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Note that people who are diagnosed with diabetes can take their medicines and live normal lives. What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies.
For example, it may become possible to generate healthy heart muscle cells in the laboratory and then transplant those cells into patients with chronic heart disease.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure, has ranked as the number one cause of death in the United States every year since 1900 except 1918, when the nation struggled with an influenza epidemic. Cardiovascular disease can deprive heart tissue of oxygen, thereby killing cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes).
The use of embryonic and adult-derived stem cells for cardiac repair is an active area of research.
A few small studies have also been carried out in humans, usually in patients who are undergoing open-heart surgery.
In people who suffer from type 1 diabetes, the cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. To realize the promise of novel cell-based therapies for such pervasive and debilitating diseases, scientists must be able to manipulate stem cells so that they possess the necessary characteristics for successful differentiation, transplantation, and engraftment. Also, to avoid the problem of immune rejection, scientists are experimenting with different research strategies to generate tissues that will not be rejected. To summarize, stem cells offer exciting promise for future therapies, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research. Page citation: What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? Although not common, it occurs when pregnant women who have never had diabetes develop a high blood sugar level. It can result in many health complications such as heart disease, stroke, nerve damage and blindness. We examined the restoration of first-phase and total insulin response as well as hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Studies of human embryonic stem cells will yield information about the complex events that occur during human development. New medications are tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Preliminary research in mice and other animals indicates that bone marrow stromal cells, transplanted into a damaged heart, can have beneficial effects. This loss triggers a cascade of detrimental events, including formation of scar tissue, an overload of blood flow and pressure capacity, the overstretching of viable cardiac cells attempting to sustain cardiac output, leading to heart failure, and eventual death. A number of stem cell types, including embryonic stem (ES) cells, cardiac stem cells that naturally reside within the heart, myoblasts (muscle stem cells), adult bone marrow-derived cells including mesenchymal cells (bone marrow-derived cells that give rise to tissues such as muscle, bone, tendons, ligaments, and adipose tissue), endothelial progenitor cells (cells that give rise to the endothelium, the interior lining of blood vessels), and umbilical cord blood cells, have been investigated as possible sources for regenerating damaged heart tissue. New studies indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in cell culture to form insulin-producing cells that eventually could be used in transplantation therapy for persons with diabetes.


The following is a list of steps in successful cell-based treatments that scientists will have to learn to control to bring such treatments to the clinic.
In Type2 Diabetes, even though the pancreas can produce the hormone insulin, it does not produce enough.
It is always important that you get clearance from your doctor first; just to be sure you are OK to do anything. Additionally, to examine the mechanistic basis of observed outcomes, we quantified the change in fat content of the pancreas and liver The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the abnormalities of insulin secretion and insulin resistance that underlie type 2 diabetes have a single, common aetiology, i.e. A primary goal of this work is to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become the differentiated cells that form the tissues and organs. Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including macular degeneration, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Whether these cells can generate heart muscle cells or stimulate the growth of new blood vessels that repopulate the heart tissue, or help via some other mechanism is actively under investigation.
Given the aging of the population and the relatively dramatic recent increases in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, CVD will be a significant health concern well into the 21st century.
Restoring damaged heart muscle tissue, through repair or regeneration, is therefore a potentially new strategy to treat heart failure. All have been explored in mouse or rat models, and some have been tested in larger animal models, such as pigs.
The mechanism for this repair remains controversial, and the stem cells likely regenerate heart tissue through several pathways. For example, injected cells may accomplish repair by secreting growth factors, rather than actually incorporating into the heart.
However, the stem cell populations that have been tested in these experiments vary widely, as do the conditions of their purification and application. This provides a unified hypothesis to explain a common disease that previously appeared to require separate disease processes affecting the pancreas and insulin-sensitive tissues. Some of the most serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. The availability of pluripotent stem cells would allow drug testing in a wider range of cell types. Promising results from animal studies have served as the basis for a small number of exploratory studies in humans (for discussion, see call-out box, "Can Stem Cells Mend a Broken Heart?"). Although much more research is needed to assess the safety and improve the efficacy of this approach, these preliminary clinical experiments show how stem cells may one day be used to repair damaged heart tissue, thereby reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease. A more complete understanding of the genetic and molecular controls of these processes may yield information about how such diseases arise and suggest new strategies for therapy. However, to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs. Other recent studies in cell culture systems indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells or adult bone marrow cells into heart muscle cells (Figure 3). Prior to the onset of spontaneous diabetes in rodents, both total pancreatic fat and islet triacylglycerol content increase sharply. Predictably controlling cell proliferation and differentiation requires additional basic research on the molecular and genetic signals that regulate cell division and specialization.


Therefore, scientists must be able to precisely control the differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type on which drugs will be tested.
In vitro, chronic saturated fatty acid exposure of beta cells inhibits the acute insulin response to glucose, and removal of fatty acids allows recovery of this response. While recent developments with iPS cells suggest some of the specific factors that may be involved, techniques must be devised to introduce these factors safely into the cells and control the processes that are induced by these factors. For some cell types and tissues, current knowledge of the signals controlling differentiation falls short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to generate pure populations of differentiated cells for each drug being tested. The present data provide clear evidence that decreasing total pancreatic fat is associated with a return of beta cell function.
However, it is probable that the negative effect on beta cell function is exerted by toxic intermediaries such as diacylglycerol and ceramides, which change rapidly in response to acute metabolic changes, rather than by stored triacylglycerol per se, which acts as an index of fatty acid intermediary concentration.
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