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The resource may also contain words and descriptions that could be culturally sensitive and which might not normally be used in public or community contexts. Based on information from the 2011 Census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) estimates that there were 713,600 Indigenous people living in Australia in 2014 [1][2].
The number of Indigenous people counted in the 2011 Census was much higher than the number counted in the 2006 Census [4][5]. In 2011, 90% of Indigenous people identified as Aboriginal, 6% identified as Torres Strait Islanders, and 4% identified as both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander [3]. Figure 1 is a population pyramid; it shows a comparison of the age profiles of the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations [6].
Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2014) Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2014. Without enough insulin, the body cannot turn glucose into energy, and it stays in the blood. According to the 2012-2013 AATSIHS, diabetes was more common for Indigenous people living in remote areas than for those living in non-remote areas [12]. Diabetes was responsible for one-in-twelve deaths (201 deaths) of Indigenous people living in NSW, Qld, SA, WA and the NT in 2012 [13][14]. Lalor E, Cass A, Chew D, Craig M, Davis W, Grenfell R, Hoy W, McGlynn L, Mathew T, Parker D, Shaw J, Tonkin A, Towler B (2014) Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts - mortality.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Your body makes too little or no insulin.Your body either cannot produce insulin or does not use it properly. Between 5 - 25 (maximum numbers in this age group; Type 1 can affect at any age)Until recently, the only type of diabetes that was common in children was Type 1 diabetes, most children who have Type 2 diabetes have a family history of diabetes, are overweight, and are not very physically active. In recent decades, changes in people's behaviour and lifestyle due to the modernisation of society and shifts to diets containing more energy-dense foods have resulted in escalating rates of both obesity and Type 2 diabetes (the clinical association of which is popularly becoming known as 'diabesity') [9].
Due to the relatively small number of persons under 35 years with Type 2 diabetes, this section focuses on selected body mass index (BMI), physical activity and nutrition characteristics of people aged 35 years and over, with and without Type 2 diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes were almost twice as likely to be obese as people without Type 2 diabetes (51% and 27% respectively).
Participation in regular moderate to vigorous physical activity can help prevent the onset of a range of diseases including diabetes.
2007-08 data shows that men who exercised at high or moderate levels were less likely to have Type 2 diabetes (6%) than those who were sedentary or exercised at low levels (8%), although the difference for women who exercised at high or moderate levels and those who were sedentary or exercised at low levels was not statistically significant.
Around 80% of people with Type 2 diabetes were sedentary or exercised at low levels, compared with 74% of people without the condition. A healthy diet can boost the immune system and prevent a range of chronic diseases associated with obesity such as Type 2 diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes were just as likely to eat the recommended daily serves of fruit and vegetables as people without the condition. Smoking can increase the risk of developing diabetes-related complications such as coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and kidney disease.
After adjusting for age, the smoking and ex-smoking rates of people with Type 2 diabetes aged 35 years and over were not significantly different to those of people without the condition. Alcohol can impair the liver's ability to produce glucose [14] resulting in hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose), which if untreated can cause anxiety, palpitations, changes in behaviour, coma, and seizures [15].
In 2007-08, there was no significant difference between rates of risky or high risk drinking for people with or without Type 2 diabetes.
In Australia, the National Preventative Health Taskforce has a policy of coordinated care for people with diabetes to improve management of their condition and help them stay healthy and out of hospital.
In 2007-08, just under two-thirds of people with diabetes used medication to help manage their condition (63%), and one out of five used insulin every day (21%).
Regular testing of blood glucose levels allows people with diabetes to adjust their diet and treatment schedule to maintain control of their levels.
Just under half of people with diabetes (45%) tested their blood glucose levels at least once a day, and an additional 22% tested their blood glucose levels at least once a week. People with diabetes are encouraged to have regular foot checks, as diabetes can cause nerve damage and poor circulation in the lower limbs. In 2007-08, 10% of people with diabetes checked their feet at least once a day and a further 9% checked their feet at least once a week.
Maintaining a healthy diet can play an important role in the prevention and management of diabetes through its influence on body weight, particularly obesity. In Australia, three out of four people with diabetes (74%) followed a changed eating pattern or diet to help manage their diabetes. One in three people with diabetes who said they changed their eating pattern or diet reported that their weight had decreased in the past year (33%), with more women than men reporting this (40% and 28% respectively). Just over half the people with diabetes who said they tried losing weight to help manage their condition reported that their weight decreased in the past year (55%), while 17% who tried losing weight reported a weight increase in that time (Graph 6).
Exercise has been shown to significantly improve blood glucose control and reduce mortality for people who have diabetes, particularly for those who have Type 2 diabetes [13].
This section examines people's perceptions of their own health, the prevalence of people experiencing more than one medical condition and the most prevalent chronic conditions in the Australian population by Disability status.
Disability can be associated with mobility impairments which places people at a higher risk of circulatory disorders, that is, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension and cerebrovascular disease.
Arthritis is an inflammatory condition of the joints, characterised by pain, swelling, heat, redness and limitation of movement. Cerebrovascular disease was the second highest leading cause of death in Australia in 2008 (Causes of Death, 2008, cat.no. Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, characterised by hyperglycaemia and associated with a relative deficiency of insulin secretion, along with a reduced response of target tissues to insulin (insulin resistance). Asthma is a condition characterised by laboured breathing, caused by airway inflammation which leads to restriction of the smooth muscle around the bronchi. In 2007-08, 10.0% of people in Australia reported asthma as a current and long term condition.
For example, some information may be considered appropriate for viewing only by men or only by women. NSW had the largest number of Indigenous people, and the NT had the highest percentage of Indigenous people. In 2011, more than one-third of Indigenous people younger than 15 year of age (compared with one-fifth of non-Indigenous people) [6]. Canberra: Productivity Commission Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) Estimates and projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001 to 2026.
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The treatment of diabetes depends on the type of diabetes that a person has - if someone has type 1 diabetes they will need insulin injections; if someone has type 2 diabetes they may be able to manage it by living a healthy lifestyle or taking some medicines.
Diabetes affected Indigenous people at a younger age than non-Indigenous people – 5% of Indigenous people aged 25-34 years had diabetes, and up to 39% of those aged over 55 years had the disease (Figure 1) [10].


Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Diabetes Australia (2011) What is diabetes?. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hyperlipidemia (hyper cholesterolemia) increased with obesity in both genders.
IntroductionThe prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes and hypertension are significantly increased with the prevalence of obesity (Figures 1, 2 and 3) [1, 2]. The recommendation, however, fell short of endorsing low-carbohydrate diets as a long-term health plan nor do they give any preference to these diets. While some people may be at a higher risk of developing diabetes due to genetic factors, this condition is largely preventable as many of the risk factors for developing the disease, such as excess weight, poor diet, inactivity, smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol, are modifiable behaviours. All rates comparing people with and without Type 2 diabetes in this section are age standardised. For adults, the National Physical Activity Guidelines recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week [11]. People without Type 2 diabetes were more likely to exercise at high or moderate levels (Graph 3). The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommends that adults consume at least two serves of fruit and five serves of vegetables per day [12]. They were more likely, however, to have increased their fruit (24%) and vegetable (23%) consumption in the past year than people without Type 2 diabetes (9% and 11% respectively) (Graph 4), which may reflect shifts in self-management of their condition.
Research shows that quitting smoking can reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes [13].
Smokers with Type 2 diabetes were also no more likely to have increased or decreased their smoking over the past 12 months than smokers without Type 2 diabetes. Excessive consumption of alcohol can also cause hypoglycaemia if people are taking insulin or certain diabetes medications, and increases the risk of developing complications through weight gain and increasing blood pressure [16].
A higher proportion of people with Type 2 diabetes last consumed alcohol 12 or more months ago (16%) compared with people without Type 2 diabetes (6%).
Initiatives include enabling access to services such as dieticians, and supporting practice nurses to undertake a broad range of prevention activities, such as health assessments, health promotion and advice, and educating patients on lifestyle issues [18]. For people with Type 2 diabetes, initial treatment involves diet, exercise and weight reduction to normalise blood glucose levels. Advice to general practitioners is that a reasonable approach in a patient with stable glucose control would involve testing at different times of the day on 2–3 days a week [19].
A third of people with diabetes tested their blood glucose less regularly than once a week, with 2% reporting that they did not check their blood glucose levels at all in the past year. This can increase the risk of developing foot ulcers and infections, which in turn can result in foot or leg amputations [13]. Just over a quarter of people with diabetes had not had their feet checked at all in the past year (27%). Increased body weight can lead to increased resistance to insulin as well as affecting the production of insulin. Around 16% of people with diabetes that had changed their diet reported they had gained weight.
Of people with diabetes, around a quarter (27%) reported that they had exercised most days in the last 2 weeks specifically to help manage their diabetes. It is a pathological condition caused by a lack of oxygen in the cells of the muscles surrounding the heart. Risk for the disorder is increased by obesity, high cholesterol levels, high sodium levels and a family history of high blood pressure. It can be triggered by allergens, pollutants, cold air, infection, vigorous exercise or emotional stress.
The HealthInfoNet respects such culturally sensitive issues, but, for technical reasons, it has not been possible to provide materials in a way that prevents access by a person of the other gender.
Almost 4% of Indigenous people were 65 years or older, compared with 14% of non-Indigenous people.
Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) Census of population and housing - counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2011. Overall, diabetes was around three times more common among Indigenous people than among other Australians. The overall death rate was seven times higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people. Type 2 diabetes, hypertension frequently associated with type 2 diabetes, and obesity are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and cardiac- and renal complications.
On the other hand, the official statement from the American Heart Association (AHA) regarding these diets states categorically that the association doesn't recommend high-protein diets [35].
Although there is currently no cure for Type 2 diabetes, it can often initially be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity [10]. Three quarters of people with diabetes actively changed their diets to manage their condition (see Section 4 - Managing the Risks for more detail).
In 2007-08, around 8% of people aged 35 years and over that had ever smoked had Type 2 diabetes compared with 6% of those who had never smoked.
The 2001 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for reducing health risks in the longer term from alcohol limit consumption to four standard drinks a day for men and two standard drinks a day for women [17]. They were also more likely to have last consumed alcohol more than one week ago but less than 12 months ago. As the condition progresses, most people will need one or more medications and may also require insulin [19].
About 6% of people with diabetes used vitamin or mineral supplements or natural or herbal remedies. Controlling blood glucose levels can significantly reduce the risk of developing serious health problems associated with diabetes [20]. Losing weight reduces the risk of diabetes in people who are overweight or obese by improving insulin sensitivity [13].
Age and disability status are both statistically significant factors in the presence of hypertensive disease. This disease pertains to a lack of blood supply and therefore oxygen to the brain due to a vascular blockage, commonly known as stroke. The differential was particularly marked in the 0-14, 35-44 and 45-54 age groups (Graph 11). The Indigenous pyramid is wide at the bottom (younger age-groups) and narrow at the top (older age-groups); this shape shows that the Indigenous population is a young population. Hyperglycemia as well as hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes is a cardiovascular risk by itself [3].
A science advisory from the AHA further states the association's belief that these diets are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease [114, 115]. Of people 35 years and over who had never consumed alcohol, 10% had Type 2 diabetes, while only 4% of risky or high risk drinkers the same age had the condition.
Type 2 diabetes is a serious health problem for many Indigenous people, who tend to develop it at earlier ages than other Australians, and often die from it at younger ages.


Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity are characterized by stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), elevated sympathetic activity and insulin resistance. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) Australian demographic statistics, March quarter 2012. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in some women during pregnancy [4] and is more common among Indigenous women than among non-Indigenous women [5]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011) Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes in Australian children, 2008. The American Heart Association supported low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets, but that a low-carbohydrate diet could not potentially meet AHA guidelines.Low fat dietRecently, the effectiveness of low-fat high- protein and low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary advice on weight loss were compared using group-based interventions, among overweight people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can lead to life-threatening health complications, some of which may develop within months of diagnosis while others may take years to develop [6].
Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (2005) Evidence base to a preventive health assessment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Therefore, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for type 2 diabetes should be selected from favourable effects on stimulated RAAS, elevated sympathetic nervous system activity, insulin resistance and leptin resistance.
However, in a 'real-world' setting, prescription of an energy-reduced low-fat diet, with either increased protein or carbohydrate, results in similar modest losses in weight, waist circumference and metabolic benefits over 2 years [116].Ebbeling et al. For many Indigenous people diabetes is not diagnosed until after complications have developed [7].
Neurohoromonal characteristics in type 2 diabetes: Insulin resistance and sympathetic activity7. Resting energy expenditure (REE), total energy expenditure (TEE), hormone levels, and metabolic syndrome components at pre-weight-loss were compared.
Decreases in REE and TEE following 10% or 15% weight loss were greatest with the low-fat diet, intermediate with the low-glycemic index diet, and least with the very low-carbohydrate diet, but metabolic or hormonal parameters were similar between 3 groups. This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels – with fast digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower digesting complex carbohydrates such as whole grains a slower one. The concept has been extended to include amount of carbohydrate actually absorbed as well, despite differences in glycemic index [118]. Lifestyle modification such as a caloric restricted diet, reducing sedentary behaviour and an increase in exercise form the basis of all therapy. Pharmacological treatments for type 2 diabetesIf the individuals failed to improve glucose levels or HbA1c, pharmacological therapy is required. The first-line oral agents should minimize the degree of insulin resistance and suppress hepatic glucose production rather than increase plasma insulin concentrations. The decision to include thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and metformin as first-line therapy draws from the algorithm proposed by Wyne et al. Stimulating insulin secretion and minimizing insulin resistance both have the potential to bring a patient to goal, but it is theorized that bringing a patient to goal by reducing insulin resistance is more likely to reduce the macro-vascular complications and cardiovascular risks.
The observations, however, demonstrate that a combination therapy for weight loss with a low caloric diet and exercise is recommended for weight loss due to stronger suppression of insulin resistance and sympathetic activation, which both are known as strong risk factors for cardiovascular events. Although few studies have observed changes in body weight, blood pressure, neurohormonal changes over a long duration such as 2 years, Masuo et al. Understanding mechanisms underlying both type 2 diabetes and obesity may help to achieve weight loss and maintenance of weight loss and the stricter blood glucose goal. Maintenance of weight loss is another key factor to reduce cardiovascular risks in type 2 diabetes in obesity [6]. In addition, most hypertensive patients with diabetes and obesity are very resistant to controlling hypertension and frequently require two or more types of medications to achieve blood pressure goals. Similarly, diabetic patients, especially type 2 diabetic patients with obesity, need higher dose of anti-diabetic medications such as metformin or insulin.
However, pharmacological treatments for hypertension and diabetes with weight loss could reduce pharmacological treatment [7, 8]. The purpose of this review is to provide, i) the importance of lifestyle modifications to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes, ii) Lifestyle modification to reduce cardiovascular risks in type 2 diabetes, and iii) weight loss for the better pharmacological control on type 2 diabetes and hypertension, which frequently co-exist with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes versus Type 1 diabetesPrevalence of diabetes has increased markedly over the last 20 years in parallel with obesity (Figures 2 and 3) [1, 2]. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart disease, strokes, renal failure, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus includes type 2 diabetes (formerly noninsulin dependent diabetes), type 1 diabetes (formerly insulin dependent diabetes), and gestational diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (Formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM))Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 90% of all patients with diabetes. This type of diabetes is characterised by metabolic disorder with insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency [10].
This is in contrast to type 1 diabetes, in which there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas [9, 11]. Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease, and obesity has been found to contribute to approximately 55% of case of type 2 diabetes [12]. The disease is strongly genetic in origin but lifestyle factors such as excess weight, inactivity, high blood pressure and poor diet are major risk factors for its development. Symptoms may not show for many years and, by the time they appear, significant problems may have developed. If blood glucose levels are not adequately lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed.
Type 1 diabetes (Insulin-dependent diabetes)Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease targeting on the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for approximately 10% of all people with the disease. In the majority of cases this type of diabetes appears before the patient is 40 years old, triggered by environmental factors such as viruses, diet or chemicals in people genetically predisposed. Patients with type 1 diabetes will require insulin therapy regularly, and should follow a careful diet and exercise plan. Gestational diabetes mellitusGestational diabetes, or glucose intolerance, is first diagnosed during pregnancy through an oral glucose tolerance test.
The hormones produced during pregnancy increase the amount of insulin needed to control blood glucose levels. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include a family history of diabetes, increasing maternal age, obesity, lack of sleep [16], and being a member of a community or ethnic group with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.



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