Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension in india,jan yperman vanhaverbeke,can honey control diabetes pdf,type 2 diabetes alcohol consumption japan - .

Non-Hispanic black persons were more likely than non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American persons to have at least one of the three conditions (diagnosed or undiagnosed). Non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white persons were more likely than Mexican-American persons to have both diagnosed or undiagnosed hypertension and hyper-cholesterolemia. Eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population is one of two overarching goals of both Healthy People 2010 and 2020 (1). Diagnosed or undiagnosed hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are more likely to coexist in non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white persons than Mexican-American persons.
Consensus definitions for the diagnosis of the hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes have been presented elsewhere and serve as the rationale for the analytic definitions used in this report as described in the following text (4-6).
Hypertension: Systolic BP a‰? 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP a‰? 90 mm Hg or currently taking medication to lower high BP.
Diabetes: A self-report of a previous physician diagnosis of diabetes or having undiagnosed diabetes.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were used for these analyses.
The NHANES sample is selected through a complex, multistage design that includes selection of primary sampling units (counties), household segments within the counties, and finally sample persons from selected households. Sample weights, which account for the differential probabilities of selection, nonresponse, and noncoverage, were incorporated into the estimation process. Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. WASHINGTON: Approximately half of the US adult population has diabetes or is pre-diabetic, although prevalence of the disease appears to be leveling off after decades of increase, researchers said on Tuesday. Nearly 40 per cent of US adults had pre-diabetes and 12 to 14pc had diabetes between 2011 and 2012, according to new research in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Despite these increases, the researchers said recent growth was slight and could signal a `plateauing of diabetes prevalence` that is `consistent with obesity trends in the United States showing a leveling off around the same period. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy.
After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. At present, scientists do not know exactly what causes the body’s immune system to attack the beta cells, but they believe that autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors, possibly viruses, are involved. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop over a short period, although beta cell destruction can begin years earlier. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents, especially among African American, Mexican American, and Pacific Islander youth. When type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown reasons the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. Most people with LADA still produce their own insulin when first diagnosed, like those with type 2 diabetes. Excess amounts of certain hormones that work against the action of insulin can cause diabetes. A number of medications and chemicals can interfere with insulin secretion, leading to diabetes in people with insulin resistance. Several infections are associated with the occurrence of diabetes, including congenital rubella, coxsackievirus B, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and mumps.
The fasting blood glucose test is the preferred test for diagnosing diabetes in children and nonpregnant adults. People with pre-diabetes have blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Pre-diabetes is also called impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), depending on the test used to diagnose it. Diabetes is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body. Type 1 diabetes occurs equally among males and females but is more common in whites than in nonwhites. Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone with type 1 diabetes died within a few years after diagnosis. Today, healthy eating, physical activity, and taking insulin are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes.
Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic management tools for type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control.


The team can also include other health care providers, such as cardiologists and other specialists. The goal of diabetes management is to keep levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol as close to the normal range as safely possible.
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, a European study completed in 1998, showed that intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced the risk of blindness, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack in people with type 2 diabetes. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American persons were more likely than non-Hispanic white persons to have both diagnosed or undiagnosed hypertension and diabetes. Non-Hispanic white persons were more likely to have only one of the three conditions compared with Mexican-American persons. Diagnosed or undiagnosed hypertension and diabetes are more likely to coexist in non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American persons than non-Hispanic white persons. NHANES is a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S.
The sample design includes oversampling in order to obtain reliable estimates of health and nutritional measures for population subgroups. The standard errors of the percentages were estimated using Taylor Series Linearization, a method that incorporates the sample weights and sample design (8). Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. That percentage was higher for Asian-Americans and Latinos at approximately half of all cases. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of diagnosed diabetes in the United States.
Symptoms may include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. Although this form of diabetes usually disappears after the birth of the baby, women who have had gestational diabetes have a 40 to 60 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 to 10 years. As with type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes occurs more often in some ethnic groups and among women with a family history of diabetes.
For example, monogenic forms of diabetes result from mutations, or changes, in a single gene.
These hormones and their related conditions include growth hormone in acromegaly, cortisol in Cushing’s syndrome, glucagon in glucagonoma, and epinephrine in pheochromocytoma. These medications and chemicals include pentamidine, nicotinic acid, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, phenytoin (Dilantin), and Vacor, a rat poison. Glucose levels are normally lower during pregnancy, so the cutoff levels for diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy are lower. Studies have clearly shown that people can lower their risk of developing diabetes by losing 5 to 7 percent of their body weight through diet and increased physical activity. The disease often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Indirect costs, including disability payments, time lost from work, and reduced productivity, totaled $58 billion.
Data from the World Health Organization’s Multinational Project for Childhood Diabetes indicate that type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, American Indian, and Asian populations. Although insulin is not considered a cure, its discovery was the first major breakthrough in diabetes treatment.
The team for a pregnant woman with type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes should include an obstetrician who specializes in caring for women with diabetes.
A major study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), showed that keeping blood glucose levels close to normal reduces the risk of developing major complications of type 1 diabetes. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are all chronic conditions associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Non-Hispanic black persons were more likely than non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American persons to have at least one of these three conditions. Non-Hispanic black persons were more likely to have two comorbid conditions compared with non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American persons.
In 1999-2006, African Americans, Mexican Americans, persons with low income, persons aged 12-19 years , and persons aged 60 and over were oversampled. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine.
In diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. If not diagnosed and treated with insulin, a person with type 1 diabetes can lapse into a life-threatening diabetic coma, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis. This form of diabetes is most often associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, and certain ethnicities. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes—glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel.


Symptoms may include fatigue, frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds or sores. Maintaining a reasonable body weight and being physically active may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
For example, in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), also called type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, people show signs of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Instead, they control their blood glucose levels with meal planning, physical activity, and oral diabetes medications. A number of different gene mutations have been shown to cause MODY, all of which limit the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin. Cystic fibrosis and hemochromatosis can also damage the pancreas enough to cause diabetes.
In other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, patients may have anti-insulin receptor antibodies that cause diabetes by interfering with the binding of insulin to body tissues.
However, diabetes is likely to be underreported as the underlying cause of death on death certificates.
Uncontrolled diabetes can complicate pregnancy, and birth defects are more common in babies born to women with diabetes. Direct medical costs for diabetes care, including hospitalizations, medical care, and treatment supplies, totaled $116 billion.
However, some northern European countries, including Finland and Sweden, have high rates of type 1 diabetes.
Managing diabetes is more than keeping blood glucose levels under control—it is also important to manage blood pressure and cholesterol levels through healthy eating, physical activity, and the use of medications, if needed. The team can also include a pediatrician or a neonatologist with experience taking care of babies born to women with diabetes. These findings indicate that a high percentage of the population have a condition associated with heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Non-Hispanic black persons were also more likely to have all three chronic conditions compared with non-Hispanic white persons. The survey consists of interviews conducted in participantsa€™ homes, standardized physical examinations conducted in mobile examination centers, and laboratory tests utilizing blood and urine specimens provided by participants during the physical examination. Wright are with the Centers for Disease Control and Preventiona€™s National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
However, several years after diagnosis, people with LADA must take insulin to control blood glucose levels. NDM can be mistaken for the much more common type 1 diabetes, but type 1 diabetes usually occurs after the first 6 months of life. In 2004, among people ages 65 years or older, heart disease was noted on 68 percent of diabetes-related death certificates; stroke was noted on 16 percent of diabetes-related death certificates for the same age group. In addition, reliance on only self-reported diagnosis results in an underestimate of the prevalence of these conditions.
Each year of data collection is based on a representative sample covering all ages of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population.
As LADA progresses, the beta cells of the pancreas may no longer make insulin because the body’s immune system has attacked and destroyed them, as in type 1 diabetes.
More information about specific types of MODY is provided in the fact sheet Monogenic Forms of Diabetes.
Those with pre-diabetes are likely to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years, unless they take steps to prevent or delay diabetes. People with diabetes also monitor blood glucose levels several times a year with a laboratory test called the A1C.
Aspirin therapy, if recommended by a person’s health care team, and smoking cessation can also help lower risk. According to recent estimates from the CDC, diabetes will affect one in three people born in 2000 in the United States. The CDC also projects that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States will increase 165 percent by 2050.
Oxford University Press, Australia, 2002.Adams R, Wakefield M, Wilson D, Parsons J, Campbell D, Smith B, Ruffin R. Multiple respiratory symptoms predict Quality of Life in Chronic Lung Disease: a population-based study of Australian adults.



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