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National Medical Journal of India, ancient Indians (circa 600 BCE) were well aware of the condition. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being.
Once people are diagnosed, the primary goals of type 2 diabetes treatments are to control glucose levels and to reduce other conditions that put patients at risk for major complications. Some people find changes to diet and exercise sufficient treatments for type 2 diabetes, but many others require medication and insulin therapy.
Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. Generally, the goal is to keep one's blood sugar stable and doctors may set levels specific to each person. While there is no one diabetes diet, patients are encouraged to eat nutritious, low-calorie foods. Medication regimes are individual, based on each person's medical history, other diseases, and individual factors. This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. The newer diabetes medicines cost much more than the older drugs.Taking more than one diabetes drug is often kind of necessary. Treatments for type 2 diabetes are life-long – there is no pill to cure this chronic disease. Yet metformin (Glucophage) is often prescribed; this diabetes medication lowers glucose production in the liver.
There are many different types of insulin and doctors may prescribe a mixture based on individual factors.
Doctors may recommend regular exercise, limiting alcohol, the cessation of smoking, among others.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
Two drugs from a class called the Sulfonylureas and Metformin are there in the market for more than a decade and work just as well as newer medicines. Doctors may have people check their blood sugar daily or several times a week; it varies by individual.
They may also prescribe certain medications like ACE inhibitors and diuretics to lower blood pressure, statins and fibrates to lower cholesterol, or aspirin and clopidogrel to control clotting. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Some people can manage their diabetes with changes to diet and exercise, while others require medication.
If patients are conscientious, they can still enjoy active, healthy lives, even with the disease. Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested.


All diabetes pills have the potential to cause adverse effects, which could be both, minor and major. Always consult a doctor before beginning an exercise regime, but for most people, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise combined with strength training, most days of the week, is ideal. Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst. The drugs' safety and side effect "profiles" may be the most important factor in your choice. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain. Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult.
Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes.
Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people. Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed. How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy.
People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance. Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly.
If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly.
With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.
Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet. People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories.
Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease.


Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help. There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels.
In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine. Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels.
Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.
Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots.
People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke.
Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss. People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes.
Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage.
Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.



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