiences of medical training and serious illness. This is an English domestic medicine chest, made in large quantities from 1820 to about 1900, and in common use during that time.[10] Medicine chests could be purchased from chemists or by mail order and were advertised for the use of 'clergymen, private families, heads of schools and persons emigrating',[11] among others. Knowledge of diseases and the ways in which they are treated have changed substantially in the last one hundred and sixty years. The main objective of medical treatment at this time was to purge the body of acquired destructive manifestations and restore a healthy balance. By the 1850s, germ theory was beginning to be understood.[16] For example, in 1854 John Snow investigated an outbreak of cholera in London and discovered the contagion originated from one water pump.
Before the nineteenth century, responsibility for keeping the family healthy and for treating sickness usually fell to the mother. Though not formally medically trained, the Springfield women recorded and compiled recipes for remedies for family ailments. The remedies that Mary Faithfull prepared would have been used in caring for her nine children, all of whom lived to be adults, which was no mean feat in this period when infant mortality was high.[19] Mary Faithfull, it seems, had the commonsense, expertise and family support to have successfully nurtured her children through their most vulnerable years.
The Faithfull family (and others) used family recipes for common ailments and to promote good health.
My research into the medicines within the chest, and the suppliers of those medicines, gradually broadened. Robert Lionel Faithfull was born at Springfield in July 1853, the sixth child and fifth son of William Pitt and Mary Faithfull. Robert had been prompted to leave Australia as he wished to study homeopathy, and believed the American course was the best at that time. Robert Faithfull left Springfield for Goulburn on 22 August 1876, travelled by train to Sydney, and sailed on the SS City of Sydney three days later.[28] The ship took a month to reach San Francisco via Auckland and Honolulu.
It did not take Robert long to discover that studying homeopathy would not qualify him to practise general medicine.
The letters of Robert Faithfull in the National Museum of Australia depict vividly the experiences of a young Australian medical student living in New York, far from his home on the Goulburn Plains in New South Wales.[36] His letters are calm and focused, yet often upbeat, despite his admissions of homesickness.
Robert wrote in great detail about his travels, though he said little about the city of New York.
In 1880 Robert received worrying news from the family: his brother Reginald had developed tuberculosis. Prior to his illness, Reginald Faithfull played a prominent role in managing his family's properties at Springfield and Brewarranna, near Narrandera, New South Wales. Reginald kept work diaries from 1868, when he was 18, until 1880, when he was 30 and diagnosed with tuberculosis.
Like many other healthy young adults of the time, Reginald had developed pulmonary tuberculosis — also named phthisis, consumption or the 'white plague' (as opposed to the bubonic , or 'black' plague).
In the eyes of his family, Robert's training had made him supremely qualified to care for his brother. In the 1880s, Brewarranna, on the banks of the Murrumbidgee River, was described as 'a compact run with long frontages, excellent red gum flats, extensive swampy plains of tall spike rush and shady pine ridges to which stock might escape during the floods'.[48] The land had improved since Reginald had reported in 1877 that cattle were dying in the drought and the property should be fenced to stop neighbours' stock straying onto the land, where there was good access to water, but there were few of the props of a civilised life or the good food of home.
The summer was spent with the family at Springfield, and Robert and Reginald returned to Brewarranna in April 1882.
The last letter from Robert at Brewarranna was to his aunt Ann Deane, dated twice, the 20 May 1882 and also 3 June, just six days before Reginald's death. A one-page undated document, titled 'Reginald's last wishes', is signed by Montague (Monty) Faithfull and George Faithfull.
Robert stayed in Australia for over a year after Reginald's death and left Sydney in October 1883, on his way to New York via San Francisco, to resume his studies. Through the portal of the medicine chest various medical aspects of medical history have been featured in this paper, aspects that could provide the basis for a fascinating museum display on personal experiences of medicine in the 19th century.
The Springfield collections are a rich source of material items for display, including household items of all sizes, shearing gear, clothing, portraits, farm ledgers, letters and diaries. The photographs and portraits offer stiff snapshots in time, an exterior view without revealing the inner person. The clothing and textiles help to put together a more three-dimensional, material picture of the owner and by extension, the family. In this way, and through this store of objects and papers, an exhibition with the medicine chest as the central object can illustrate the rich strands of the family and colonial histories. The medicine chest is an attractive object of wood, glass, velvet, powders and coloured liquids. Grey powder mercury and chalk laxative for adults, laxative while teething for children, syphilis Not listed.
Ipecacuanha dried root or rhizome of Cephaelis ipecacuanha expectorant, to induce vomiting and diarrhoea 'An emetic of ipecacuanha is useful in asthmatic complaints, shortness of breath, and in looseness and weakness of the bowels. Powdered rhubarb dried rhizome of Rheum palmatum purgative, used in many proprietary medicines sold as aperients 'This is a mild purgative in weak and delicate habits. Essence of peppermint distillation of Mentha piperita flowering tops carminative (helps to expel wind); purgative preparations to prevent griping 'The use of this medicine is to prepare peppermint-water. Elixir of vitriol sulphuric acid 7% in alcohol, tincture of ginger and spirits of cinnamon added astringent in treating diarrhoea and cholera 'A medicine of very considerable importance. Blue pill pill of metallic mercury finely dispersed in syrup syphilis Listed as treatment for Lues venerea (syphilis) but not in index. Grey powder mercury and chalk (duplicate) laxative, for teething and for syphilis Not listed.
James' powder antimony trioxide, calcium phosphate expectorant, diaphoretic 'Useful in fevers, colds and rheumatism. 1 Advertisement for the school dated September 1838, by Sydney printer James Tegg, Faithfull Family papers, National Library of Australia (henceforth NLA), MS 1146, Box 38. 2 C Crilly, 'Settlers and settling in', Friends of the National Museum Magazine, September 2006, p. 3 Another prized collection object, the Tirranna Picnic Race Club Challenge Cup, is another link. 7 'Statement of significance for the Springfield collection', National Museum of Australia (henceforth NMA). 8 Information on the medicine chest collection from Ann Brothers, curator (to 2008) of the Medical History Museum in the Johnstone-Need Medical History Unit, University of Melbourne. 12 The location of the scales and weights, why they were discarded and how they were lost are no longer known.
13 Armidale is a town several hundred kilometres north of Goulburn, on the New England Tableland. 14 The sulpha drug sulphanilamide and its derivatives, used extensively in the chemotherapy of bacterial infections. 15 A scarificator is an instrument used in scarifying (making a number of small punctures or incisions in the superficial layer of the skin) comprising a series of small concealed lancet points which may be brought into action by pressure on a trigger: MacNalty, Butterworths, p. 16 Alexander Gordon, in his Treatise on Puerperal Fever of Aberdeen (1795) reasoned that the fever was spread by the doctor or midwife. 17 It was not until 1885 that Sydney University, in the face of fierce opposition, admitted its first female medical student. 21 S Mossman & T Bannister (1853), quoted in Philippa Martyr, Paradise of Quacks, Macleay Press, Sydney, p. 22 S Tazewell, 'The story of Goulburn pharmacies', in Goulburn and District Historical Society Bulletin, July 1985, no. 23 AJ Proust (ed.), History of Medicine in Canberra and Queanbeyan and their Hospitals, Brolga Press Pty Ltd, Gundaroo, NSW, 1994, p.
41 Reginald Faithfull diary entries, 19 August 1869, 21 January 1872, 1 October 1868, NLA, MS1146, Box 21. 42 Reginald Faithfull diary entries, 5 February 1879, NLA, MS1146, Box 22; 20 March 1875, NLA, MS1146, Box 21. 44 Robert recommended Dr Fischer who had qualifications from New York and London and was also versed in homeopathy. 45 FB Smith, 'The first health transition in Australia 1880–1910', quoted in Jalland, Australian Ways of Death, p.
47 Drugs and their uses compiled from information from Geoff Miller, pharmacy historian and Mrs Isabella Beeton, 'The doctor', in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, Chancellor Press, London, 1982 [1861], Chapter 43: The Doctor.
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We are also active on social media, particularly LinkedIn, so please follow us to keep track of what we're up to. A range of works designed for ACNM, which was rebranded in 2009 to become Endeavour College of Natural Health.
Endeavour College of Natural Health formerly Australian College of Natural Medicine was established in 1975. Providing the highest standard of education, the most informed curriculum and constant expansion, Endeavour College of Natural Health is Australia's pre-eminent provider of education to the Natural Health sector and is committed to the future and success of Natural Health both in Australia and internationally. Over 150,000 international students from approximately 140 nations come to Australia to study every year and this number continues to grow.
Australia provides a relaxed environment for work or study, the locals are friendly and accepting of all cultures. The education in Australia has a reputation of being at a very high standard and at an affordable price in comparison to other Western countries such as the UK and USA.


You have opportunities to explore the unique wildlife, Aboriginal culture, the outback and other spectacular environments. Alternative medicine is taught in more than 50 per cent of US medical schools and 60 percent of US medical student participants want more education related to CAM during their time in medical school. Complementary and alternative medicine is used by more than 100 million EU citizens, 9 million of whom live in the UK. The percentage of Japanese respondents who had used at least one CAM therapy in the past 12 months was greater than those who had used orthodox Western medicine (76% vs 65.6%). Source: nationwide, random sampled and population weighted telephone survey by Tsukuba College of Technology Clinic, Japan. 44% of Endeavour College alumni working in clinical practice either own or operate a clinical practice as a sole trader or in partnership compared with 26% of respondents who worked for a clinic they did not own. The largest Natural Health College in the Southern Hemisphere with six campuses across Australia (five campuses available to international students - Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Gold Coast and Perth).
Offering four Bachelor of Health Science Degrees that ensure graduates have an evidence based degree with a complementary medicine modality.
Endeavour are frontrunners in the development and deployment of Online Learning which means engaging and productive learning. We offer onshore studies in Higher Education and Vocational Education and Training as well as offshore studies in Vocational Education Training. Australia has the world's 3rd largest ocean territory, spanning three oceans and covering around 12 million square kilometres. During my study at Endeavour College in Sydney I felt extremely supported by the whole team. Over 200 different languages and dialects are spoken in Australia including 45 Indigenous languages. Australia's lifestyle reflects its mainly Western origins, but Australia is also a multicultural society which has been enriched by over six million settlers from almost 200 nations.
Glazed entry foyer space incorporates interactive displays and a 200 seat public lecture theatre. Without doubt it is one of the most comprehensive and important collections of pastoral and domestic objects that the Museum has acquired. In 1844 Faithfull married Mary Deane who had migrated with her mother, sister, brother and nephew from Devon in England.
In 1857, a large brick two-storey house was built with a three-storey square tower over the entrance.
The Springfield merino stud collection comprises 170 objects relating to the pastoral property and the merino stud. As a whole, the collection reflects issues identified in all of the Collecting Domains of the Museum's current Collection Development Framework, from 'Interaction with the Environment' (Collecting Domain No 1) to 'Building Australia' (Collecting Domain No 8).
Indeed, the clothing is regarded as exceptional by the historians, textile conservators and curators who have viewed it. These primary sources tell of values and attitudes, as well as fashions and links to the land.
Talking with other curators, also working on the collection, helped to fit the object into the family jigsaw. In the 1850s, antiseptic, preventative measures (other than for smallpox), sulpha drugs and antibiotics were miracles yet to be discovered.[14] Medicine was still considered as much an art as a profession. Mary Faithfull used a hardback exercise book, with marbled covers and light brown binding, to record an assortment of intermingled recipes for food, medicines and household chores.[18] As well as recipes for bread, cakes, desserts and sauces, it includes proven family recipes for mixtures such as furniture polish, waterproofing for boots and 'a good ant destroyer'.
Very likely Mary's mother, who had successfully raised seven children, had passed on her knowledge, as some of the recipes in the family recipe book are written in her handwriting. They had the advantages of good food and clean living conditions, as well presumably as good genes: Mary and Ann lived into their 80s, and William Pitt Faithfull nearly made it to 90. More general research into nineteenth-century health leads to some interesting stories, at times gruesome, at others, poignant.
He could have followed a course in general medicine closer to home at Melbourne University, but not in Sydney.
He was thrilled to be taught by some of the professors whose books had been recommended texts at the Homeopathic College. In one of his first letters written from New York, in 1876, he had already moved from his hotel to lodgings in central Manhattan, at 43 West 24th Street.
He was more interested in the seeds, grasses and livestock he observed at the Staten Island farm of the Cameron family, who had befriended him.
Late in the year he returned to Springfield to look after his brother, hoping that his qualifications and expertise would help Reginald to regain his health. His decline due to tuberculosis provides a glimpse into a documented case of illness in the family, and explores the part that various members, particularly Robert Faithfull, played in the patient's care.
These diaries are held by the National Library of Australia, as part of the Faithfull family papers.[39] Unlike Robert's lengthy letters from New York, Reginald's daily entries are seldom more than one line, and often just a few words, that document the daily tasks in a matter-of-fact way.
He documents the names of the men who worked at Springfield, and the daily tasks carried out according to the seasons, such as ploughing, sowing, hilling, hoeing, reaping and cutting hay with a machine.
William Pitt Faithfull travelled to Sydney regularly for business and sometimes his wife and daughters accompanied him for a change of scene and to participate in Sydney society. However, they contain little information on treatment and few of the personal observations that enliven Robert's letters from America. The optimism of a year earlier, 'that Reginald will get round in time if he goes on as well as he appears to be doing now', was replaced by sorrow and distress as Reginald grew weaker and his death seemed inevitable.[50] Robert, still only 28, warned the family.
His brothers returned with his remains to Springfield, where he was buried five days later in the family cemetery.
For example, a pink merino dress displays the owner's fashion sense and the family's wealth and status. The chest is the starting point and also the end point: opening the box leads to the rich archive that reveals aspects of a family, their feelings, joys, fears and a family tragedy. We have come to know the family and some of their ailments through documented remedies and the medicines that were stocked in the chest. Medical science has provided the means of protection from fatal childhood diseases through immunisation, but the memories of deaths from measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases are fading in the developed world and the uptake of these preventative measures has declined. A wine-glass full of water as acid as the person can bear taken occasionally, followed by frequent draughts of cold water for bleeding from the stomach, lungs or nose. In griping and complaints of the bowels of infants, attended with green or curdled stools mix magnesia with peppermint water.
12.1 Advertisement for the school dated September 1838, by Sydney printer James Tegg, Faithfull Family papers, National Library of Australia (henceforth NLA), MS 1146, Box 38. It was awarded for the main race at the Tirranna Picnic Races held on the Gibson property, and jointly organised by members of the Faithfull and Gibson families. The National Historical Collection 'is the Museum's core heritage collection representing Australian History and experience. Other than the presence of this bottle, no evidence of a visit to Armidale by a member of the family has been found. John Snow in 1854 argued that cholera was spread by contaminated drinking water, not miasma.
Despite the opposition of the dean, 'who publicly voiced his opposition to women in medicine', and the vice-chancellor, who declared that no woman would graduate in medicine while he was in the job, Dagmar Berne enrolled that year as the university's first, and only, woman medical student.
Remedies included myrrh for a sore throat and mouth, calomel to relieve fever, compound tincture of bark to stimulate appetite, Dover's powder for dyspepsia and diarrhoea, opium to allay pain. Massage therapists, homeopaths and naturopaths were among the most commonly consulted CAM practitioners.
I used to study at 3 different colleges as an International student, but only at Endeavour College I was satisfied with the high level of experienced teachers and tutor. The most common non-English spoken languages are Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic, Vietnamese and Mandarin.
All college staff provided me a continuous support, full resources and courage, to achieve my academic goal and business practices. Four out of ten Australians are migrants or the first-generation children of migrants, half of them from non-English speaking backgrounds. Their relatively small class sizes allow plenty of interactions among students and teachers. The building incorporates landscape courtyards, naturally ventilated offices and other ESD features.
One of the intriguing objects in the collection was the family's medicine chest, dating from the family's earliest settlement in Australia. When her niece Bobbie Maple-Brown (who had also been christened Florence) inherited the house in 1949, there was a vast number of historical objects to be managed. Family members assisted with the documentation and provided important contextual knowledge that had been handed down over the generations to help with the interpretation of the objects within a museum context. Items of clothing provide a tangible physical link to generations of the Faithfull family, both women and men.
They extend far beyond Springfield, with letters and journals recording travels to and from other parts of the colony and abroad. The lid has the same velvet lining, gathered to cushion and keep safe the heavy glass bottles containing powders and coloured liquids. Opening the lid, you see the glass bottles in their compartments, eight along the back, seven at the front and two on each side.
But often it was the knowledge that was passed down within the family, particularly in rural areas, that constituted day-to-day diagnosis and treatment.
It was however, still believed by many (including some medical practitioners) that sickness was caused by 'miasma' — a cloud of invisible deleterious forces, manifested by its bad smell, rising from the ground or from polluted waters. There were also home remedies for various ailments, including for a sore mouth or throat, chilblains, a weak chest and a weak stomach. Mary's sister Ann was also skilled in medicinal care: for example, her successful treatment of William Pitt Faithfull's toothache was recorded by Robert. The Springfield women also needed a source for the ingredients for their medicinal recipes. Travelling across America by train was potentially a hazardous journey in the 1870s, when Native Americans were still defending their land from the encroachment of the whites. His father raised no objections and Robert changed courses and attended lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Columbia College, later Columbia University.


He detailed the lectures he attended and the doctors he met including: Professor Thomas on the diseases of women, Professor McLean for obstetrics, Dr Talrue for anatomy. He left for England to continue his studies and to take the examination at the Royal College of Physicians, which was required for registration in Australia. It is a study of life, illness, death and mourning in a wealthy colonial family in New South Wales in the latter part of the nineteenth century. For 12 years, he chronicles his management of the Springfield property and the work he undertook and supervised there.
Pulmonary tuberculosis has been described as 'the most destructive of the top seven killer diseases in New South Wales and Victoria between 1880 and 1900'.[45] Tuberculosis is spread by coughing and sneezing. The summer was spent at home; but as winter approached, the climate at Brewarranna station was deemed better for a consumptive than that of Springfield. It does not seem though that Reginald was sent there to isolate him from his family, as he received visits from his cousin Edgar and all the brothers, except Percy who stayed at Springfield to ease the anxiety there. He names his most prized: 'I desire that father shall have Sportsman to take care of and that nobody is to ride him. Similarly the letters tell poignant stories of a homesick medical student and later, an ailing son and brother. We can be sure of a number of stories relating to the chest, others we can assume, or speculate.
The miracle cure of antibiotics has been over-prescribed and there is increasing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria that antibiotics no longer work against.[61] There can be no question that there have been great bounds in surgery.
It is a selective and representative collection that seeks to document the breadth of national life the highest thresholds are applied in establishing object significance for the National Historical Collection', NMA Collections Development Framework. Research on timber conducted by National Museum of Australia conservation department, 2007. Cupping uses a cup-shaped vessel in which a partial vacuum is produced so that, when applied to the skin over a part, a swelling with hyperaemia [an excess of blood] forms: MacNalty, Butterworths, p. And I must say the teachers I've encountered at the college are among the most dedicated and passionate I have met. A large collection of papers was donated to the National Library of Australia, and some material was given to members of the extended family. Both collections relate to the social history of generations of the family who lived and worked on the sheep station for over 170 years. The process of dating these and linking them to their original owners required close collaboration. The Medical History Museum at the University of Melbourne has a fine collection, many of which were used by medical practitioners in Victoria and donated to the Medical Society of Victoria. The Springfield chest provides a window onto the prevailing illnesses of the time and how they were managed in the absence of trained medical personnel.
In a letter to his father, Robert commented on his aunt's knowledge of medicine and that it was a pity Ann was not a doctor, because he would trust her when he was sick more than many doctors he knew.[20] The sisters' remedies and knowledge were also used in the care of the other members of the extended family, such as the Gibsons of Tirranna. But it was further research into the Faithfull family itself that opened up two unanticipated areas: the first concerned medical training for doctors in Australia and beyond, the second, the tragic but common disease of tuberculosis.
He took a preliminary course in medicine 'to ascertain whether he felt capable of becoming a doctor'.[25] From August 1875 to June 1876, he studied at the Sydney Infirmary on Macquarie Street with Dr Andrew John Brady, an Irish physician and surgeon who had recently arrived in the colony.
He thought the lecturers were better at teaching science than those at the Homeopathic College and he would not miss the lectures and practical experiments of Professor Dalton 'for anything'.[32] Robert was also appreciative of the assistance of Dr Maigel, from St Luke's hospital, who invited him to visit and gave him cases to sound and diagnose. During a second sojourn in New York, in 1883, Robert gained experience in several hospitals and the Polyclinic where he studied the diseases of women. Writing weekly, he kept in close contact with his family and home, despite the length of time it took letters from New York to reach Goulburn and return. From them, it is possible to reconstruct what his life on the station was like while his brother studied in New York. Dried sputum from tuberculosis victims can last for months in a room and can be inhaled or ingested as dust. The two brothers left Springfield on 6 April 1881, and the next day caught the train from Goulburn to Narrandera, on their way to Brewarranna. It was more likely it was chosen for the climate, a change of air being commonly perceived to be beneficial to health.
Robert relayed to the family at Springfield Reginald's wish that no one from home should visit him, as their presence would make him more anxious. He was an MD and also a Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, London, and a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, London.[59] He would not have been able to gain such wide experience or qualifications in Australia.
The diaries of Reginald and William Faithfull document the weather, the seasons and daily occupations, giving context to the land and its management. Sometimes it is tempting to turn back the clock, to times that are perceived as more simple and peaceful but not in the realm of medicine. She studied in London and Scotland and returned a qualified doctor, becoming the second woman to register in New South Wales.
Essence of peppermint would relieve gastric colic and flatulence, elixir of vitriol also used to treat diarrhoea. The curriculum of the courses are very well designed to take a beginner through from learning the basics to running an effective practice. But the majority of the objects remained at Springfield in two rooms set aside by Bobbie as a museum, with larger items in sheds and outhouses. The objects, as described in a press release, range from 'an 1890s custom-built buggy to cricket trophies, wedding dresses, wool samples and a stuffed green parrot'.[6] Both collections have robust provenance, with objects supported by images and documents, some of them within the collection itself, others in the National Library of Australia's collection and elsewhere. Museum staff, other experts in the textile and clothing fields, and the donors themselves all had input to the detailed documentation that is now recorded with the clothing and will be drawn upon for many more generations by museum staff, researchers and visitors.
The collection later came to the Australian Medical Association which donated them to the University in 1994.[8] There are also medicine chests in the Marks Hirschfeld Medical Museum at the University of Queensland and a small collection at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney. There was also a sizeable population of resident employees at Springfield, who were joined at times by itinerant workers such as shearers. As Mary and Ann and their mother had lived in Sydney, it is likely the medicines were sourced there, but there is no information on medicines used prior to 1853, when William Sloper opened his shop.
These two topics are intimately connected with the Faithfull family during the nineteenth century.
Brady was born in Ulster in 1849 and qualified in Ireland as a surgeon in 1872 and as a physician in 1874.
He said the experience was invaluable, as 'if you make any little error in diagnosis, why, you always have somebody to put you the right way. He observed many patients and he was also able to examine some, building his knowledge and expertise. Her relative absence from Reginald's daily records might reflect her preoccupations with the family home, her days filled with household tasks and teaching her younger children.
My old grey mare is not to be allowed to die of poverty but to be shot this winter if necessary'.[57] The rest of his stock was to be sold. It is part of the history of medicine, and it is now destined for public display and museological interpretation. The lack of medical knowledge, the use of poisons and ignorance of sanitary measures made surviving colonial life a risky business. The first, (Emma) Constance Stone, studied in America after being refused entry to Melbourne University, and was registered in New South Wales in 1890.
Tartar emetic, James' powder, ipecacuanha and paregoric elixir were all used as expectorants to aid the removal of bronchial secretions. Studying at the college was a very enriching experience for me and has provided me with much knowledge and confidence. Bobbie's children Jim Maple-Brown and Diana Boyd inherited Springfield and, with Jim's wife Pamela, were responsible for the donation of the collection to the National Museum of Australia. The archive can help in the interpretation of the objects, either through recording their detail (including use) or providing some description, however brief. The experts believe that some of the clothing that belonged to Mary Deane's mother, dating from the late 1700s, is among the oldest in Australia.
These chests however, lack the rich provenance and associated family archive that give the Faithfull chest a place in history. Under this tray is a second central tray containing five smaller and thinner glass bottles, with cork stoppers, lying flat; and one narrow, black-handled palette knife used to extract powder from the larger bottles. Information supplied by the donors was that this chest was known in the family as 'Uncle Robert's medicine chest'. Various drugs, which had to be carefully measured, some because of their potency, and others because of their noxious nature, were freely available from chemists. In this respect Reginald's work diaries indicate a separation of the male and female worlds. Perhaps he was susceptible to the cold and damp and early on harboured the disease that would kill him. A letter dated 30 May 1882, from Percy at Springfield to Edgar at Brewarranna, shows the dread anticipation at Springfield, especially of their mother, in the last days, as Reginald deteriorated, rallied slightly, then sank. Despite times of drought and occasional flood, they had good judgement and the crops and the sheep did well. This shallow tray would have originally contained scales and weights to accurately measure the compounds.[12] All the bottles, except one, bear the labels of Sydney chemist William Sloper. With careful use and small doses, was it possible that the original remedies in the medicine chest lasted Mary from her marriage until the chest was restocked in 1853? Microscopy and Pathology are taking active strides here and have many workers, so you will see I am in an active and energetic field'.[35] These new sciences were enabling doctors to understand the previously invisible world of diseases and infections, finally eclipsing the theory of miasma.
His correspondence leaves no doubt that he was there to study and that his end goal was always to return to his family in Australia as a well-qualified doctor. Both were rich quarries, made richer by complementary archival and related material preserved in the Museum, as well as the National Library of Australia's collections. The list of contents shows that some of the medicines could be used for minor complaints, such as mouth ulcers or coughs.
Others were very much medicines of their time, used to induce vomiting, or purging of the bowels.



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