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NB: We use cookies to help personalise your web experience and comply with Irish healthcare law. This site contains information, news and advice for healthcare professionals.You have informed us that you are not a healthcare professional and therefore we are unable to provide you with access to this site. Invokana is a member of a new class of drugs known as sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Canagliflozin is indicated as a once-daily oral medication to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The marketing authorisation is based on the results of an extensive, phase 3 clinical trial programme which enrolled 10,285 patients with type 2 diabetes in nine double-blind, controlled clinical efficacy and safety studies.1-3 Several of these phase 3 studies have directly compared Invokana to current standard treatments. Do you agree that private hospitals should be paid via the NTPF to cut public hospital waiting lists? Washington, May 24 : A new anti-inflammatory drug could help boost survival in the most severe cases of malaria by preventing the immune system from causing irreversible brain and tissue damage, according to the researchers. Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have revealed that a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, called IDR (innate defense regulator) peptides, could help to increase survival from severe clinical malaria when used in combination with antimalarial drugs. The study was conducted by a research team fronted by Dr Ariel Achtman and Dr Sandra Pilat-Carotta, and led by Professor Louis Schofield from the institute''s Infection and Immunity division.
Achtman claimed that many drugs that prevent malaria infections are not effective in sick patients at preventing tissue damage that arises from the inflammatory immune response. Pilat-Carotta said that the team used a treatment approach which combined drugs that suppress potentially harmful inflammation with antimalarial agents that fight the parasite, in mouse models infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Every year malaria kills up to one million people worldwide, particularly children under five and pregnant women, who often develop severe clinical symptoms such as, brain damage and multiple organ failure.
Professor Schofield claimed that up to 25 per cent of severe clinical malaria cases are fatal even with access to the best health care. Schofield revealed that IDR peptides are a new class of anti-inflammatory agent developed by Professor Robert Hancock and colleagues at the University of British Columbia, Canada, which enhance beneficial aspects of the initial immune response, while dampening harmful inflammation.
Achtman insisted that the development of preclinical models of severe malaria could improve pre-clinical drug screening and potentially prevent some of the drug failures that happen at the human clinical trial stage. London, July 25 : Australian researchers have rubbished suggestions that patients who have been effectively treated with antiretroviral drugs, and have no genital infections, don’t have to worry about transmitting the virus to others through unprotected sex. David Wilson, an expert associated with the University of New South Wales in Sydney, says that a computer analysis of rates of HIV transmission from individuals with different levels of the virus in their blood has shown that infection can still occur, and that condoms are still essential.


He says that the incidence of HIV can increase four-fold among the couples in just 10 years if groups of couples, wherein the infection in HIV-infected partners is controlled by drugs, stop using condoms. The researcher ran the computer simulation to find out what would happen if people with 10 copies of HIV per millilitre of blood – a level that indicates that antiretroviral therapy has effectively controlled the infection – had unprotected sex 100 times each year. He observed that over the 10 years, there would be 3524 new male-to-male HIV infections in a population of 10000 couples, 425 new male-to-female transmissions in a population of 10000, and 215 new female-to-male transmissions. A research article in the journal The Lancet says that several western countries, including Australia and the UK, have seen large increases in HIV transmission rates in the past decade, despite the widespread use of antiretroviral drugs.
The report adds that a contributing factor is thought to be a fall in the use of condoms, as HIV infection is increasingly seen as a disease that can be managed with drugs, rather than a death sentence. About Raynaud's phenomenon During an episode of Raynaud’s phenomenon, your blood vessels narrow and contract quickly, reducing the blood supply to your fingers and toes. Cushing SyndromeA condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (hydrocortisone) or other glucocorticoids from endogenous or exogenous sources. Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Statistics Advertise with us ContactWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site.
These were generally mild or moderate in severity, occurred at a low incidence and infrequently led to discontinuation. Greater reductions in body weight (difference of ?2.8%), FPG and systolic BP were observed with canagliflozin relative to sitagliptin. Canagliflozin vs sitagliptin as add-on to metformin improved glycaemic control from baseline and showed statistical superiority to sitagliptin at 52 weeks.
This is an example of a ''host-directed'' therapy - a treatment intended to act on the host not the parasite," Pilat-Carotta said.
On their own, antimalarial drugs fail in approximately one out of every four cases of severe clinical malaria, because by the time the patient arrives at a hospital they are already very sick and inflammation caused by the immune response to the parasite is causing major organ damage," Schofield said.
Host-directed therapies are a good treatment option because parasites are less likely to evolve resistance, and we believe they will eventually increase the number of successful treatment interventions in the short time window between hospitalisation with severe malaria and death," said Achtman. As glucose is filtered from the blood into the kidneys, it is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
Secondary endpoints included changes in HbA1c at week 52, body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure (BP) at weeks 26 and 52.
Overall adverse events incidence was similar with canagliflozin and sitagliptin but the incidence of genital mycotic infection and osmotic diuresis-related adverse events was higher with canagliflozin.


It also demonstrated a low but slightly higher risk of hypoglycaemia than with sitagliptin. Canagliflozin selectively inhibits SGLT2, an important transport carrier in the renal proximal tubule responsible for this reabsorption, and as a result, promotes the loss of glucose via the urine, lowering blood glucose levels in adults with type 2 diabetes. The incidence of urinary tract infections was similar with canagliflozin 100mg and 300mg and the control groups (i.e.
Dose-related increases in the incidence of hypoglycaemia episodes were seen with canagliflozin vs placebo in patients on background sulfonylurea. Most people develop Raynaud’s phenomenon before the age of 25, but you can get it at any age. An episode of Raynaud’s can be triggered by the cold, by emotional stress and may be made worse by smoking. If your condition is severe, or a secondary cause is suspected, your GP may refer you to a rheumatologist (a doctor who specialises in identifying and treating conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system, particularly the joints and surrounding tissues). If you have primary Raynaud’s, your GP will suggest things you can do to stop triggering an episode. Or, if you have secondary Raynaud's, your GP or rheumatologist will first try to treat any underlying causes. Your GP will usually prescribe a medicine called a calcium-channel blocker (eg nifedipine). It works by relaxing the walls of your blood vessels so that more blood can reach your fingers and toes, which helps prevent episodes. For example, you may have a procedure known as a digital sympathectomy to cut one of the nerves in your fingers if one of your fingers is severely affected.
Several alternative therapies and herbal remedies have been suggested for Raynaud's, but the evidence isn't strong enough for doctors to recommend them.
Examples include: vitamin C vitamin E omega-3 oils evening primrose oil ginkgo biloba Talk to your GP for advice before you try an alternative therapy or take any herbal remedies for your condition. However, if your symptoms are severe and affect how well your hands and feet work, you may have to take extra measures to warm them before you can control your vehicle properly.



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