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True and honest statement of strange and interesting recovery experienced by some of our patients who were suffering from chronic and difficult diseases that did not respond to treatment given earlier by different medical experts. We accept and treat such patients with chronic and difficult diseases who are hopeless and helpless even after trying many other different medical experts. The therapeutic results at our centre are peculiar in that they are safe and fast with high success rate. Hemiplegia means severe weakness of the limbs on one side of the body but the specific features can vary tremendously from person to person.
Behavior problems like anxiety, anger, irritability, lack of concentration or comprehension.
Shoulder pain — Often associated with a loss of external rotation of the glenohumeral joint, commonly due to the increased tone of the Subscapularis muscle and Pectoralis major muscle. Other causes of hemiplegia in adults include trauma, bleeding, brain infections and cancers. TRAUMATIC: cerebral lacerations, subdural hematoma rare cause of hemiplegia is due to local anaesthetic injections given intra-arterially rapidly, instead of given in a nerve branch.
The exact cause of hemiplegia is not known in all cases, but it appears that the brain is deprived of oxygen and this results in the death of neurons. Hemiplegia is identified by clinical examination by a health professional, such as a physiotherapist or doctor.
Treatment should be based on assessment by the relevant health professionals, including physiotherapists, doctors and occupational therapists. Surgery may be used if the individual develops a secondary issue of contracture, from a severe imbalance of muscle activity. Physical therapy (PT) can help improve muscle strength & coordination, mobility (such as standing and walking), and other physical function using different sensorimotor techniques.
Occupational therapy Occupational Therapists may specifically help with hemiplegia with tasks such as improving hand function, strengthening hand, shoulder and torso, and participating in activities of daily living (ADLs), such as eating and dressing. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function, especially in cases of hemiplegia. There are a variety of standardized assessment scales available to physiotherapists and other health care professionals for use in the ongoing evaluation of the status of a patient’s hemiplegia.
Prioritize treatment interventions based on specific identifiable motor and sensory deficits. Create appropriate short and long term goals for treatment based on the outcome of the scales, their professional expertise and the desires of the patient. Evaluate the potential burden of care and monitor any changes based on either improving or declining scores. The FMA is often used as a measure of functional or physical impairment following a cerebrovascular accident(CVA).
This test is a reliable measure of two separate components evaluating both motor impairment and disability. The STREAM consists of 30 test items involving upper-limb movements, lower-limb movements, and basic mobility items. Hemiplegia is not a progressive disorder, except in progressive conditions like a growing brain tumour.
Intellectual disability (ID) or general learning disability is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors.
Children with intellectual disability may learn to sit up, to crawl, or to walk later than other children, or they may learn to talk later. In early childhood, mild intellectual disability (IQ 50–69) may not be obvious, and may not be identified until children begin school.
Moderate intellectual disability (IQ 35–49) is nearly always apparent within the first years of life. People with severe or profound intellectual disability need more intensive support and supervision their entire lives. Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic.
Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia.
The first English-language IQ test, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, was adapted from a test battery designed for school placement by Alfred Binet in France. Since current diagnosis of intellectual disability is not based on IQ scores alone, but must also take into consideration a person's adaptive functioning, the diagnosis is not made rigidly.
Clinically, intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, which is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as intellectual disability, or too specific (as in specific learning disability), or acquired later in life through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia. Adaptive behavior, or adaptive functioning, refers to the skills needed to live independently (or at the minimally acceptable level for age).
By most definitions intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. There are thousands of agencies around the world that provide assistance for people with developmental disabilities. Beyond that there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. There are four broad areas of intervention that allow for active participation from caregivers, community members, clinicians, and of course, the individual(s) with an intellectual disability. Although there is no specific medication for intellectual disability, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may be prescribed several medications.
The treatment given by NEW LIFE centre at Hyderabad could make him calm, his concentration has increased and he started playing with fellow students and attending his classes. Speciality homeopathic care integrated, sometimes, with other accepted medical therapies remains the mainstay of our treatment.
Hemiplegia is more severe than hemiparesis, where in one half of the body has less marked weakness.
Strokes can cause a variety of movement disorders, depending on the location and severity of the lesion.
There is also a high incidence of hemiplegia during pregnancy and experts believe that this may be related to either a traumatic delivery, use of forceps or some event which causes brain injury. Individuals who have uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension or those who smoke have a higher chance of developing a stroke. When the corticospinal tract is damaged, the injury is usually manifested on the opposite side of the body. Radiological studies like a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be used to confirm injury in the brain and spinal cord, but alone cannot be used to identify movement disorders. The leg on the affected side is extended and internally rotated and is swung in a wide, lateral arc rather than lifted in order to move it forward.
Muscles with severe motor impairment including weakness need these therapists to assist them with specific exercise, and are likely to require help to do this. In all cases, the major aim of rehabilitation is to regain maximum function and quality of life. Physiotherapists can also help reduce shoulder pain by maintaining shoulder range of motion, as well as using Functional electrical stimulation.[11] Supportive devices, such as braces or slings, can be used to help prevent or treat shoulder subluxation in the hopes to minimize disability and pain.
It measures sensory and motor impairment of the upper and lower extremities, balance in several positions, range of motion, and pain.


The disability component assesses any changes in physical function including gross motor function and walking ability. It is a clinical measure of voluntary movements and general mobility (rolling, bridging, sit-to-stand, standing, stepping, walking and stairs) following a stroke. Many of the individuals will have limited recovery, but the majority will improve from intensive, specialised rehabilitation. Intellectual disability is also known as mental retardation (MR), although this older term is being used less frequently. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. Most people with intellectual disability do not look like they are afflicted with such, especially if the disability is caused by environmental factors such as malnutrition or lead poisoning.
Children may take longer to learn language, develop social skills, and take care of their personal needs, such as dressing or eating. Down syndrome, velocariofacial syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome are the three most common inborn causes. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons.
If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage. Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause intellectual disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate. A third condition requiring onset in childhood is used to distinguish intellectual disability from dementia such as Alzheimer's disease or due to traumatic brain injuries. Lewis Terman adapted Binet's test and promoted it as a test measuring "general intelligence." Terman's test was the first widely used mental test to report scores in "intelligence quotient" form ("mental age" divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100).
It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and such like.
To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness, such as schizophrenia or depression. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence. These include psychosocial treatments, behavioral treatments, cognitive-behavioral treatments, and family-oriented strategies Psychosocial treatments are intended primarily for children before and during the preschool years as this is the optimum time for intervention.
Typically, one-to-one training is offered in which a therapist uses a shaping procedure in combination with positive reinforcements to help the child pronounce syllables until words are completed. For example autistic children with developmental delay may be prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers to help with their behavior. Hemiplegia and hemiparesis may be congenital, or they might be acquired conditions resulting from an illness, an injury, or a stroke.
Weakness on one side of the face may occur and may be due to a viral infection, stroke or a cancer. For example if one has an injury to the right side of the brain, the hemiplegia will be on the left side of the body. Individuals who develop seizures may undergo tests to determine where the focus of excess electrical activity is. The upper limb on the same side is also adducted at the shoulder, flexed at the elbow, and pronated at the wrist with the thumb tucked into the palm and the fingers curled around it. Drugs are also given to individuals who have recurrent seizures, which may be a separate but related problem after brain injury. It should be noted that although many individuals suffering from stroke experience both shoulder pain and shoulder subluxation, the two are mutually exclusive.
Some therapists actually make the splint; others may measure your child’s hand and order a splint. This test is a reliable and valid measure in measuring post-stroke impairments related to stroke recovery. The disability inventory can have a maximum score of 100 with 70 from the gross motor index and 30 from the walking index. The voluntary movement part of the assessment is measured using a 3-point ordinal scale (unable to perform, partial performance, and complete performance) and the mobility part of the assessment uses a 4-point ordinal scale (unable, partial, complete with aid, complete no aid). Potential to progress may differ in cerebral palsy, compared to adult acquired brain injury.
The terms mental retardation and mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which were deemed to have become offensive. The so-called typical appearance ascribed to people with intellectual disability is only present in a minority of cases, all of which are syndromic.
Learning will take them longer, require more repetition, and skills may need to be adapted to their learning levels. People with mild intellectual disability are capable of learning reading and mathematics skills to approximately the level of a typical child aged nine to twelve.
People with moderate intellectual disability need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to participate fully. The most prevalent genetic conditions include Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome (common among boys), Neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism, Williams syndrome, Phenylketonuria (PKU), and Prader-Willi syndrome.
More common than full-fledged cretinism, as intellectual disability caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Current tests are scored in "deviation IQ" form, with a performance level by a test-taker two standard deviations below the median score for the test-taker's age group defined as IQ 70.
Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development.
To measure adaptive behavior, professionals use structured interviews, with which they systematically elicit information about persons' functioning in the community from people who know them well. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things. Within one agency there could be departments that include fully staffed residential homes, day rehabilitation programs that approximate schools, workshops wherein people with disabilities can obtain jobs, programs that assist people with developmental disabilities in obtaining jobs in the community, programs that provide support for people with developmental disabilities who have their own apartments, programs that assist them with raising their children, and many more. This early intervention should include encouragement of exploration, mentoring in basic skills, celebration of developmental advances, guided rehearsal and extension of newly acquired skills, protection from harmful displays of disapproval, teasing, or punishment, and exposure to a rich and responsive language environment.
Sometimes involving pictures and visual aids, therapists aim at improving speech capacity so that short sentences about important daily tasks (e.g. Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with intellectual disability requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioural and psychiatric problems. Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, specifically Brown-Sequard syndrome, traumatic brain injury, or disease affecting the brain.
This happens because the motor fibres of corticospinal tract ( also called pyramidal fibres), which take origin from the motor cortex in brain, cross to the opposite side in the lower part of medulla oblangata and then descend down in spinal cord to supply their respective muscles. A treatment method that can be implemented with the goal of helping to regain motor function in the affected limb is constraint-induced movement therapy.
OTs educate patients and family on compensatory techniques to continue participating in daily living, fostering independence for the individual - which may include, environmental modification, use of adaptive equipment, sensory integration, etc. A lower score in each component of the test indicates higher impairment and a lower functional level for that area.


Each task in this inventory has a maximum score of seven except for the 2 minute walk test which is out of two. The maximum score one can receive on the STREAM is a 70 (20 for each limb score and 30 for mobility score). Complications may include muscle and joint stiffness, loss of aerobic fitness, muscle spasms, bed sores, pressure ulcers and blood clots. It is vital to integrate the hemiplegic child into society and encourage them in their daily living activities. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environments.
By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging, politically incorrect, and in need of replacement.[3] The term intellectual disability is now preferred by most advocates and researchers in most English-speaking countries.
Nevertheless, virtually every child is able to learn, develop and become a participating member of the community.
They can learn self-care and practical skills, such as cooking or using the local mass transit system. While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities. Other genetic conditions include Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13del), Mowat-Wilson syndrome, genetic ciliopathy, and Siderius type X-linked intellectual disability (OMIM 300263) as caused by mutations in the PHF8 gene (OMIM 300560). A woman who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with intellectual disability. Certain areas of the world due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction are severely affected.
Until the most recent revision of diagnostic standards, an IQ of 70 or below was a primary factor for intellectual disability diagnosis, and IQ scores were used to categorize degrees of intellectual disability.
This enables diagnosis to avoid the pitfall of the Flynn Effect, which is a consequence of changes in population IQ test performance changing IQ test norms over time.
This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for intellectual disability. There are many adaptive behavior scales, and accurate assessment of the quality of someone's adaptive behavior requires clinical judgment as well.
There are also many agencies and programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities.
People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people.
A great example of a successful intervention is the Carolina Abecedarian Project that was conducted with over 100 children from low SES families beginning in infancy through pre-school years. There was some initial calmness but later the boy became more hyperactive and started crying. As a lesion that results in hemiplegia occurs in the brain or spinal cord, hemiplegic muscles display features of the Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome. This consists of constraining the unaffected limb, forcing the affected limb to accomplish tasks of daily living.
The maximum score for each component is 66 for the upper extremities, 34 for the lower extremities, and 14 for balance. The impairment component of the test evaluates the upper and lower extremities, postural control and pain. The higher the score, the better movement and mobility is available for the individual being scored. As a result, a person with an unusually low IQ may not be considered intellectually disabled. As of 2013, the term "mental retardation" is still used by the World Health Organization in the ICD-10 codes, which have a section titled "Mental Retardation" (codes F70–F79). As individuals with intellectual disability reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment. As adults they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home, or even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances.
In the rarest of cases, abnormalities with the X or Y chromosome may also cause disability. India is the most outstanding, with 500 million suffering from deficiency, 54 million from goiter, and 2 million from cretinism. Results indicated that by age 2, the children provided the intervention had higher test scores than control group children, and they remained approximately 5 points higher 10 years after the end of the program.
In a similar fashion, older children benefit from this type of training as they learn to sharpen their social skills such as sharing, taking turns, following instruction, and smiling.
Features other than weakness include decreased movement control, clonus (a series of involuntary rapid muscle contractions), spasticity, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and decreased endurance. A lesion in internal capsule where all the motor fibres are condensed in a small area, will cause dense hemiplegia i.e. The impairment inventory focuses on the seven stages of recovery from stroke from flaccid paralysis to normal motor functioning. Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms are present, and non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. In the next revision, the ICD-11 is expected to replace the term "mental retardation" with "intellectual disability," and the DSM-5 has replaced it with "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)." Because of its specificity and lack of confusion with other conditions, the term "mental retardation" is still sometimes used in professional medical settings around the world, such as formal scientific research and health insurance paperwork.
48, XXXX and 49, XXXXX syndrome affect a small number of girls worldwide, while boys may be affected by 47, XYY, 49, XXXXY, or 49, XYYYY. Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have instituted widespread iodization programs, whereas, as of 2006, Russia had not. By young adulthood, children from the intervention group had better educational attainment, employment opportunities, and fewer behavioral problems than their control-group counterparts.
At the same time, a movement known as social inclusion attempts to increase valuable interactions between children with an intellectual disability and their non-disabled peers. There are many types of braces and splints available to stabilize a joint, assist with walking and keep the upper body erect.
A training workshop is recommended if the measure is being utilized for the purpose of data collection.
CT Scan was done .He was advised to be admitted in the school for the mentally handicapped.
Cognitive-behavioral treatments, a combination of the previous two treatment types, involves a strategical-metastrategical learning technique[clarification needed] that teaches children math, language, and other basic skills pertaining to memory and learning. The first goal of the training is to teach the child to be a strategical thinker through making cognitive connections and plans. Then, the therapist teaches the child to be metastrategical by teaching them to discriminate among different tasks and determine which plan or strategy suits each task. Finally, family-oriented strategies delve into empowering the family with the skill set they need to support and encourage their child or children with an intellectual disability. In general, this includes teaching assertiveness skills or behavior management techniques as well as how to ask for help from neighbors, extended family, or day-care staff.



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