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A century since the First World War, gangrene remains a problem, albeit a less deadly problem, for many people. The distinctive smell of that "gas gangrene" was the only means to diagnose the condition in the trenches and on the battlefield. Use this page to learn about the modern-day factors that lead to different forms of gangrene, and how doctors today manage the conditions.
Gangrene is a serious, sometimes life-threatening condition in which the skin, muscle and other tissues die as a result of lost blood supply. It is usually external, affecting the extremities, but it can also affect internal tissues. Gangrene is most commonly associated with chronic illness, such as a severe complication of diabetes, or acute causes, such as certain types of injury. Dry gangrene is caused by chronic illness, while wet gangrene - including gas gangrene - is usually an acute form involving bacterial infection and caused by injury, for example.
Surgical complication can lead to internal gangrene, which presents with signs of toxic shock.
Initial diagnosis is made based on the history leading up to the presentation, and a physical examination, including external appearance and smell. Urgent treatment is important to prevent further serious illness and death, and includes removal of dead tissue or even amputation. Prevention of gangrene is an important part of living with certain chronic illnesses, including diabetes.
Gangrene is a disease of the skin and soft tissues - and sometimes internal tissues and organs - that results in tissue death (necrosis).
Gas gangrene (also called clostridial myonecrosis) is a particularly virulent form of wet gangrene.2,3,6,7 This is the condition that is associated with poorly cleansed wounds of the kind suffered in war - deep crushing or penetrating wounds that become infected with bacteria, Clostridium in particular.
The reasons behind necrosis and tissue death differ depending on the specific type of gangrene. Wet gangrene results from a sudden loss of perfusion, and is worsened by the involvement of bacteria. Dry gangrene is more likely to occur in older people with diabetic foot - a common complication of undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes. Complications of diabetes affecting the extremities, especially the feet, are a risk factor for gangrene, partly because painless wounds can go unnoticed. Surgery - an operation involving the ligation of an artery, as treatment of an aneurysm for example, can shut off blood supply in such a way as to cause gangrene.
Mechanical constriction - for example, gangrene can be revealed when pressure splints are removed.
Severe burns, scalds and cold - heat, chemical agents (especially carbolic acid, but also caustic potash, and nitric or sulphuric acid), and cold (including frostbite) can all lead to dry gangrene.
Raynaud's disease - this condition, in which spasm of blood vessels causes impaired circulation to the ends of fingers and toes, especially in cold weather, is implicated in some cases of gangrene. Eating large quantities of coarse rye bread - long-term intake of ergot, a fungus that can infect rye is implicated in gangrene development as ergotism involves vasoconstriction.
Injury - deep, crushing or penetrating wounds that are sustained in conditions that allow bacterial infection to take hold can lead to gangrene. Mechanical constriction - rarely, blood flow restriction caused by pressure from bandages, bone fractures, tumors, and so on, can lead to gangrene. Embolic gangrene - the sudden occlusion of an artery due to an embolism can lead to dry gangrene, but this can also increase the risk of infection and thus lead to wet gangrene. Any case of dry gangrene can progress to wet gangrene if there is an opportunity for bacterial infection.
In addition to the features seen in more common types of gangrene, there are certain signs and symptoms peculiar to gas gangrene, a less common form of wet gangrene. Produce a foul-smelling brown-red or bloody fluid when the tissue affected tissue is drained or leaks (a serosanguineous discharge). Initial suspicion of gangrene calls for physical examination by a doctor, who will also take medical history, asking questions about symptoms and potential exposure to infection or trauma.
If gangrene is suspected, further diagnostic tests will be used to determine the type and extent of the necrosis, and to detect or rule out gas gangrene. Olfactory tests - to detect the unique, foul smell that can indicate gangrene, especially gas gangrene.
To reduce the risk of serious complication and death, gangrene requires emergency treatment.
In all cases of dry gangrene caused by chronic disease, prevention is far better than cure - simply because cure is not possible after, for example, diabetic gangrene has set in, when amputation of an extremity becomes necessary.5 The same attention to prevention is also important in avoiding the acute risks of gangrene, such as from injury or extreme cold. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy6,9-11 is used in other tissue infections and, in particular, diabetic foot ulcers that have become infected and failed to heal.
The idea behind this treatment is that a hyperbaric chamber of high-pressure oxygen creates a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect and improves oxygen supply to the wounds by encouraging the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and causing greater dissolution of oxygen in plasma. In certain settings, such as hospitals, healthcare professionals should practise measures that minimise the risk of infections such as gas gangrene.
Frostbite can lead to gangrene, as can Reynaud's, a disease that usually affects the finger tips and tends to be worse in winter. Routinely administering, for abdominal surgery, intravenous antibiotics - before, during, and after the operation.
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Learn about pneumococcal disease - an infection caused by a common type of bacteria known as pneumococcus. Lyme disease is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium and is transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. The Diabetes Media Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt nonprofit media organization devoted to informing, educating, and generating community around living a healthy life with diabetes. When American Girl first launched in 1986, the company sold a small selection of dolls, designed to look like real girls. Anja Busse displayed some of the supplies she uses daily to treat her Type I diabetes, along with her American Girl doll at her home in Antigo, Wisconsin. According to the American Diabetes Association, approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes.
The American Girl diabetes care kit comes with everything a child with Type 1 diabetes would need: a blood-sugar monitor and lancing device, an insulin pump (that can be clipped to the doll's waist), an insulin pen, medical bracelet, glucose tablets, a log book and a case for all of these tools which can be decorated with stickers. A New York photographer spends more than a year exploring what it’s like to be a young woman in a consumer-driven culture.
Photographer Ilona Szwarc noticed something curious when she moved from Poland to New York City a few years ago: So many little girls were walking the streets of the Big Apple clutching dolls that looked an awful lot like themselves.
Sisters Maya and Leela, pictured here with their American Girl dolls, were 10 and 8 when Szwarc photographed them last year at their home in New York. Kayla lives with her parents and her brother in a beautiful Victorian house in Boston, and Szwarc was excited to photograph Kayla there.
Szwarc, 27, ultimately spent more than a year photographing more than 40 girls in their homes with their look-alike American Girl dolls.
Tiffani-Amber is pictured here once again – this time with her best friends Kylee, Sophia, Elizabeth and Angelica.
Sarah, 13, used to own multiple American Girl dolls, but now she has just one left because she gave the rest away to charity.
Amanda keeps an impressive collection of 24 dolls with accompanying accessories in the attic of her New Jersey home. Lexi, 10, proved to be one of Szwarc’s most inspiring subjects, even though they barely spoke to one another during the photo shoot. Hannah, 12, is a cheerleader who owns three American Girl dolls, and she had a doll-sized cheerleader outfit custom-made to match her own.
Two years ago, Anja Busse, then an 11-year-old recently diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes created a petition on Change.org for American Girl to create diabetic accessories for her doll.
Today, Busse and other American Girl fans are happily celebrating the new accessory that makes their dolls more like them.
The move follows Mattel's recent efforts to broaden its line of dolls and create empowering messages for kids. Dec 2, 2014 By Monica Terire Leave a Comment Insulin pumps are not unheard of; most commonly employed for control of blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a condition that arises due to loss of beta cells in the pancreas due to an autoimmune reaction. The study was led by Doctor Ahmad Haidar, who is a part of the Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM) and the Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine at the McGill University . The artificial pump that these researchers developed contained two essential hormones: insulin and glucagon.
Victoza® es un medicamento no insulinico que se administra una vez al dia y que puede mejorar rapidamente los niveles de azucar en la sangre de adultos con diabetes tipo 2.
Se usa junto con una alimentacion saludable y un estilo de vida activo para ayudar a controlar su nivel de azucar en sangre. Su medico o el Equipo de Cuidado de la Diabetes pueden sugerir el uso de Victoza® solo o con uno o mas medicamentos para la diabetes. Medicamentos (llamados biguanidas), como la metformina, que reducen la cantidad de azucar producida por el higado. Si usted tiene diabetes tipo 2, Victoza ® puede ayudar a las celulas importantes en el pancreas que ayuda a controlar el azucar sanguineo llamado celulas beta-la labor de la manera que deberian. Para mas informacion, Novo Nordisk tiene una Servicio gratuito de informacion telefonica sobre Diabetes, Hormona de Crecimiento y otros productos de Novo Nordisk. Mike Young, aka elGringoinspain has been “Pancreatically Challenged” since April 1998 and this blog Diabetes in Spain way back in 2009. A lover of football, health care social media and photography, the latter trying to keep him out of trouble and will often be seen uploading many sunset pictures onto Flickr, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.
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We are one of the largest networks of fully-owned and integrated outpatient clinical research sites in North America. Follow-up laboratory and imaging tests, and sometimes exploratory surgery may also be used to diagnose gangrene. Doctors working in hospitals, especially those involved in abdominal surgery, also take steps to prevent gangrene.
In such cases, the circulation of blood to the feet worsens, and there is a higher likelihood of any foot wounds going unnoticed by the patient. This can also occur in younger people with arteriosclerosis (arterial narrowing) caused by, for example, a combination of syphilis and alcohol dependency. If treatment involves wet or oily dressings and there are septic conditions, wet gangrene can develop.
In gas gangrene the infected area of skin can quickly extend, with some changes visible in just a matter of minutes. As such, it is important that anyone with suspected symptoms of gangrene seeks immediate medical attention.

With treatment, there is a success rate of up to 60%7 (an improvement on the 50% rate achieved on battlefields for the soldiers serving in the World Wars1).
However, the precise mechanism behind the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy remains unknown. Chicago, Illinois, US: Encyclop?dia Britannica, published online by Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc, accessed November 2014. Each Tandem product utilizes modern technology, such as a built-in rechargeable battery and micro-USB port for convenient charging and fast data transfers.
Each character had her own book series, wardrobe and a host of accessories, from beds to pets.
The company recently added diabetes supplies to mimic those used by the thousands of youngsters and adults nationwide after Busse and others created an online petition on change.org.
This marked Szwarc’s introduction to the American Girl doll craze that has been captivating 5-ish-year-olds to 14-ish-year-olds for more than two decades now.
She attends a performing arts school and wants to pursue an acting career when she grows up. Szwarc also observed that the dolls are available in a staggering array of skin colors, hair colors and eye colors.
They attend a private Catholic school that requires students to wear uniforms – and their dolls are sporting uniforms that match. Girls can accessorize their American Girl dolls in myriad ways, and, as shown in this photograph, Jenna has secured horses and horse-riding accessories for hers. That price can escalate quickly with customized clothing, furniture and accessories – not to mention treatments at American Girl stores’ doll hair salons, where dolls can have their tresses styled, get their ears pierced and receive refreshing facial scrubs.
Her grandmother gave her the dolls, and her mother helps ensure the collection stays organized. Since beta cells are insulin producing cells, loss of insulin leads to a high glycemic index.
We wanted to determine the usefulness of glucagon in the artificial pancreas, especially to prevent hypoglycemia, which remains the major barrier to reaching glycemic targets,” said Dr. De hecho me han dicho que ya esta siendo utilizado por algunas clinicas de los hospitales incluyendo el Hospital de Torrevieja que es mi hospital local. Medicamento sujeto a prescripcion medica, cupon precinto diferenciado y aportacion reducida.
Estos tambien pueden ayudar a mejorar la habilidad del organismo para utilizar la insulina. Victoza ® ayuda a reducir el azucar en la sangre, y aunque no es un producto para bajar de peso, puede ayudar a perder peso. It is a major source of energy and is used by every living organism.When you eat food, your digestive system breaks it down into glucose in the blood so your cells can extract energy from it and recharge themselves. Ninety percent of the adults suffering from diabetes have Type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes occurs when your pancreas produces the insulin, but your cells are unable to use it properly. This is because of diabetic neuropathy, which is a loss of sensation resulting from nerve damage caused by diabetes.
Of her six American Girl dolls, Gillian said, “I like that I can do whatever I want with them, and they don’t talk back. I want to have diabetic accessories for my American Girl doll so she is just like me," she wrote at the time.
The long term sequela include respiratory crisis associated with poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy and eye problems that lead to blindness.
Rabasa-Lhoret, who is a professor at the Department of Nutrition at the University of Montreal and Director of Obesity, Metabolism and Diabetes research clinic at the IRCM.
The artificial pancreas adapt to the body’s need and deliver the amount of insulin that is required to keep high levels of glucose in check. In medical terminology, this is called insulin resistance.Initially, the pancreas responds by making more insulin to try to get the cells to use it properly. The t:slim G4 insulin pump is the only pump that conveniently displays CGM graphs and trend information with current insulin delivery activity together on the home screen to help make informed treatment decisions. However, if the blood glucose levels fall below the optimum value, the pancreas delivers the second hormone, glucagon which has the potential to combat hypoglycemia.
Orders for the t:slim G4 Insulin Pump can be placed now with shipments expected to begin in October 2015. Hence providing greater control over the glycemic index than the available conventional therapies. This may ultimately cause excess blood sugar.Excess blood sugar due to either type of diabetes is a major cause for concern. The researchers are planning to test this invention over a larger scale to eliminate any problems and evaluate the benefits and risks better.
Since the kidneys’ filters are so minuscule in size, they do not filter these useful substances and they remain in the blood and benefit the body.However, diabetes damages the filters over time, causing a complete failure of the filtration process.
This, in turn, allows the proteins in the blood to escape to the urine.Albumin is one such protein that passes through to the urine. A dangerous excess of the same is called microalbuminuria.Microalbuminuria could indicate an early stage of kidney failure.
Diabetic nephropathy (diabetes-induced kidney disease) is the most prevalent cause of end stage kidney disease, according to a 2001 study published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
This is when your kidneys fail completely and are no longer able to support you.It could take years for kidney damage to occur in diabetic patients.
Eventually, this starves the nerves of oxygen and nutrients, and damages them severely.Because nerves run throughout the body, nerve damage can have a variety of symptoms depending on the area of the body that has been affected.

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