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This Plant Is Everywhere, But You Had No Idea It Can Treat Tumors, Diabetes And High Blood Pressure! White mulberry, along with many other plants that grow in these places, is not well-known for its healing properties since it is mainly used for industrial purposes. This miraculous plant has been proved to be very helpful in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, common colds, muscle and joint pain, arthritis, constipation, ringing in the ears, dizziness, hair loss and premature graying.
White mulberry contains compounds which have similar effects to those of the medicines used for type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it is rich in organic acids, vitamin C, pectin, fiber, carotene, inverted sugar, resin etc.
Also, it is high in antioxidants which can significantly reduce cholesterol levels, and when used on long terms, it can prevent and treat heart disease.
According to a study conducted at the University of Texas, white mulberry berries are rich in resveratrol, a phenol which can effectively treat various types of cancer and heart disease. White mulberry has the ability to eliminate excess sugar from the bloodstream and help the body process sugar. A large systematic review and meta-analysis shows that antihypertensive treatment provides no benefit and increases the risk of CV death in patients with DM and SBP < 140 mm Hg.
Meta-analysis suggests that lowering blood pressure beyond the often recommended systolic BP of 140 mmHg, to below 130 mmHg may reduce the risk of stroke, retinopathy and albuminuria. Phase III results show that 12 weeks of treatment with SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin safely improves blood pressure, and lowers HbA1c and body weight, in hypertensive T2DM patients. Meta-analysis shows that ACEIs and ARBs differentially influence the risk of all-cause mortality, CV deaths and CV events in patients with DM.
The Brazilian HiperDia System provides antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatment in primary care. Increasing exercise dose is beneficial while type of exercise does not affect risk reduction.
Up to 3 months after renal denervation, insulin sensitivity and glucose levels were improved, in addition to a beneficial effect on blood pressure.
The China National Survey of Chronic Kidney disease was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in Chinese adults between 2007 and 2010.CKD has become an important public health issue in China, maybe as a consequence of increased diabetes and hypertension. Prof John Betteridge, London, discusses the evolution of diabetes therapy, the epidemic rise in diabetes, current and emerging diabetes therapies. Vascular Research Network is an organization which main task is the mediation between researchers, sponsors, contract research organizations (CROs) and academic research organizations (AROs) during clinical research. There are multiple biochemical mechanisms that diabetes symptoms yahoo answer mi lansing account for this tissue impairment. Prevalence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in schoolchildren: the Karlsburg Type 1 Diabetes Risk Study. When you think of the body parts affected by diabetes these are the ones that likely come to mind.
I know I sent you an email and promised you a testimonial on how this would work for me as I only For people with diabetes this can be a scary proposition because you don’t always know how your body will handle a particular type of food or drink. Is she loses more than 12 pounds, her gestational diabetes risk during the second pregnancy is 75 percent smaller than if her weight had remained the same. In contrast to mean values, the variability in SBP and DBP between visits was associated with cognitive and verbal decline. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 studies, the short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants was significantly associated with increased risk for hypertension. Morning home BP measurements were strong predictors of both CAD risk and stroke in HONEST study.
ACC 2016 HOPE-3 study shows that statins may significantly reduce adverse cardiovascular events in people with average cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) levels who are considered to be at intermediate risk for cardiovascular disease, while the use of BP-lowering medications may be beneficial only in hypertensive patients. A large meta-analysis shows that dietary interventions lead to clinically significant net BP reductions, but effects vary between types of diet, and within different patient subgroups.
In patients with a history of stroke or TIA, the SBP target of <130 mmHg rather than 140 mmHg yielded only a small additional reduction in BP. Rapid and uneven demographic and social transformations have been accompanied by profound nutritional and epidemiological changes that have had mixed effects on the Mexican population.1 Social changes have led to improvements in infant and child nutrition, health, and survival,2 while also fueling considerable increases in obesity and related chronic conditions, most notably diabetes and hypertension. Weighted descriptive estimates for the older Mexican population in 2001 and 2012 are shown in table I. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and hypertensionRegression results associating access to health care and education with prevalence and treatment measures, all by sex and age group, are shown in table II. Note: All models control for age and a dummy for proxy respondent (see Appendix for complete tables). Similar to diabetes, older adults (aged 65-80) who have access to health insurance are significantly more likely to report having being diagnosed with hypertension, with larger coefficients found among females in 2012 (table II). More importantly, the prevalence of untreated diabetes or hypertension declined across all sex and age groups.
Note: All models control for age, education and a dummy for proxy respondent (see Appendix for complete tables). Our results indicate that access to health insurance, and the expansion of Seguro Popular in particular, have likely played a major role in self-reporting diagnosis and treatment of major chronic diseases.
Further, these associations seem to be genderspecific, with larger effects for females than males.
Seguro Popular is emerging as an important health care resource for the older adult Mexican population, at least for conditions that are easily detectable. Salud Publica de Mexico es una publicacion periodica electronica, bimestral, publicada por el Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP), con domicilio en Avenida Universidad num.
Diabetics also have a predisposition to get high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels in the blood, these in fact, could lead to heart diseases.
These nutrients can effectively treat tonsillitis, cough, fever, diarrhea, headache and inflammation. Relative risk increase was lower in older people and those with BMI>35, but absolute risk remained substantial in those individuals.
VRN offers exclusive access to cardiovascular research and expertise in the Netherlands to the pharmaceutical industry and contract research organizations. VRN aims at clinical phase I, II, III and IV trials in the vast field of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Diabetes High Blood Pressure And Obesity Nh Manchester for the lipid extraction the liver was rinsed in cold physiological saline thoroughly and dried by type 2 diabetes. This section on mouth ulcers covers Herpes Cold Sores Canker Sores or Apthous Ulcers and Thrush (Candidiasis). 5 Tips To Lose Stomach Fat Fast Weight Loss Type 1 Diabetes The 5 Forbidden Diabetes High Blood Pressure And Obesity Nh Manchester Commandments That Force Your Body To Kill Stubborn Belly Fat!!!
Philippine Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Presentation Transcript.
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Treatment Photo Credit pied detoure sur fond bleu image by margouillat photo Antibiotics for Diabetic Foot Ulcer Treatment can lead to loss of a leg or foot especially if associated with a foot ulcer or a leg wound. Treating diabetes early with insulin can reduce deaths from the disease by 13 per cent a long term study shows. Diabetes is classified into four major groups: type 1 diabetes (T1DM) type 2 diabetes (T2DM) other specific types and gestational diabetes (GDM) occurring during pregnancy.
The Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition & Metabolic Diseases is the journal of the what is a good diet plan for a diabetes california rialto Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases. High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) develop because the animal’s body is unable to eak down and use glucose properly. Ruilope, Hopital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain discusses recommendations in the management of hypertension and concurrent lifestyle modification.
Ruilope provides guidance for better measurement of blood pressure, for better management of this risk factor. Clinic SBP and evening SBP may underestimate risk, as well as diastolic BP in either setting.
Salim Yusuf discusses the results of the HOPE-3 study, which indicates that statins are effective in all patients with intermediate CVD risk, whereas blood pressure lowering is only effective in hypertensive patients. Madison, WI, USA.(2) Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
To estimate changes in self-report and treatment of diabetes and hypertension between 2001 and 2012 among Mexican aged 50-80, assessing the contribution of education and health insurance coverage. Data were collected in collaboration with the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI, in Spanish).
The first row on the right hand side of equation (2) shows the effect of changes in the composition of the population, holding constant their impact on the prevalence, while the second row shows the impact of changes in the relationship between these covariates and the prevalence of each condition, holding constant the composition of the population.
Comparisons across years show a significant increase in diabetes prevalence for all ages, while the prevalence of hypertension significantly increased only for older adults aged 65-80. Sample sizes correspond to actual number of respondents in theanalytic sampleSource: Reference 34Self-reported access to health insurance other than Seguro Popular remained fairly constant during the period, covering about half the people aged 50-80 in both 2001 and 2012.
Results for self-reported diabetes indicate that people who have access to health insurance are somewhat more likely to self-report having diabetes, particularly for those aged 65-80. Odds ratios from logistic regression analyses taking into account the complex survey design (sampling weights). Education, on the other hand, does not show a consistent link with self-reported hypertension. The contribution of changes in the composition of the population on explaining changes in untreated condition is similar to that of the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension.


Odds ratios from logistic regression analysestaking into account the complex survey design (sampling weights). Beneficiaries of Seguro Popular aged 50-64 are equally likely to be aware of their diabetes or hypertension status relative to other forms of insurance, and there is no significant difference in reporting untreated diabetes between Seguro Popular and other forms of insurance. Our measures are based on self-reports in both waves, which does not allow us to separate changes in the actual prevalence of diabetes and hypertension from increases in awareness. Diabetes needs to be managed carefully and the blood glucose levels need to be kept well under control to prevent complications. Atherosclerosis or thickening of the blood vessels of the heart occurs as a complication of diabetes. Thus, a diabetic should always be aware of this and go for check ups as soon as they notice any untoward symptoms. Diabetic neuropathy could cause erectile dysfunction, muscular weakness, difficulty in speech or swallowing, drooping of eyelids, involuntary urination etc. The berries are extremely beneficial for treating numerous serious diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and even tumors.
There is no guarantee the results The real cure for Type 2 isn’t calorie deprivation.
Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen.
Champaign, IL, USA(3) Department of Geography, Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science and Geography Department, University of Colorado at Boulder. The prevalence of each condition is high with over a third and about one-fifth of people aged 65-80 being diagnosed with hypertension or diabetes, respectively. Seguro Popular thus became an important additional source of health care, covering about onethird of this population by 2012. However, among those who self-report having been diagnosed with diabetes, neither health insurance nor education appears to be associated with an untreated condition. The only exception is found among males aged 50-64 for whom compositional changes in education seem to have contributed the most in reducing the prevalence of an untreated condition. This increase is partly due to more screening resulting from the expansion of health care access through Seguro Popular. Thus, Seguro Popular may be contributing to ameliorate the large economic costs associated with the progression of these conditions by providing an important source of preventive care.22 Yet from the current analyses, it seems that Seguro Popular has not been equally effective in the early detection and control of chronic diseases relative to other forms of insurance and health care.
Epidemiological and nutritional transition in Mexico: Rapid increase of non-communicable chronic diseases and obesity. The paper further argues that obesity prevention is more likely to come from structural and policy-related changes to the environment than from medical interventions targeted at the individual. Diabetes requires strict lifestyle changes, exercise and medications to keep it under control. A 13 year old would most likely develop Type 1 Diabetes which is sometimes called Juvenile Onset Diabetes.
This is the problem for the onset of this condition is not easy to Diabetes High Blood Pressure And Obesity Nh Manchester establish. Given the various findings of elevated insulin levels among some people with psoriasis they should be aware that they may be at some risk for developing Type II diabetes. Early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the risk of developing the complications of diabetes. The Mexican Health and Aging Study was used to estimate associations of education and insurance on prevalence and treatment of diabetes and hypertension in 2001 and 2012.
We also included a dummy indicator to identify proxy respondents.MethodsWe followed a two-step process. Seguro Popular was collapsed with all other forms of insurance in these decompositions to allow us to estimate the role of health insurance in changes in prevalence and treatment. Although, at face value, this increase could be a worrying indication that a higher share of older adults is afflicted with these diseases, other results in our analyses suggest these patterns are also an indication of a higher screening and detection of otherwise undiagnosed diseases.
The expansion of health care coverage exclusively through Seguro Popular took place in a context of declines in the proportion of people with no education.
The exception is found among people aged 65-80 in 2012, for whom access to health care is associated with a lower likelihood of having untreated diabetes.
Nonetheless, the expansion of health coverage contributed the most to the observed reduction in the prevalence of being untreated for diabetes or hypertension.Although compositional changes had some relevance in explaining changes in the prevalence and treatment of diabetes and hypertension, the largest contributions to the reduction in untreated conditions came from increases in the effect of the covariates.
We found that older adults (ages 65-80) with Seguro Popular are significantly less likely to report being diagnosed with diabetes relative to other forms of insurance, and that younger adult males (ages 50-64) and older adult females (ages 65-80) with Seguro Popular are significantly more likely to report untreated hypertension. Rolling back the rapid increase in obesity in the Caribbean requires much more than the traditional passive approach that relied almost entirely on education for individual behavioural change. In fact diabetes is one of the cause for silent cardiac arrests, where cardiac arrest occur suddenly without much outward symptoms. Salmeron J Manson JE Stampfer MJ et al: Dietary fiber glycemic load and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women.
Multivariate decomposition was used to assess the contribution of changes in the composition of covariates vs. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards or Ethics Committees of the University of Texas Medical Branch in the United States, the INEGI and the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP) in Mexico. First, to identify variation in the risk factors of prior diagnosis and lack of treatment by age and sex, we estimated a series of sexand age group-specific (aged 50-64 and 65-80) logistic regression models for each point in time: 2001 and 2012. Also consistent with this interpretation, is the fact that the proportion of people with diagnosed but untreated diabetes or hypertension significantly declined over time, particularly for hypertension.
Higher schooling is an important measure of higher SES and a predictor of formal sector participation; nonetheless the expansion of coverage occurred mostly via Seguro Popular. With the exception of women ages 50-64, for whom hypertension actually declined, diabetes and hypertension prevalence increased between 2001 and 2012. Interestingly and perhaps because we are studying chronic conditions that are closely related to aging, the impact of demographics on changes in prevalence rates is rather large and positive, contributing to the increase in diagnosis prevalence. Previous studies have shown an inverse link between education and physiological dysregulation across multiple systems.
Although increasing access to health care may raise disease awareness, it is also important to continue improving the quality and efficiency of the treatment provided. Similarly, our results for lack of medical treatment, as opposed to, say, diet and exercise, need not imply lack of appropriate control.
The traditional models of obesity control have generally failed globally and a new public policy approach needs to be instituted to attack this epidemic in a multisectoral way. The study included 140 CHD patients 30 of them with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 110 without diabetes.
Detailed information on the MHAS survey design is presented elsewhere.12MHAS recorded detailed information on individual health, migration history, SES, family transfers, kin availability and attributes, and household composition for main respondents, as well as their spouses. Changes in the composition of the population with access to health insurance had the largest contribution (among compositional factors) in explaining changes in the prevalence of each condition.
Education also has a nontrivial impact on the likelihood of reporting diabetes and (to a lesser extent) hypertension. In particular, studies have found high levels of plasma glucose and higher likelihood of having hypertension among Mexicans with low education.19,20 This difference may be due to underdiagnosed cases that we are unable to identify when using self-reported measures.
Effective control of obesity will require a shift away from the traditional focus on clinical management and individual behaviour change towards strategies which deal with the environment in which such behaviours occur. Untreated gestational diabetes increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, premature birth, delivery problems requiring cesarean section, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Put simply, the fact that health insurance became more prevalent in recent years increased the self-reporting of these chronic conditions as individuals likely became more aware of their disease status.
In contrast, the impact of insurance on diabetes reporting declined slightly over time with milder and mixed effects for hypertension. Previous research in Mexico shows a greater than 20% difference between the prevalence of hypertension based on self-reports and measured blood pressure among people aged 50 or older.19 Although socioeconomic differentials in health are milder among older adults (aged 65-80) due to mortality selection, these differentials were weak even among younger older adults (aged 50-64), where mortality biases are less strong, suggesting higher under-reporting among those with lower SES.
Responsable de la version electronica: Subdireccion de Comunicacion Cientifica y Publicaciones, Avenida Universidad num. Outlined in this paper are key policy changes required by the various sectors whose inputs are vital to the success of prevention efforts. For this analysis, we used data from the 2001 and 2012 waves, including the supplemental sample of adults aged 50-60 in 2012.
Among adults aged 50 to 64, changes in the educational composition contributed to a reduction (negative sign) in the prevalence of both diabetes and hypertension suggesting that, had the schooling levels of older Mexicans not improved, the observed increase in the prevalence of hypertension and, especially, diabetes would have been even higher than the observed change (assuming the effect of schooling on self-reported diabetes and hypertension remained stable between 2001 and 2012). Similarly, the impact of having health insurance on untreated diabetes, and to a lesser extent hypertension, was large, contributing to decreases in an untreated condition during the period.The case of Seguro Popular on diabetes, hypertension and their medical treatmentAdditional analyses examining the role of having only access to Seguro Popular versus other forms of health insurance and those who report no insurance for the most recent wave of MHAS are shown in table IV. As socioeconomic differentials remained weak even after controlling for health insurance, these results may also indicate that the epidemiologic transition is still undergoing for the cohorts studied here.We also found that changes in the composition of the population between 2001 and 2012 explain some of the changes in the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and their treatment. Our results do not provide sufficient evidence to ascertain if SES gradients might have widened further due to better access to screening and, at the same time, whether access to health care could be responsible for better prevention.
Finally, the aging process, reflected in slight changes in the age distribution of the population and in the share of proxy respondents, contributed to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension.
Other forms of insurance include IMSS, ISSSTE, Pemex, Defensa, Marina, Private or Other (grouped as the insurance category in table IV). By far, the considerable expansion of health insurance coverage, mainly through Seguro Popular, had the largest contribution of compositional factors on explaining changes in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension. Our findings represent the net yet protective effect of these factors and further research is needed to disentangle these effects.Declaration of conflict of interests. Measuring the impact of diabetes on life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Mexico.


Similarly, for 2012 we selected people aged 50-80 (n=12 292) and excluded 122 respondents with missing values in the selected variables, leading to a final analytic sample of n=12 170 (99% of the original sample). The increase in health insurance coverage through Seguro Popular has had an important role in the detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes with mixed results between younger (ages 50-64) and older adults (ages 65-80).
This is consistent with previous evidence indicating an increase in health care utilization through Seguro Popular.21 Additionally, the bulk of the change in the prevalence of these conditions comes from changes in the impact of insurance and education on the prevalence of each disease. Among younger adults there is no significant difference in reporting being diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension between Seguro Popular and other forms of insurance, but older adults with Seguro Popular are significantly less likely to report being diagnosed with diabetes. For example, the impact of education is particularly important on younger older adults (aged 50-64) as it has a larger effect over time on the likelihood of being aware of diabetes and hypertension status. However, there is no significant difference in reporting untreated diabetes between Seguro Popular and other forms of insurance, although younger adult males and older adult females with Seguro Popular are significantly more likely to report untreated hypertension. However, the impact of insurance seems to decline over time for diabetes but not for hypertension. For instance, there is an increase in the impact of insurance on being aware of hypertension for younger adult males (aged 50-64) and older females (aged 65-80), and a larger impact of insurance on being untreated for hypertension among younger adult females. Los modelos tradicionales de control de la obesidad han fallado por lo general globalmente.
Barquera S, Campos-Nonato I, Aguilar-Salinas C, Lopez-Ridaura R, Arredondo A, Rivera-Dommarco J. Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy.
During the last few decades, deaths from diabetes show the highest rate of increase among all causes of death (1). It is significant to note the corresponding increased rates of obesity during the same period. Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Although cut-off points such as body mass index (BMI) = 25 and BMI = 30 are used to assess and compare overweight and obesity, Fig. Clearly, the risk of developing diabetes increases dramatically as BMI rises, even from low levels as BMI = 22 without regard to cut-off points.
Diabetes treatment and control: the effect of public health insurance for the poor in Mexico.
For disease control purposes, it is therefore not appropriate to consider the increased risk in the population within these distinct BMI categories, but rather as a con-tinuum. This argues for a population approach (rather than risk approach) to control obesity because all will benefit from a lower BMI.
Public policies should therefore be the approach of choice to control obesity, and consequently diabetes. Association of hypertension treatment and control with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among US adults with hypertension.
The effect of obesity on risk of developing Type 2 diabetes is probably mediated by its effect of worsening insulin resistance. Component factors of insulin resistance such as increased blood pressure, raised triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein concentrations also predict the development of Type 2 diabetes (3, 4).
Figure 2 shows a consistent link among the rates of obesity prevalence and deaths from diabetes and hypertension in several Caribbean countries. There is little doubt that the increases in diabetes and hypertension deaths are related to the increases in obesity (6). Data Files and Documentation (public use): Mexican Health and Aging Study, Methodological Document.
Selection processes in the study of racial and ethnic differentials in adult health and mortality. For boys 11–13 years old, combined overweight and obesity prevalence was 27% while for girls it was 33%. With such high prevalence in youth, it is not surprising that more than 55% of Caribbean women are overweight or obese, almost twice as many as men (2). The influence of health systems on hypertension awareness, treatment, and control: a systematic literature review. Obesity was once believed to be a problem of abundance, affecting only the rich in society.
It is now recognized that even the poorest in society are facing problems of obesity and its consequences. Those who are poor may not have access to healthy foods but do have access to calories of low health value, such as high-fat, high sugar foods, resulting in excessive energy consumption. Similarly, opportunities for recreational physical activity and access to preventive healthcare may be limited in poor communities, indicating that obesity in the Caribbean is closely associated with economic and health disparities. Fuelling this transition is also the wide penetration of commercial food markets and globalized dietary sources. Further, the urban communities are characterized by predominantly sedentary employment, mechanized transportation and lower levels of recreational physical activity. A fully commercialized food chain results in more dietary energy consumed outside of the home, with less personal control over its content, increased dependency on food prices, promotion and advertisements. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population. Collectively, these forces lead to higher consumption of low-cost energy dense foods and reduced energy expenditure, which translates to excess weight gain and obesity.
Traditional research on the determinants of obesity has focussed more on individual behaviours with very little attention to the social and environmental contexts that facilitate and sustain certain behaviours, or detract from others.
Hence, it is clear that only multisectoral, multi-level programmes will be able to stop the obesity epidemic. Caribbean governments need to act on the social and environmental factors operating at higher levels of organization, ie public policies.
The strategy is to create and promote environments conducive to obtaining balanced nutrition and an active lifestyle. In so doing, individuals, families, and communities will be encouraged to continuously opt for healthier choices.
Historically, government ministries, acting independently of one another, have been responsible for health, nutrition and food security.
Given their interdependent and overlapping characteristics, these public policy issues can no longer be narrowly circumscribed by the traditionally vertical functions of individual ministries. Rather, a broad-based, multisectoral and collaborative approach involving all stakeholders is required. We need to build consensus among, and effectively engage, agriculture, trade, education, finance, other government ministries, the private sector and other stakeholders on actions to improve nutrition and health in the region. This is essential if we are to reap synergistic benefits and leverage key sectors to address obesity and other food and nutrition problems.
In the past, there have been several programmes to deal with food and nutrition insecurity, but there was no systematic attempt to engage several sectors to address our major health problems.
The September 2011 High Level Meeting of the United Nations on NCDs provides a good opportunity for policy-makers to take a new approach, one that seeks to address obesity, nutritional well-being and other public health issues through a multisector approach.
The access to healthy foods and the consumption of those foods must be part of one plan and strategy, not separately. Unfortunately, the tradition has been for food availability to be the remit of the Ministries of Agriculture and Trade by facilitating the achievement of quantitative food production and food import goals. On the other hand, the health and nutritional aspects of consumption have been addressed by the Ministry of Health, and even so the focus has been on curative rather than the preventive approach to health and nutrition. The continuous link between agriculture, food, nutrition and health has been absent from the developmental plans.
The resulting effect is that one sector (eg agriculture) may boast their success in achieving a particular goal but this often has a deleterious effect on another sector (eg health).
This should include identification of foods to be promoted through various policy and programme measures as well as foods to be "discouraged".
In collaboration with others, the specific nutrient content of targeted foods especially fruits and vegetables can be used in the promotional campaign, eg what is currently being done in Jamaica and elsewhere with bananas and coconut.
The purpose here is for policy-makers to examine the feasibility of the options relevant to their particular circumstance and develop short and medium term goals and actions for immediate implementation. Over many years, diets have shifted away from locally grown indigenous staples, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and limited foods from animal origin, to diets consisting of more processed and energy-dense foods, more of animal origin, and more added salt, sugars and fats.
Because food consumption habits have a strong influence on nutrition and health status, this shift in diets has led to the increasing prevalence of obesity, a main cause leading to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart diseases and some forms of cancers.
This situation threatens the economic development of Caribbean countries because it raises dramatically healthcare costs and, at the same time, reduces productivity in the adult population. This paper contends that only multisectoral, multi-level policy actions will be able to stop the increase and reverse the obesity epidemic. The UN High Level meeting on NCDs in September 2011 presents another opportunity for change and action. Left unchecked, the increasingly overweight populations and the resultant burden of NCDs will overwhelm the health systems and ultimately retard overall health and development.
Healthy lifestyles in Europe: prevention of obesity and type II diabetes by diet and physical activity.



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