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Bullous pemphigoid is a skin disorder marked by blisters on various parts of the body like upper thighs, lower abdomen and armpits. Immunosuppressant medications are used for treating bullous pemphigoid but sometimes it can endanger your life if your health is very poor. This skin disease is characterized by blisters that produce severe burning sensation and itching. It is said that certain powerful medication like penicillin, sulfasalazine, etanercept and furosemide may also cause blisters. The doctor may examine the blisters and perform biopsy of the affected skin layer to confirm the disease. The main purpose of the treatment should be oriented towards reducing the pain and inflammation caused by blisters.
It is difficult to prevent getting blisters when your cells are predisposed for bullous pemphigoid. According to a study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), it was seen that addressing an addict’s post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may lead to a better response in substance abuse treatment. PTSD is a type of anxiety disorder that occurs when an individual experiences a traumatic event.
The study followed 353 women that had experienced trauma in their lives and were suffering from PTSD and had substance abuse problems (dual diagnosis). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved the use of Abraxane in those patients suffering from end-stage pancreatic cancer. The early stages of pancreatic cancer might provide a window of opportunity where successful remission can be achieved, through removal of the cancerous tissue, and subsequent chemotherapy.
In other cases, however, treatment strategies may be based around slowing the spread of cancer to help circumvent some of the unpleasant symptoms. Due to the disruption of the pancreas’ digestive function, nutritional supplements are often required.
The FDA has recently approved the novel drug Abraxane, as part of the arsenal of agents used to combat pancreatic cancer. Paclitaxel (branded as taxol) is a mitotic inhibitor, and its initial discovery was made by the U.S.
Abraxane, which is currently owned by Celgene, takes paclitaxel and binds it to a globular protein, named albumin. Studies have demonstrated that Abraxane can offer a modest improvement to patient life expectancy, during late-stage pancreatic cancer. The drug was originally approved for treatment of breast cancer, under the circumstances that a patient’s response to conventional chemotherapy had failed, or following a relapse. The pancreas is an organ of the digestive system, capable of both endocrine and exocrine function. In terms of endocrine function, which involves the release of pancreatic juice into ducts for transportation to the first section of the small intestines (duodenum), the pancreas is critical to ensuring digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids that arrive from the stomach.
The most common type of pancreatic cancer is called ductal adenocarcinoma, seen in approximately 9 out of 10 cases. Ductal adenocarcinomas manifest when a cell of the pancreatic duct becomes cancerous and begins to divide uncontrollably.
The cancer may metastasize, breaking off to enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, where it can reach distant tissues around the entire body. The average life expectancy is incredibly low for patients with pancreatic cancer, particularly those who have the metastatic form, usually only surviving a six month period. Folfirinox is another drug currently on the market, which Abraxane is to be pitted against. There are a number of risk factors that can make individuals susceptible to pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer only has a small genetic component, with 1 in 10 cases caused by transmission of an aberrant gene from parents to their children. Celgene, the company peddling the drug in question, has already made enormous profits from Abraxane’s use as a staple medical treatment in breast and lung cancer patients. However, Celgene has revealed that the drug will cost between six to eight thousand dollars every month. The FDA approving Abraxane, as a novel drug in the war against pancreatic cancer, seems like another step in the right direction.
The rash is usually very itchy and ranges in size from a few millimetres to the size of a hand. Although the affected area may change in appearance within 24 hours, the rash usually settles within a few days. A much rarer type of urticaria, known as urticaria vasculitis, can cause blood vessels inside the skin to become inflamed. In these cases, the weals last longer than 24 hours, are more painful, and can leave a bruise.
Acute urticaria (also known as short-term urticaria) is a common condition, estimated to affect around one in five people at some point in their lives.
Children are often affected by the condition, as well as women aged 30 to 60, and people with a history of allergies. Chronic urticaria (also known as long-term urticaria) is much less common, affecting up to five in every 1,000 people in England.
Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin.
These substances cause the blood vessels in the affected area of skin to open up (often resulting in redness or pinkness) and become leaky. Some cases of long-term urticaria may be caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking healthy tissue. If your GP thinks that it's caused by an allergic reaction, you may be referred to an allergy clinic for an allergy test.


You may also be referred for a number of tests, including a full blood count (FBC), to find out whether there's an underlying cause of your symptoms.
In many cases, treatment isn't needed for urticaria, because the rash often gets better within a few days. A short course of steroid tablets (oral corticosteroids) may occasionally be needed for more severe cases of urticaria. If you have persistent urticaria, you may be referred to a skin specialist (dermatologist).
Around a quarter of people with acute urticaria and half of people with chronic urticaria also develop angioedema, which is a deeper swelling of tissues. Chronic urticaria can also be upsetting and negatively impact a person's mood and quality of life. Medication such as antihistamines and short courses of oral corticosteroids (tablets) can be used to relieve the swelling.
Talking to friends and family can also improve feelings of isolation and help you cope better with your condition. Urticaria can be one of the first symptoms of a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.
Call 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance if you or someone else is experiencing anaphylaxis.
With an account you can keep track of pages on the site and save them to this tab, which you can access on every page when you are logged in. It develops largely on old-age people and it attacks them when the immune system is weakened for any reason.
If the person is taking treatment for cancer then exposure to UV radiation can trigger formation of blisters on the skin. It is common to see a person diagnosed with PTSD cope with the symptoms by self medicating with drugs or alcohol. The participants received drug treatment as well as treatment to address the mental disorder for over a span of 6 weeks. Denise Hien of City University of New York and Columbia University, due to the self medicating drug use seen in people suffering from PTSD, it is suggested that clinicians at drug rehab centers focus on dual diagnosis treatment which addresses both the mood disorder and the substance abuse. Based upon clinical trials, the novel drug should help to extend life expectancy and, hopefully, provide a better quality of life. Generally, however, treatment involves different combinations of surgical intervention, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, pancreatic cancer is very rarely picked up in the early stages of disease progression, as symptoms often do not present until much later on. Abraxane is actually based upon a preexisting drug, called paclitaxel, modified to improve its efficacy. The albumin serves as a delivery vehicle, improving the transportation of the drug to the target cancer sites. Experts say that the drug can extend a sufferer’s life by as little as two months, for those patients who are unable to undergo surgical treatment. Its use was later extended to included patients with a type of lung cancer, called non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its endocrine function involves secretion of a number of hormones directly into the bloodstream, including glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin.
This is achieved on an enzyme-specific basis, which aids in the breakdown of food, which is absorbed by tiny structures (villi) lining the small intestines. Despite its rarity, pancreatic cancer is the fourth biggest cause of cancer-related death, and is expected to kill 38,000 people this year alone. However, Folfirinox has been known to cause intolerable side-effects in a great many patients. This includes age, smoking, obesity and exposure to certain chemical (pesticides, dyes etc). Last year’s revenue was $427 million, whilst their overall profits were in excess of $5 billion. Morgan, Geoffrey Meacham, considered Abraxane’s take-up would be relatively rapid, and its use would soon become standard practice. Let’s hope they can continue to make improvements to existing drugs, in a bid to combat this terrible cancer. However, if you've had urticaria most days for more than six weeks, it's unlikely to be the result of an allergy.
Antihistamines are available over the counter at pharmacies – speak to your pharmacist for advice. Treatment usually involves medication to relieve the symptoms, while identifying and avoiding potential triggers. Chronic urticaria can have a considerable negative impact on a person's mood and quality of life. Exact cause that triggers formation of blisters is not known but it can develop due to adverse effect of certain drugs. In case if bullous pemphigoid blisters is formed on the thin mucous membrane of oral cavity it may cause difficulty in eating and drinking.
The antibodies released by the body are stored in the basement membrane forming thin layer which would eventually get swollen producing blisters or large lesions.
Your doctor may prescribe immunosuppressant drugs for inhibiting the production of antibodies getting stored in basement membrane. In case your skin is affected with blisters, then cover your skin with proper dressing for facilitating healing process. The study offered two different treatments for the PTSD; a cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducational therapy.


The method by which paclitaxel inhibits cell division is through interference of the cell’s microtubules, during mitotic cell division. Glucagon and insulin release are vital for maintenance of appropriate blood-glucose levels, whilst somatostatin is capable of hormone suppression.
One of the contraindications for Abraxane, however, is its use in patients with low white blood cell counts. In addition to this, heavy drinking can cause a condition known as chronic pancreatitis, which can also increase the likelihood of developing pancreatic cancer. It results when a dog’s endocrine system malfunctions, leading to potentially life-threatening illnesses.
Individuals who have genetic predisposition for developing these blisters are likely to get this skin disease. Apart from posing ugly appearance, this blister may cause pain and difficulty in moving the parts. Abraxane can lead to reduction in white blood cell levels, which can increase a patient’s susceptibility to bacterial infections and inflammation of the lung tissue.
Diet may also play a part, with studies suggesting that consuming high quantities of fat might be a contributory factor. These can include liver and kidney failure, diabetes, congestive heart failure, hypothyroidism, and chronic infections of the ears, eyes, skin, and gums.The endocrine system is fascinating and incredibly complex. When the antibodies get accumulated in the soft layer of tissue known as “basement membrane” it produces cluster of blisters due to inflammation. Common drugs that are given for treating bullous pemphigoid are Trrexall, prednisone, and azathiprine. Made up of a group of glands and organs that produce and regulate hormones, it controls practically every function in the body.
Very often combination of anti-inflammatory medicines with corticosteroids is given for getting positive results. It seems that focusing on both the PTSD and the substance abuse produced better responses in the participants of the study. Two of these glands, the adrenals, sit above each kidney and produce a cocktail of steroid hormones that regulate body weight, assist in the production of white blood cells, maintain mineral balance, and ensure the health of skin and connective tissue.One of the ingredients in this hormone cocktail is cortisol, which is responsible for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates.
Lumps are usually formed on the areas of the skin that are folded like armpits, thighs and groin. At Addiction 411, our trained staff of addiction professionals can help you, or a loved one, find the best treatment center to fit your needs, including those facilities specializing in dual diagnosis treatment.
When the body produces too much cortisol, this is known as “hyperadrenocorticism” – more commonly known as Cushing’s disease.
1Cushing’s disease usually strikes middle-age to older dogs, but younger dogs can also be affected. Although it can appear in any breed, certain breeds seem to be more prone to developing it than others. They can cause the pituitary to produce too much of a hormone called ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to overproduce cortisol.This is the most common cause of Cushing’s disease in dogs, and is responsible for approximately 85-90% of cases. Many dogs with this form of Cushing’s disease can live normal lives for years, as long as they continue to take the proper medications and are monitored closely.Adrenal Gland TumorTumors in the adrenal glands may also be benign (called adenomas) or malignant (known as carcinomas). These tests usually include a cortisol creatinine ratio test (run with a urine sample), and two blood tests: an ACTH stimulation test, and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. An abdominal ultrasound can also be done to view the adrenal glands to see if they are enlarged or if there’s a tumor present.If your veterinarian positively confirms Cushing’s disease, further testing will be necessary to determine which type of Cushing’s disease is present. This will determine the cause so it can then be properly treated.Treatment For Cushing’s Disease In DogsDepending on the type of Cushing’s disease diagnosed, treatment for dogs involves either oral medication for the remainder of the dog’s life, or surgical removal of the tumor (if one is present). Removing an adrenal gland tumor requires extensive and complicated surgery.Dogs with a pituitary tumor are treated with drug therapy. This allows the Cushing’s disease to be managed, but it cannot be cured.Dogs with an adrenal gland tumor are treated by surgical removal of the tumor, which involves major abdominal surgery. If the surgery is successful and the tumor is not cancerous, there is a good chance that the dog will be cured. However, there are some cases where, if the tumor is very small and has not metastasized (spread to other parts of the body), the dog may be able to live for up to several years, depending on its overall condition.Dogs with Cushing’s disease from an overuse of steroids are taken off all steroid medications in a very controlled, gradual manner. This avoids complications from suddenly stopping the medication (steroids need to be discontinued gradually to prevent shocking the body). Unfortunately, this may result in a recurrence of the condition that was being treated by the steroid in the first place, but Cushing’s disease is usually the greater of those two evils. Allergies, arthritis, or inflammation will then need to be treated with other non-steroidal options.Early Detection Is ImportantIf your dog is middle-aged or older and is showing any signs of Cushing’s disease, make an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible. Although Cushing’s caused by a pituitary tumor cannot be cured, treatment can extend your dog’s lifespan and greatly increase his quality of life. If your dog has Cushing’s disease and is on medication, be sure to watch for any signs of an adverse reaction, including loss of appetite, vomiting, or diarrhea.Cushing’s disease can be a life-threatening condition, but proper treatment can make all the difference. Although most dogs with Cushing’s disease cannot be cured, their quality of life can be improved and their lives extended for many years with early intervention.Have you ever had a dog with Cushing’s disease? It seemed like we were doing ACTH Stim tests and Low-Dose Dexamethasone Suppression tests at our veterinary hospital at least every other week. I'm an author, founder of the Good Pet Parent Blog, and former Registered Veterinary Technician.




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