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Obesity is a condition in which a person has accumulated much more fat than normal, and the level of weight has become a real burden, both medically and socially.
When a person is "overweight", it means that they have more body fat than they need for their body to function.
Genetic causes – obesity runs in some families, and requires regular care to avoid obesity. People often gain weight when they quit smoking, although the effect is usually temporary, and the weight returns to normal once the non-smoking habit stabilizes.
This disease complex afflicts 22% of all Americans and increases with age with 40% meeting these criteria at age 60. Symptoms of peripheral edema include swelling of the affected area(s), which causes the surrounding skin to "tighten." The swelling from peripheral edema is gravity-dependent (it will increase or decrease with changes in body position).
In the case of pulmonary edema, there is often no evidence of fluid retention or noticeable swelling on examination of the patient's extremities. Lymphedema is the swelling of one or more of the legs and arms caused by poor function of the lymphatic system.
Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema »Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an imbalance in pump function in which the heart fails to adequately maintain the circulation of blood. We all know that eating too much can be bad for our health, especially if we become overweight or obese. Obesity is the medical term for the accumulation of excess fat, leading to adverse effects on health and reduced life expectancy. Obesity can lead to increased risk of heart disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer. In the medieval period, obesity was a sign of status – only the wealthy were able to eat too much (and would have lower activity levels). It is very difficult to estimate the weight, and therefore the BMI of a skeletonised person, and because of that any estimates have wide error margins. There is eburnation (polishing) and flattening of the head of this femur (thigh bone), which is indicative of osteoarthritis of the hip. The largest factor influencing the likelihood of having osteoarthritis is age – put simply, the older you are, the more wear and tear on your joints.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH; also known as Forestier’s disease) is a non-inflammatory joint disease which causes ossification (turning to bone) of the spinal ligaments and the regions where tendons and ligaments attach to bone (entheses). DISH is more commonly seen in males over the age of 50 and is associated with a rich diet, and with Type II diabetes, although the exact causes of the disease are unknown. This first metatarsal (foot bone) has a large hole at the distal end, caused by the build up of urate crystals in gout.
Overweight or obese people are at a substantially higher risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, arthritis, problems breathing, sleep apnea, and certain cancers. It secretes inflammatory adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and resistin. Having excess visceral fat greatly increases one's chance of having diabetes and heart disease. Visceral Fat causes impairments in blood sugar metabolism and causes insulin resistance, which can lead to Type 2 Diabetes.
Visceral Fat is broken down by the liver to create low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which circulates throughout the blood stream.
There is a direct correlation between a person's waist circumference and their chance of having diabetes and heart disease. A Waist Circumference of 32 inches for a woman and 37 inches for a man indicates a significantly raised risk of developing heart disease or diabetes.
Visceral Fat is consumed more quickly by the body than subcutaneous fat when undergoing regular exercise due to the fact that it is more metabolically active. In 1995, the total costs attributable to obesity in the nation, both in losses of productivity and in medical expense, are estimated to be $99 billion. Erythema nodosum is a type of skin inflammation that is located in a certain portion of the fatty layer of skin.
Weariness, fatigue and exhaustion are problems which cause a person to be unable to continue working, due to a total loss of physical and mental energy. Symptoms: Loss of appetite, apathy, lack of energy, depression, melancholy and body aches. Hypothyroidism, improper functioning of the thyroid, and therefore of the metabolism which must assimilate foods in order to convert them into useful energy.
In every cell there is a component called the mitochondrion responsible for combining glucose (sugar in the blood) with oxygen and thus producing energy, carbon dioxide and water.
Nevertheless, if we provide energy through complex carbohydrates (potatoes, beans, etc) instead of refined sugar, the glucose produces will nourish the blood system little by little and give the pancreas the opportunity to produce the necessary insulin without being sued up. On the other hand, when coffee stimulates the central nervous system and produces stress, it will cause the liver to discharge all its glucose reserves into the bloodstream which it maintains for moments of emergency, stress or danger. Large quantities of complex carbohydrates (whole grains lentils, beans, proteins (fish, milk and eggs), fats (preferably from cold water fish like tuna, salmon and olive oil). Take frequent breaks and, at least once a week, relax and take your mind off the things.


It's very common for people to be overweight, especially in developed countries where there's a plentiful food supply, and people have sedentary lifestyles that don't involve much exercise. It may be explained in a slightly different way by looking at the image on the right hand side. One is taking in more energy (calories) through food but expending less energy in activity, and the surplus calories get converted into fats and stored in the body. Take a brisk walk, use stairs if not for going up than for climbing down, play with the children, do household chores like washing and cleaning. Please remember, they can give a plan, but you have to implement the plan -- you have to follow through. Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents.
The number of Americans with the Metabolic Syndrome increases with lack of physical exercise, smoking, high carbohydrate diets and certain genetic factors. And this is certainly justified because the Metabolic Syndrome doubles the risks of cardiovascular disease and produces a fivefold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
For example, if a person is lying on their back (supine), the swelling will not appear in the legs, but will appear in the area around the sacrum. Obesity itself does not cause pathological lesions in bone, however recent research has suggested that obesity can cause an increase in the size of bones, especially the width of the femur (thigh bone).
Strenuous activity, especially from an early age, will also increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis. Clinically, the patient initially suffers from pain in the mid back, and over time experiences increasing stiffness as the bones of the spine fuse together. The vertabrae are fused together due to the ossification of a ligament running along the front of the spine. DISH has been observed to be particularly common in medieval skeletons from monastic cemeteries, suggesting that either these were monks who enjoyed a particularly rich diet or possibly that these were rich patrons who chose to be buried at the monastery. Lead was used as a sweetener and preservative in wine, and liquid containers often had lead glazes. It produces many chemicals and hormones, both good and bad, which are circulated through the bloodstream.
It produces more harmful hormones and enzymes such as interleukin(IL)-6, and suppresses positive ones such as leptin. A Waist circumference of 35 inches for a woman and 40 inches for a man is considered high risk for developing both conditions.
Erythema nodosum (also called EN) results in reddish, painful, tender lumps most commonly located in the front of the legs below the knees. Upon resolution, it may leave only a temporary bruised appearance or leave a chronic indentation in the skin where the fatty layer has been injured. The first thing we do is prepare ourselves a strong cup of coffee with a good measure of sugar.
When refined sugar is consumed it goes directly to the blood without being previously transformed as is the case with complex carbohydrates (beans, potatoes, etc). The discharge of insulin by the pancreas is done suddenly due to the large quantity of glucose – sugar found in the blood, thus rapidly using up the insulin reserves and leaving the person without anyway to introduce glucose in to the cells for the rest of the day because of the lack of insulin.
At the same time, additional quantities of oxygen will not be required for combustion within the cell. A 2002 study has indicated that as much as 64% of the adult US population is overweight, and this number is increasing. From left to right, as labeled in the image, the "healthy" man has a 33 inch (84 cm) waist, the "overweight" man a 45 inch (114 cm) waist, and the "obese" man a 60 inch (152cm) waist. The key is changing your food habits – reducing high calorie and fatty food, and substituting them with more salads and fruits. Changing your diet and your daily activity is a tough, long-term task -- but making those changes will keep you feeling healthy and strong. Additionally, it is associated with obstructive sleep apnea, gout, chronic kidney disease and many other medical problems. The skin over the swollen area appears tight and shiny, and often when pressure is applied to the area with a finger, an indentation appears. Carrying too much weight can lead to type II diabetes and osteoarthritis of weight bearing joints, and certain diseases such as DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis) are also seen more often in obese individuals. It is well known that activity increases bone size and bone mass – and carrying around excess weight has a similar effect on bone.
Therefore very few researchers have investigated the prevalence of obesity in medieval populations. Once all of the cartilage has worn away, bone on bone contact occurs – which leads to polishing (eburnation) and porosity of the bone surface. Obesity puts extra strain on the main weight bearing joints – especially the knees – and therefore also leads to an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Documentary evidence suggests that although monks ate a frugal diet at the start of the Middle Ages, they became adept at bending fasting rules and there are many accounts describing the rich and varied diet they enjoyed.
Visceral Fat, however, is located in the abdomen underneath the muscle and around vital organs.


These are, to say, thrashed little by little, unfolding in simple sugars (glucose) which later are slowly fed to the cells with the help of insulin. One way is to reduce the amount of caffeine and refined sugar that you consume and allow the insulin activity to regulate it. Your physician is your best advisor when addressing the ravages of the Metabolic Syndrome, the treatment of which consume about 20 percent of all healthcare costs. Although patterns of obesity, dietary intake and skeletal pathology are far from simple and therefore difficult to interpret, there is plenty of evidence that being overweight can even affect our bones! According to the World Health Organisation, a BMI of over 30 is obese and a BMI under 18.5 is considered underweight. Osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and possibly also the lower back and feet have all been associated with obesity in modern populations.
Fat friars became famous through stories, including Friar Tuck, the rotund friend of Robin Hood, and Chaucer’s monk, described as a ‘fat and personable priest’. High lead levels in the body cause kidney damage and this inhibits uric acid excretion, leading to hyperuricemia.
The nodular swelling is caused by a special pattern of inflammation in the fatty layer of skin. In the medieval period, obesity was an indication of wealth, and was also seen in monastic communities where a high-calorie diet and low levels of physical exertion led to problems we often associate with our modern, sedentary lifestyles.
Waist circumference is strongly linked to obesity and these increased health risks – and it is understood that carrying excess weight around the waist is particularly harmful to health. In archaeological populations we can see the changes on the bone joint surfaces of people who had osteoarthritis – but these are more advanced changes than those required to make a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis, which rely on identifying narrow joint spaces (the size of the gap between the bone ends in a joint) on x-rays. Osteoarthritis of the spine is very common in medieval populations, and is directly related to age.
It is called slapped-cheek syndrome because of the characteristic initial red marks on the face in children.Although it can resemble other childhood rashes, such as rubella or scarlet fever, slapped cheek syndrome usually begins with the distinctive, sudden appearance of bright red cheeks that look as if the child has been slapped. Try to reduce the portion sizes, and give sufficient time to eating -- grabbing food is a bad way to eat.
Osteoarthritis of the major joints is less common, but is still seen quite often – especially in the knees, hips, elbows and shoulders. Again, this is directly associated with age; however, one study has suggested that osteoarthritis was more common in older individuals (estimated to be over 45 years of age) predicted to be obese compared with older individuals with a normal BMI. It is spread by respiratory droplets that enter the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through blood. It poses little risk to healthy children and adults, but pregnant women without immunity to slapped cheek syndrome have an increased risk of miscarriage because it can cause anaemia in the unborn baby.What causes slapped cheek syndrome?Slapped cheek syndrome is caused by parvovirus B19 and is spread by respiratory secretions from an infected person. The incubation period (the period between infection and signs or symptoms of illness) is usually four to 14 days, but can be as long as 21 days. The rash fades from the centre of red areas towards the edges, giving it a lacy appearance.
The rash can recur after exercise, warm baths, rubbing the skin or emotional upset.Less commonly, headache, sore throat and joint painNot all children with slapped cheek syndrome develop the rash.
Conversely, parents of some children may become concerned if the rash lasts several weeks or fluctuates with environmental factors, such as exercise and warm baths. A blood test can confirm whether you have fifth disease, but this is not usually necessary.
If a pregnant woman has been exposed to slapped cheek syndrome, she needs to go to her doctor straight away to get a blood test to determine whether she has had fifth disease in the past and is, therefore, immune, or if she is currently infected.
If she contracts slapped cheek syndrome in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, she will be given regular ultrasound scans to monitor foetal growth and development, and possible complications in the foetus, such as abnormal pooling of fluid round the heart, lungs or abdomen. What are the treatments for slapped cheek syndrome?Generally, no treatment for slapped cheek syndrome is necessary for otherwise healthy children and adults who get it.
For those with joint pain, especially in adults, anti-inflammatory pain relievers such as ibuprofen can be helpful. Anyone who has sickle cell anaemia, chronic anaemia, or an impaired immune system can receive immunoglobulin by injection to help fight off the virus. Some of these patients may also need transfusions of red blood cells.How can I prevent slapped cheek syndrome?There is no vaccine against slapped cheek syndrome. It's easier for the virus to spread indoors, where people are likely to be in closer contact Make sure children are not crowded together, especially during nap time Teach children to cough or sneeze into a tissue (which should be thrown away immediately) or their elbow (which is less likely than their hands to spread the virus) and away from other people Children with slapped cheek syndrome generally do not need to be excluded from childcare, as they are unlikely to be contagious after the rash appears and a diagnosis is madePregnant women and slapped cheek syndromeIf a woman is certain she has had slapped cheek syndrome, there is no need to be concerned about exposure to the disease during pregnancy. If she is uncertain, a blood test can determine whether the woman has had slapped cheek syndrome in the past and is therefore immune.
For instance, if there is an outbreak of slapped cheek syndrome in the workplace, a pregnant woman should discuss with her doctor whether she should stay home from work until it subsides. At home, she should wash her hands thoroughly after touching tissues used by infected children and dispose of tissues promptly.




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