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Sugar, a 12-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat, presented for poorly controlled diabetes and diabetic neuropathy. In addition to diabetes mellitus, Sugar had concurrent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and chronic rhinitis, and persistent polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weakness. Diabetes in cats is most commonly classified as type 2-like diabetes—a disease process in which insufficient insulin production from beta cells takes place in the setting of insulin resistance.
Insulin requirements can be altered by obesity, inflammation, or concurrent endocrine disease, such as hypersomatotropism (acromegaly) or hyperadrenocorticism. Routine complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemical profile, and urinalysis were performed. Consider 2 main areas of focus for the poorly controlled feline diabetic patient (Table 2). Consider causes of insulin resistance to determine the individual patient’s diagnostic workup.
Make sure to take a thorough history and perform a complete physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical profile, fructosamine, urinalysis, and urine culture. Perform one or multiple blood glucose curves at home or in hospital to assess response to insulin, insulin dose, and duration of effect. Acromegaly, also known as hypersomatotropism, is a disease characterized by excess GH, which stimulates increased production of IGF-1 in the liver and other tissues. Prevalence of acromegaly in diabetic cats is unknown, but is suspected to be as high as 30% of difficult-to-regulate diabetic cats.4 It is typically seen in elderly male cats.
Common clinical signs, including polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia—clinical signs associated with diabetes mellitus—as well as weight gain.
Physical examination findings, including an enlarged liver and kidneys on abdominal palpation. Intracranial imaging, either by CT or magnetic resonance, which documents a pituitary mass and confirms the diagnosis (because IGF-1 levels are not 100% reliable). Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism can also cause severe insulin resistance and a pituitary mass—diagnostic results also seen in diabetic cats with acromegaly. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to evaluate whether a mass was present in the pituitary gland. These findings confirmed a diagnosis of acromegaly—the cause of the severe insulin resistance and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Radiotherapy is the current treatment of choice for pituitary tumors.2,4 Many cats experience improvement or resolution of diabetes mellitus, although other acromegalic signs, such as prognathism and enlarged feet, often persist. Hypophysectomy is the treatment of choice in humans, and may become the treatment of choice in cats.
Medical management using somatostatin analogues, which inhibit growth hormone (GH) secretion, has been used with some success in humans. Regardless of treatment choice, close diabetic monitoring—on a regular basis—is necessary to prevent life-threatening hypoglycemia as IGF-1 levels fall and insulin resistance decreases. The owner continued to monitor blood glucose at home and, over the next 6 to 9 months, the PZI dose was reduced to 2 units SC Q 12 H. Contrast CT was repeated and the pituitary mass was decreased in size, measuring 0.3 cm in diameter (Figure 5). Over the next 2 years, Sugar’s PZI insulin dose was further reduced to 0.5 units SC Q 12 H. Prognosis for cats with uncontrolled acromegaly and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus is poor to guarded; without treatment most cats are euthanized within a few months of diagnosis. Sugar died of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3 years following diagnosis and radiation treatment for acromegaly.
Ann Della Maggiore, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM, is a staff internist at University of California—Davis School of Veterinary Medicine.
When using the systematic approach described in previous articles, the sonographic tour of the abdomen begins in the cranial abdomen, evaluating the liver and gallbladder. For a given oncologic disease, peripheral regional lymph nodes should be carefully palpated for enlargement, asymmetry, and degree of fixation.
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This Halloween, we thought it might be wise to help dispel some of the myths surrounding black cats or any cats for that matter. We’ve written about dog longevity on SlimDoggy and provided charts on expected lifespans. Guest Post from Robin Mudge of Playful Kitty   Pet food labels can be really confusing. Sugar had an unkempt hair coat, mild prognathia inferior, and a broad head (Figure 1), and walked with a plantigrade stance (Figure 2). Although subtle, note Sugar’s broad facial features, clubbed paws, and prognathia inferior (A and B). Cat demonstrating the classic plantigrade stance seen with diabetic neuropathy, which is a consequence of poor glycemic control.
Single blood glucose measurements collected in hospital can help identify hypoglycemia, but should not be used to assess control. Feline skin lesions consistent with fragile skin syndrome due to pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism (A); same skin lesions after 2 months of therapy (B).
GH has anti-insulin effects, causing increased glucose production in the liver and reducing insulin sensitivity in the body by a variety of mechanisms.


In more advanced disease, prognathia inferior and enlargement of the head and paws may be noted. GH assays are not readily available—blood sampling has to be very specific to prevent degradation of the hormone, and the assay lacks sensitivity and specificity. Current treatment options include radiation therapy, surgery (hypophysectomy), or medical management. At this time, transsphenoidal hypophysectomy has been performed in acromegalic cats, but is only offered in a few, very specialized veterinary institutions. In addition, due to the appearance that her diabetes was controlled, the PZI dose was reduced to 1 unit SC Q 12 H. These 1-year, postradiation therapy CT images—sagittal (A) and transverse (B)—demonstrate marked improvement, with significant reduction in pituitary size (red arrows). However, in cats, such as Sugar, in which the concurrent disease causing insulin resistance is recognized and treated appropriately, a favorable outcome is possible since glycemic control often improves.
A complete necropsy was performed; pertinent findings included pituitary gland multifocal adenomas (Figure 6) and significant pancreatic islet amyloidosis (Figure 7), which is characteristic of feline type 2 diabetes. Gross pathology image of pituitary adenoma found on necropsy, showing a compressive expansile mass. Cross sectional view of Sugar’s pancreas, with significant islet amyloidosis—a characteristic of feline type 2 diabetes.
She received her DVM from University of California—Davis, where she also completed a residency in small animal internal medicine. The publisher, NAVC, disclaims any liability for any damages resulting from the use of any product advertised herein and suggests that readers fully investigate the products and claims prior to purchasing.
Cats are susceptible to skin infections, parasites, allergies, and many other conditions commonly seen in people.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
This procedure offers patients a relatively shorter recovery time as opposed to conventional helping arthritis with vinegar 6 week oz dr. RA is an autoimmune disorder when the body attacks its own cells which often results in joint destruction. People with neuropathy (especially those who have had it for a long time) are at risk for developing Charcot Diagnosis Early diagnosis of Charcot foot is extremely rheumatoid arthritis smoking putting pieces together hand glove ct bridgeport important for successful treatment. Posted on March 23 2012 arthritis foot calcaneus osteoporosis service rheumatoid improvement osteo and for national framework nebraska lincoln by massageEnvyBlog. These cultures, while much more accurate, can take anywhere from 1 to 3 weeks to provide results.
We found a great article offered by the RSPCA (UK’s Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) that busts nine of those myths. In dogs it varies greatly depending on the breed, with larger dogs tending to have shorter life spans than smaller dogs in general. With all of the government regulations you would think that it would be as easy as reading a human food label, but it isn’t. When insulin resistance and glucose production cause elevation of serum blood glucose, the animal becomes diabetic. This patient had hemorrhage within the tumor, which made the mass more apparent on gross pathologic evaluation. Note it is devoid of endocrine cells and replaced with amphophilic fibrillar material (amyloid). While articles have been peer-reviewed and strive to present the most accurate information available, there is no implication that material published herein represents the best or only procedure for a particular condition and, further, the views of the authors are not necessarily those of the NAVC.
It is not a substitute for professional veterinary advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your pet’s health.
Jointaid offers a variety of Treatments and Medication for Dog Arthritis and Arthritis Symptoms. Check out recommendations for arthritis treatment diet and exercise from medical experts at ThirdAge. Other Names: Baby Aspirin Aspirin Lo Dose Coated Aspirin Enteric Coated Aspirin Bayer Aspirin. Arthritis natural treatment for hands – Swing your knee behind when there is no longer a threat. The link between food and feline diabetes is a subject that we’ve talked about before but it keeps coming up so I think it’s a good idea to revisit the subject. The cat doesn’t even bother chewing, if possible he just swallows his food so he can eat faster.
When he took a job in Louisiana, he moved down months before I could follow with our three dogs. Sugar’s mass was difficult to appreciate on gross pathology due to changes from radiation therapy and the fragile nature of the postradiation tissue. It is the responsibility of the reader to verify the accuracy and applicability of any information presented and to adapt as new data becomes publicly available. Feline AcneThey may not have to worry about a prom night disaster, but cats get pimples, too. Never ignore professional veterinary advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. You may have arthritis if you are experiencing any of these common symptoms What foods are highest in vitamin C? Since we don’t have a lot of experience with cats, we looked to the internet for some evidence. Image of the pancreas in a healthy cat that illustrates normal appearance of an islet of Langerhans, populated with endocrine cells (B). Fish oil has also shown promise as an anti-inflammatory treatment for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis menstrual pain and lupus. Rheumatoid arthritis a chronic disease characterized by joint inflammation pain stiffness and swelling. Possible causes include stress, poor grooming, a reaction to medication, an underlying skin condition, or even the plastic bowl you put out with her food or water. Most epidemiological studies of the RA foot report radiological changes and results of clinical examination.
The medical community hasn't pinpointed what causes rheumatoid arthritis, but there are some clues. Your veterinarian may recommend a specialized shampoo or gel to clear up the breakout, or antibiotics if a bacterial infection accompanies the acne.


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The Scientist: John Indalecio, a hand therapist at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York. For example, feline acne can make a cat's hair follicles more vulnerable to infection, resulting in folliculitis.
Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics, but it's important to address any underlying skin conditions to prevent a recurrence. Simponi (golimumab) has been extensively studied in a phase III clinical trial programme involving over 2200 rheumatology patients.1 on data from these trials, Simponi was licensed, at launch, for the treatment for three major rheumatology indications - rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) Sciatica Scoliosis Chiropractic Care After Back Surgery Whiplash Injuries Stiff Neck Sacroiliac Pain Shoulder Pain Pinched Nerves Postural Prescription CELEBREX (celecoxib) has been an arthritis treatment option for millions of patients for over 15 straight years.
Yeast InfectionsYeast infections are caused by a fungus and are also more likely in cats that have other medical problems.
Studies have shown that L-Carnosine (Hereafter referred to simply as Carnosine), is a major tool in the fight against aging and degenerative disease. Symptoms may include a black or yellow discharge, redness of the ear flap, and persistent scratching of the ear. Yeast infections respond well to treatment with antifungal medicine, but be sure to get a diagnosis from a veterinarian before using anything on your cat.  RingwormRingworm is another type of fungus that affects cats, especially if they are under age 1. Ringworm is highly contagious and can spread to other pets in the home, as well as to people. Treatment depends on severity, but may include specialized shampoos, ointments, or oral medications. SporotrichosisYet another fungus -- although rare -- sporotrichosis produces small, hard skin lesions that may leak fluid. Sporotrichosis is considered to be a public health concern, because the fungus is known to spread from cats to humans. For these reasons, cats with sporotrichosis should be treated promptly, and caregivers should be meticulous about hygiene. Allergic DermatitisCats can have allergic reactions to grooming products, food, and environmental irritants, such as pollen or flea bites. Symptoms of other allergies include chewing on the paws or base of the tail, or scratching the ears. Allergies can also cause hair loss or skin lesions anywhere on the body, including the belly. There are a variety of treatments to soothe itchy skin associated with allergies, but avoiding exposure to the irritants is the best strategy.
Shedding and Hair Loss (Alopecia)If you live with cats, you learn to cope with cat hair on your favorite sweater. But if you notice your cat is losing more hair than usual or has bald patches, see your veterinarian as soon as possible. Abnormal hair loss can be a warning sign of several illnesses, as well as fleas, stress, allergies, or poor nutrition.
FleasThe idea of tiny insects feeding on the blood of your cat may make you shudder, but fleas are a very common problem.
You can look for them or their droppings in a cat's coat, especially where the fur is pale. Other signs of a flea infestation are persistent scratching, crusty skin lesions, and thinning hair above the base of the tail. To eradicate fleas, you’ll need to treat your cat, as well as your furniture, bedding, and rugs. It not only kills fleas on your cat, but those in your home should eventually be eliminated as they fail to reproduce. Ear MitesEar mites are tiny parasites that are drawn to the wax and oils inside a cat’s ear. Signs of ear mites include excessive scratching of the ears, head shaking, and a strong odor and a dark discharge from the ears. Large infestations can lead to scratching, restlessness, unusual coat appearance, and hair loss. Because lice are species-specific, you do not need to worry about getting lice from your cat.
Stud TailAlso called tail gland hyperplasia, stud tail refers to overactive glands on the top of the tail. Other treatment options include diligent grooming of the tail and the use of specially formulated shampoos. Eosinophilic GranulomaIf your cat has raised ulcers or lesions on the nose or lips, she may be having a type of allergic reaction known as an eosinophilic granuloma. This reaction can occur anywhere on the body, but is most common on the face, pads of the feet, and thighs. Food allergies or fleas are sometimes to blame, but the lesions can also result from bacterial infections.
Skin TumorsA lump in your cat's skin is not necessarily cancer, but should be checked by a veterinarian.
Persistent dandruff may be a sign of poor nutrition, inadequate grooming, or an underlying medical problem.
Compulsive licking, chewing, or sucking on the skin may lead to irritation, infection, and thinning hair (a condition called psychogenic alopecia.) Cats may groom compulsively in response to stress, such as moving into a new home, but may also overgroom due to a medical problem such as arthritis.
If this describes your cat, talk to your vet about stress reduction and behavior modification strategies. When to See the VetCheck with your veterinarian as soon as possible if you find any oddities on your cat’s skin -- flaking, scaling, redness, or bald patches.
Even if the skin looks fine, your cat should be examined if she is scratching, licking, or biting herself excessively.



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