He genetic and epigenetic basis of type 2 diabetes and obesity,what kind of diet is best for type 2 diabetes,diabetes free america reviews uk,gc zemst weer - 2016 Feature

The core aim of our research activities is to increase our understanding of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and develop new and innovative strategies for their prevention, prognosis and treatment. Group members work on a diverse range of common diseases including cancer, mitochondrial disorders, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hello, considering this, have you ever thought that here could be the key to explain, how Bipolar disorder happens? Enter your email address to subscribe to EpiBeat and receive notifications of new posts by email.
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In this review the authors discuss the evidence concerning the genetic contribution to individual risk of T2D and obesity, and explore the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms. They also explain how genetics, epigenetics, and environment are likely to interact to define the individual risk of disease. Find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 members of the diabetes community.
10 week (free) low-carb education program developed with the help of 20,000 people with T2D and based on the latest research. The first comprehensive, free and open to all online step-by-step guide to improving hypo awareness. Type 2 diabetes is mainly seen in genetically predisposed individuals exposed to non-genetic risk factors like obesity, age and physical inactivity. A main finding in this review is that the DNA methylation pattern differs between individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with matched controls in multiple target tissues for the disease, including pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. To further understand if the changes to the epigenome are present prior to disease onset or arise as a consequence of the disease, a number of studies have investigated the association between DNA methylation and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in healthy individuals. As individuals with type 2 diabetes show altered levels of DNA methylation in genes implicated in the disease also in DNA from blood samples, this has the potential to be used as a clinical biomarker, or in other words, DNA methylation could serve as a diagnostic target.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a non-autoimmune, complex, heterogeneous and polygenic metabolic disease condition characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPAR-I?) genePPARs (isoforms I±, I?, and I?) are ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerise with retinoid X receptor (RXR).
Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.Authorsa€™ contributionsSA and ST have done overall search and compilation of data. Research activities of this group encompass the identification of novel susceptibility genes, assessing how our genetic make-up and environment shape gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms, developing statistical and analytical strategies for dealing with the ever increasing complexities of genomic data and assimilating this knowledge into the development and evaluation of new treatments in the clinic and improvements in the quality of advice we can give to patients.
Our research utilises the world class laboratory facilities within IGM and applies a spectrum of molecular genetics techniques coupled with advanced bioinformatic and biostatistical capability.
Lately, it has become evident that this interaction between genetic and environmental factors most likely involves epigenetic modifications. This is further accompanied by associations between insulin secretion or insulin resistance and DNA methylation in multiple tissues. Clearly, risk factors including age, BMI and HbA1c are found to be associated with epigenetic alterations prior to disease development.
Additionally, epigenetic changes are dynamic and may be reversed by targeting drugs, and DNA methylation thereby has the potential to act also as a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes treatment. DNA methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in the battle against Type 2 diabetes.
India as said to be the diabetic capital of the world is likely to experience the largest increase in T2DM and a greater number of diabetic individuals in the world by the year 2030.
It has been shown that agonists of PPAR possess antidiabetogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
Our understanding of genetics of diseases gives a better prospective of biochemical and molecular mechanism of disease on the whole.
The group adopts many approaches ranging from conventional genetics (family-based and population-based studies) through to transcriptomic and epigenomic applications.
Ronn & Ling recently summarized human data supporting a role for epigenetic variation in the development type 2 diabetes, “DNA methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in the battle against type 2 diabetes”, published in Epigenomics in May 2015.
The epigenetic variation is widespread across the entire genome, and also present in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes. Identification of specific genetic variations in a particular ethnic group has a critical role in understanding the risk of developing T2DM in a much efficient way in future. The negative impacts of T2DM are considerable: as a lifelong disease, which increases morbidity and mortality, ultimately decreasing the quality of life [2]. PPAR-I? gene, encoding the nuclear receptor PPAR-I?, was the first gene reproducibly associated with T2DM [36]. The data could help to identify at-risk patients in early stages and may provide opportunities for early prevention. These genetic variations include numerous types of polymorphisms among which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is the most frequent.
If diabetes is not efficiently controlled, then the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications such as, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma.


PPAR-I? gene is located on chromosome 3p25 encodes a nuclear transcription factor involved in the expression of hundreds of genes. Our better understanding of such phenomena will throw new light on how common variants can alter disease susceptibility and it is necessary to understand the physiologic importance of the genetic associations those are uncovered.
Apart from these, long-standing complications could be cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney failure, retinal damage, nerve damage, poor healing of wounds, gangrene on the feet leading to amputation, and erectile dysfunction etc.
PPAR-I? gene contains 9 exons, spans more than 100 kilobases, because of alternative mRNA splicing results in the production of 2 protein isoforms: PPARI?-1 and PPARI?-2 [22].
The utility of genetic approaches will depend on a holistic understanding of the interactions among the genes and also between genes and the environment. There are scores of genes interacting with various environmental factors affecting various pathways and sometimes even the whole signalling network that cause diseases like T2DM. The recent global epidemic of T2DM almost certainly indicates the importance of environmental triggers such as sedentary lifestyle and dietary changes over last several decades. PPARs constitute a distinct sub-family of the nuclear receptors that are activated by naturally occurring fatty acids [40]. Combining these genetic variations with new developments in the fields of bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics will lead to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of T2DM and may present new information on diagnostics, treatment and eventual prevention of the disease.
Insight into the Mechanism of Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Improvement in Insulin Sensitivity and Beta cell function. Nevertheless T2DM is amongst those complex diseases for which genetic contribution is well accepted.
The association between the substitution of alanine for proline at codon 12 of PPAR- I? and the risk for T2DM has been widely studied since Yen CJ, first reported this polymorphism [41]. Additionally, inclusion of genetic studies in design and analysis of drug trials could lead to development of genetic biomarkers that predict treatment response. Such predictions could be used in order to understand the pathogenesis of T2DM and to better diagnostics, treatment, and eventually prevention. Identification of genetic components of T2DM is the most important area of diabetes research because elucidation of the diabetes genes (alleles) will influence all efforts toward a mechanistic understanding of the disease, its complications, cure, treatment and prevention [3]. Within a unique domain of PPARI?-2 gene that enhances ligand independent activation, a common Pro12Ala polymorphism has been identified [5]. Prediction can be made on the basis of biomarkers in connection to the course of disease; treatment-response and possibilities of side-effects will be vastly appreciated. Basically, many genes perform key regulatory functions in the development of T2DM, which is a polygenic disorder with multiple genes located on different chromosomes contributing to its susceptibility. As a result of wide range of investigations over the last few years, a few biomarkers have been introduced into clinical practices. The analysis of genetic factors associated with T2DM is further complicated by the fact that a variety of environmental factors interact with these genes to produce the disorder. Using a family based design to control for population stratification, it was reported that Ala allele of this polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of T2DM [36]. A meta-analysis conducted by Ludovico found that the alanine polymorphism conferred significantly greater protection against T2DM among Asians than Caucasians [23], contradictory result have been reported within the same study elsewhere where Ala12 variant was associated with a reduced risk for the development of diabetes [5, 26, 42].
This genetic information may also form the basis for development of new drug therapies such as individually specific or targeted pharmacotherapy. In this review, we will focus on candidate genes (PPAR-I?, ACE, MTHFR, FABP2 and FTO) in which the genetic variants have been well established to be functional and shown in more than one study for their association with T2DM, in various ethnic groups. Soon, it became apparent that most negative studies had been underpowered and after combining the data from all published studies in a meta-analysis it became evident that Pro12Ala variant was associated with T2DM [5, 28, 43]. PPAR-I? plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis and serves as the molecular target for a class of insulin-sensitizing drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs). TZDs is PPARI?2 ligands and widely used for treatment of T2DM [24], they had very minimal activity toward PPAR-I± or PPAR-I?. Although PPAR- I? levels are 10a€“30 times higher in fat than in muscle or liver, this receptor is expressed in these latter tissues. Effects on insulin action in other tissues would then occur as a consequence of alterations in signalling molecules produced by fat, such as free fatty acids, TNF-I± , leptin, or others (Perspectives in Diabetes PPAR- I?: Adipogenic Regulator and TZDs Receptor) [44]. PPAR- I? activation controls one or more genes that regulate systemic insulin sensitivity like TNF-I± and leptin.Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) geneGenetic studies have revealed that the genes of renin angiotensin are highly polymorphic, raising the possibility in addition to environmental factors. The genetic make-up of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) affects the status of RAS in the individuals.
The emerging picture of ACE function is that it is more than just a key enzyme that catalyses cleavage of angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II [45]. ACE also hydrolyzes the inactive angiotensin (1a€“9) peptide into the vasodilator metabolite angiotensin (1a€“7) [46], and it is additionally thought to inactivate the vasodilator peptides bradykinin and kallidin [46].
The polymorphism exists within intron 16, consisting the presence or absence of 287 bp fragment [47].
The II (Insertion-Insertion) genotype is reported to be protective against development and progression of diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy to chronic kidney disease [48]. Clinically, serum ACE level is useful for the evaluation of disease activity and follow-up in T2DM [31, 49a€“52].


All previous studies in non-diabetic and diabetic nephropathies have demonstrated that the deletion polymorphism of ACE gene, particularly the homozygote DD, is a risk factor for an accelerated loss of kidney function [53].
Studies of ACE gene with T2DM have shown contradictory results, where some have shown association of ACE gene with T2DM [7, 9, 31a€“34] while others have shown no such association [8, 35].
Indian studies, reported a strong association of ACE gene polymorphisms with T2DM in Northern India [29]. One of the most common genetic defects of homocysteine metabolism is a mutation in MTHFR gene. Studies have shown an association between homocysteine levels and diabetic complications such as macroangiopathy, retinopathy and nephropathy in T1DM, whereas no such association was seen among T2DM subjects [60].
In a few studies, no association was found between hyperhomocysteinemia, MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism, metabolic 6 syndromes and T2DM [62]. Nevertheless, in another study a significant correlation between these polymorphisms and individuals with normal weight and increased risks of developing metabolic syndrome (normal weight obese syndrome) was observed [63]. The mutant homozygous genotype for MTHFR C677T showed high risk of diabetic retinopathy among the individuals with T2DM [65]. Likewise, Ksaizek and co-workers have also found that MTHFR C677T mutation in MTHFR gene predisposes T2DM patients to the development of diabetic retinopathy [66].
These common polymorphisms are also associated with hyper homocysteinemia that has been reported to be an increased risk factor for neural tube defects, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) geneFABP2 plays a key role in the absorption and intracellular transport of dietary long chain fatty acids.
Since, glucose and fatty acid metabolism are inter-related phenomenons, FABP2 soon became an important candidate gene for T2DM.
In the search for T2DM loci in Pima Indians, Prochazka and co-workers found linkage between insulin resistance and a region on chromosome 4q near the FABP2 locus [67]. This finding is supported by a positive linkage between post challenge insulin levels and FABP2 in Mexicana€“Americans [68]. Molecular scanning of FABP2 identified a missense mutation (Ala54Thr) responsible for insulin resistance [69].
Carriers of the Thr54 allele in FABP2 have a twofold greater affinity for the absorption for the long-chain fatty acids than those with the Ala54-containing FABP2 [70].
In a study of Canadian Oji-Cree Indians, the Thr encoding allele was associated with increased BMI, percent body fat, and plasma triglycerides [72].
FABP2 Ala54Thr variant has been associated with an increased fasting insulin concentration, increased rate of lipid oxidation, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and increased concentrations of fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein [19, 70, 71, 73a€“75]. It has been suggested that the Ala54Thr polymorphism might associate with the risk for atherosclerosis because it causes a compositional change in LDL particles [76], an altered postprandial lipemia [70].
Previous studies have found contradictory associations between FABP2 genotypes and the occurrence of T2DM, obesity or decreased insulin sensitivity [17, 70, 71, 77a€“79]. Contradictory to it, several studies have reported the association between the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 with insulin resistance and T2DM [17, 19, 69, 80a€“82]. The FTO gene, which is located on chromosome 16q12.2 consists nine exons and emerged 450 million years ago [88].
FTO is primarily expressed in the hypothalamus and encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylase.
Sequence analysis suggested that FTO has homology with the AlkB family of DNA repair enzymes.
Subsequent in vitro biochemical studies revealed FTO to be a member of the Fe (II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenase superfamily [89]. In metazoans these enzymes are involved in diverse processes including oxygen sensing, DNA repair, fatty acid metabolism and post-translational modifications [90]. A number of SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium with rs9939609, and residing in the first intron of the FTO gene, had been associated with obesity in large populations of adults and children. Recently, part of a genome-wide association study found that SNPs of the FTO were strongly associated with obesity and T2DM [91, 92]. FTO gene encodes for a protein 2-oxoglutarate dependent nucleic acid demethylase involved in fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair and post- translational modifications [93]. It may also play important roles in the management of energy homeostasis [88, 94], nucleic acid demethylation, and regulation of body fat masses by lipolysis [95]. The hypothalamic expression of FTO suggests a potential role in the control of food intake and whole body metabolism wherein physical activity and food intake is unchanged but metabolic rate is increased.
The association of FTO variants with T2DM and BMI has been independently identified in a number of white European populations [96] but the findings are somewhat inconsistent in Asians, which may be the result of varying study designs, inadequate sample sizes or ethnic differences [97a€“99]. A recent study in north Indian Sikhs demonstrated a strong association of FTO variants with type 2 diabetes, which did not seem to be mediated through BMI [21]. This raises empirical probability that the association of FTO variants with BMI and T2DM might be different in Asian populations. However, results have been variable for replication in other ethnic populations such as Hispanics [101], Asians, Oceanics [102] and Blacks [103].




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