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Many decades later, those toxins he studied and variants thereof are widely used in medical research. Recently, Stanford chemist Justin Du Bois, PhD, teamed up with radiologist Sandip Biswal, MD, who studies the origins of pain, to see if this group of chemicals could be used to better understand (and maybe one day treat) pain.
Biswal, an associate professor of radiology at the Stanford University Medical Center, spent a lot of time imaging parts of the body where people said they felt pain, trying to find the source.
Along with some other collaborators, Du Bois and Biswal figured out a way to manipulate the toxins Du Bois had been studying so that they would latch onto nerves that send pain signals and be visible outside the body.
As with so much cool research, the team got its start with a seed grant from Stanford’s Bio-X. The piriformis muscle originates on the sacrum and crosses over at a slightly downward angle to the outside of the hip, attaching to the lateral side of the femur. An irritating pain in the buttocks and referring pain down the leg along the path of the sciatic nerve. When cancer metastasizes (spreads) from its original location, a tumor may form in the vertebrae (bones) of the spine. Spinal tumors are abnormal growths that develop inside the spinal column, usually causing pain and other symptoms. A metastatic tumor is one that develops as an extension of another cancer (such as lung, breast, colon, or kidney).  More than 40 percent of all patients who have cancer elsewhere in the body, including breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, renal, and colon, will experience the spread of their cancer to their spine in their lifetime. A benign spinal tumor usually has definite borders and clean edges and does not infiltrate into healthy tissue. Spinal tumors may be (left to right) intramedullary, intradural-extramedullary, or extradural. Intramedullary: These tumors grow in the spinal cord itself, or in the nerves extending from the spinal cord, usually in the upper spine or neck (called the cervical spine).


Intradural-extramedullary: These are tumors that occur outside the spinal cord but within its protective covering. Extradural: These are the most common type of spinal tumors, forming outside the spinal cord and the dura in the bones and cartilage of the vertebrae.
The treatment and prognosis for a spine tumor vary based on whether it is primary or metastatic, benign or malignant, and other factors. Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of all three depending on the unique circumstances associated with each individual tumor (see Diagnosing and Treating a Spinal Tumor). They latch on to tiny pores on nerve cells and prevent those nerves from firing—seen as a negative if you are eating a pufferfish, but a positive to researchers working in a lab trying to understand the inner workings of nerves. It was a frustrating task because often the source of pain isn’t obvious, and sometimes the source is far removed from where a person feels the sensation of pain. When they tested the chemical in rats, they were able to see the location of pain in a living animal. They recently started a company to see if they could develop their work into a useful drug or imaging technique. Less commonly, a vertebral tumor may be a primary tumor, meaning one that originated there.
A benign tumor is not cancer, but it may need to be removed if it’s causing symptoms or creating pressure on the spine.
Some extradural tumors, such as osteosarcomas, osteoblastomas, and osteoid osteomas, arise from the vertebrae themselves (primary), but extradural tumors are more often metastatic tumors that spread from cancers of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney.
Treatment at a major brain and spine center will give patients the widest range of expert treatment options, along with access to clinical trials for spine tumors.
In addition, control of pain and preservation of neurologic function is a major focus of spine tumor treatment centers.


Back in the 1960s, a Stanford chemist Harry Mosher (who died in 2001) collected eggs from newts on campus and isolated a toxin that turned out to be identical to the one in puffer fish. Other times, he’d see something that looked painful, surgeons would fix it, and the patient would still be in pain. Piriformis syndrome is a condition in which the piriformis muscle irritates the sciatic nerve, causing pain in the buttocks and referred pain down the leg along the path of the sciatic nerve.
Continual internal rotation of the femur (result of prolonged pronation and poor foot mechanics) can cause the piriformis muscle to overwork and therefore increase in size.
Benign spine tumors include meningiomas, schwannomas,  osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. Intramedullary tumors are usually benign but can also be difficult to remove due to their location.
Like intramedullary tumors, these tumors are often benign, but they can be difficult to remove surgically and may recur after treatment. To that end, multiple treatment options are available ranging from surgery to correct spinal deformity or neural compression to interventional techniques where cement is injected into the bone to help strengthen the spine.
If internal rotation of the femur and prolonged pronation is evident, an orthotic device should be prescribed to arrest over-pronation and control the leg from internally rotating too much and too long.



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