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The results of a 20-year-long study on caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys provides the strongest evidence yet that a low-calorie diet produces life-extending metabolic changes in primates — even, perhaps, in people. Fed a diet that provided adequate nutrition on 30 percent fewer calories than is considered normal, the monkeys have largely escaped the ravages of heart disease, cancer and other age-related diseases.
Caloric restriction came to scientific attention in the mid-1930s, when Cornell researchers showed that it extended the lives of mice by about 40 percent. Despite the uncertainty, it’s estimated that several thousand people already practice caloric restriction, with several hundred doing so within carefully monitored studies.
Caloric restriction appears to trigger energy-saving metabolic changes, activating metabolic pathways involved in regulating cell growth and repair. Research on these experimental drugs is validated by today’s findings, which suggest that effects observed in animals may be similar in people. The new research was published Thursday in Science and traces its origins to 1989, when the study began with 30 adult monkeys.
Whether drugs that mimic caloric restriction will benefit humans remains to be seen, and side effects are yet to be determined. People who take multiple courses of antibiotics may face an increased risk of developing both type 1 or type 2 diabetes, potentially through alterations in gut microbiota, conclude US researchers. The team, led by Ben Boursi, MD, at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, found that the risk of diabetes was increased by up to 37%, depending on the type of antibiotic and the number of courses prescribed. Dr Boursi explained that studies both in animal models and humans have shown an association between changes in gut microbiota in response to antibiotic exposure and obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Speaking to Medscape Medical News, he noted: "In mice, we know that germ-free mice are lean and, by fecal transplantation, we can transmit obesity to them. He added that there have been several studies in humans indicating that exposure to antibiotics in early childhood is associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life, while other investigations have reported differences in gut microbiota between people with and without diabetes. To investigate further, Dr Boursi and colleagues conducted a nested case-control study using data from the Health Improvement Network (THIN), a UK population-based database, from which they identified 1,804,170 patients with acceptable medical records. From the original cohort, they were able to select 208,002 diabetes patients and 815,576 controls matched for age, sex, general practice site, and duration of follow-up before the index date.
Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to a single antibiotic prescription was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), smoking, last blood glucose level, and the number of infections before the index date, alongside a history of coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia. The highest risk for diabetes was seen among people who received more than five courses of quinolones, at an adjusted OR of 1.37. Interestingly, the researchers were unable to find an association between diabetes risk and treatment with imidazole, antiviral drugs, and antifungals, regardless of the number of courses. Commenting on the findings, study coauthor Yu-Xiao Yang, MD,  pointed out their investigation was observational in nature. Targeting gut microbiota as a possible therapy for diabetesAccumulating evidence suggests that compositional changes in the gut microbiota in type 2 and type 1 diabetes contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes.
We introduce gut microbiome transplantation, and use of probiotics and prebiotics as new treatment for diabetesFuture research will be focused on defining the primary species of the gut microbiota and their exact roles in diabetes, potentially increasing the possibility of gut microbiome transplants as a therapeutic strategy for diabetes. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements.
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Johnson & Johnson's multiple myeloma treatment Velcade (bortezomib) has been used in advanced patients and those who were ineligible for stem cell transplantation. The feat was subsequently duplicated in many other animals, from roundworms to dogs, but until now had not been conclusively demonstrated in primates.
These pathways are targeted by several drugs currently under development, including resveratrol, which has protected animals from age-related diseases and is now being tested as a diabetes treatment. All were closely monitored, with researchers regularly measuring their body composition, blood chemistry and endocrine function, as well as heart and brain function.


Those fed a calorically restricted diet have dramatically lower levels of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, brain atrophy and lean-muscle loss. We can probe at the mechanisms, and hopefully understand them well enough to modulate them in some other way,” said Colman.
An increased risk of diabetes was also seen in patients who took more than five courses of tetracyclines, at an adjusted OR of 1.21. Several studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes are characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
Instead, scientists want to find drugs that mimic the effects of caloric restriction, and over the last decade have described some of its underlying biology. Another intriguing drug is rapamycin, an immune system suppressor that — though unproven and likely unsafe for human use as a longevity enhancer — has dramatically extended the lives of elderly mice. Just five of the 38 restricted monkeys have died from age-related causes, compared to 14 of 38 in the control group. So, add us to your ad blocker’s whitelist or pay $1 per week for an ad-free version of WIRED. However, there are still substantial controversies regarding altered composition of the gut microbiota and the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota interact with the body's metabolism, inflammation, the immune system, gut permeability, insulin resistance, and the bowel function of the intestinal barrier.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Conde Nast. To avoid life-threatening complications, people with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for their entire lives. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Babies can develop candidiasis, a severe form of nappy rash caused by yeast that can easily spread from the nappy area to the thighs and stomach. More dangerous signs: KetoacidosisWithout treatment, type 1 diabetes deprives your cells of the sugar they need for energy.
Your body starts burning fat for energy instead, which causes ketones to build up in the blood and urine. High levels of these acids in the body and the other abnormalities that result from the change in your blood's pH level may trigger a life-threatening coma known as diabetic ketoacidosis. The symptoms of the two forms are similar, but usually come on more rapidly in people with type 1. What causes type 1 diabetes?Doctors aren't sure what makes the immune system turn against the pancreas, but most suspect a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.
Scientists have identified 50 genes or gene regions that increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. But genetics alone doesn't account for all the risk, so having these genes doesn't mean that you'll develop type 1 diabetes. Some researchers believe that environmental triggers, such as a virus, or dietary or pregnancy-related factors may play a role as well. However, it accounts for two-thirds of the new cases of diabetes diagnosed in those under the age of 19. There appear to be two peaks in the "age of onset": the first in early childhood and the second during puberty. The condition affects males and females equally, but is more common in whites than in other ethnic groups. According to the World Health Organisation, type 1 diabetes is rare in most African and Asian populations. A fasting blood sugar test or a random blood sugar test (plus the presence of symptoms) can be used. An HbA1c test, which reveals average blood sugar levels for the past 6-12 weeks, can also be used. A less convenient glucose tolerance test will also help determine whether you have diabetes.
Long-term complicationsProlonged high blood sugar can damage many of the body's systems over time.
This involves pricking your finger, putting a drop of blood on to a test strip, and putting the strip into a glucose meter.


When your blood sugar stays near the normal range, you'll have more energy, fewer skin problems, and a reduced risk of heart disease and kidney damage. Continuous glucose monitoringAnother way to check blood sugar patterns is with a continuous glucose monitoring system. A sensor measures the level of glucose in the tissue every 10 seconds and sends the information to a cell phone-sized device called a "monitor" that you wear.
The system automatically records an average glucose value every five minutes for up to 72 hours.
Diabetes treatment: Insulin injectionsEveryone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to help the body process blood sugar. Your doctor will explain how to adjust your insulin dose based on the results of your blood sugar testing.
Insulin reaction warning signsTaking too much insulin can lower your blood sugar to dangerous levels. Always carry a few with you when you go out in case hypoglycaemia, or low blood sugar, strikes. Skipping a meal, taking too much diabetes medication and exercising harder than usual without eating can trigger it.
Diabetes treatment: Insulin pumpOne way to reduce the odds of a ‘hypo’ is to use an insulin pump.
An insulin pump can help keep your blood sugar more stable and may allow more flexibility in planning your meals. Insulin pumps do have some disadvantages, so talk to your doctor to learn if this option is right for you. How well is your treatment working?To find out how well your treatment is working, your doctor will probably suggest you have regular HbA1c blood tests. This test reveals how well your blood sugar has been controlled over the past six to twelve weeks. If the results show poor blood sugar control, you may need to adjust your insulin therapy, meal planning or physical activity. Pancreatic islet cell transplantStill an experimental procedure, a surgeon transfers healthy insulin-producing cells from a donor, usually into the liver of someone with type 1 diabetes. The drugs required to prevent rejection of the transplant can have serious side effects, so the procedure is only suitable for people with extreme difficulty controlling their blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes and exercisePeople with type 1 diabetes need to take precautions when exercising. Type 1 diabetes and dietThere are many myths about what people with diabetes can and cannot eat. The key is to work with your doctor to balance your insulin therapy, meals and level of physical activity.
When type 1 diabetes is poorly controlled, it can cause complications, including birth defects. Achieving good blood sugar control before conception lowers the risk of miscarriage and birth defects to a rate similar to that of the general population. It also reduces the risk of complications, such as dangerous increases in blood pressure and damage to the retina in the mother. Type 1 diabetes in childrenWhen a child is diagnosed with diabetes, it affects the whole family in a very practical way. Parents must help children monitor blood sugar, plan meals, and adjust insulin dosages around the clock. Because diabetes requires 24-hour management, arrangements must be made for treatment during school and after-school activities. Diabetes UK says it’s important to tell teachers about a child’s condition so they can help with care.
Hope for an artificial pancreasResearchers are developing an artificial pancreas -- a combination of an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor controlled by a complex computer program. The goal is for the system to automatically release insulin in response to blood sugar levels, and to reduce the release of insulin when blood sugar levels drop, just the way a real pancreas does.



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