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Insulin pumps also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)  provides an alternative to insulin injections.
Insulin pump is smaller than a mobile phone and delivers a steady flow of short acting insulin like humalog, apidra or novorapid round the clock.
The pump delivers a varied dose of insulin continually which can be adjusted based on your activity and food intake.
You will still need to check blood glucose more frequently but with newer pumps even this could be avoided. Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type.
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Honey and Type 1 Diabetes MellitusMamdouh Abdulrhman1, Mohamed El Hefnawy2, Rasha Ali1 and Ahmad Abou El-Goud1[1] Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbasia - Cairo, [2] National Institute of Diabetes, Cairo, Egypt1. Jenkins (1987) defined the glycemic index as the ratio between the blood glucose areas produced after ingestion of a studied sugar compared to the blood glucose area produced after glucose ingestion itself. Diabetes insipidus is a rare disease in children, which inhibits the ability of kidney to process fluids.
Due to this one symptomatic similarity to diabetes types 1, it is named as diabetes, but otherwise diabetes insipidus is not at all related to diabetes type 1 or type 2. Diabetes insipidus occurs in one out of 265,000 people in US and mortality rate is very small in case of adults. It is foremost important to ensure that a proper water balance is maintained in children by drinking adequate fluids, since excess loss of water due to frequent urination in diabetes insipidus may lead to dehydration that can be fatal. Overloads of liquid may cause problems with salt levels of the body, especially sodium levels that can drop to drastically low amounts, causing an electrolyte imbalance.
Children need to be properly diagnosed by the doctor to assess the type of DI, out of the two commonly occurring forms of diabetes insipidus.
Under nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the pituitary secretes adequate vasopressin, but the kidney is unable to respond to it due to an acquired or inherited kidney disease.
Insulin pumps are suitable for people with Type 1 diabetes however recent studies show that insulin pumps may also benefit people with Type 2 diabetes.
This insulin is delivered through a very fine tube that runs from the pump to a cannula, which is inserted under the skin.
Our diabetes specialist nurse, dietitian and consultant diabetologist will support you to achieve better blood glucose control and also improve your quality of life. C-peptide following equivalent amount of glucose, sucrose or honey in non-diabetics.Table 1. Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus is by far the most common metabolic and endocrinal disease in children (Peters & Schriger, 1997).
ResultsNo significant difference was found between patients (diabetics) and controls (non-diabetics) as regards the age and anthropometric measures (table 1). He stated that the glycemic response to food affects the insulin response which in turn is also potentiated by other non-glucose dependent factors in this food (Ostman et al., 2001). The amount of fluid retention gets influenced by alteration in vasopressin (anti diuretic hormone) production within the kidney. Diabetic insipidus (DI) is marked by an increased thirst and excretion of excess urine (polyuria) and therefore, also referred as water diabetes.
There exist two forms of diabetes insipidus in children, one is central DI and the other one is Nephrogenic DI. But in children, diabetes insipidus complication can lead to extreme dehydration that may become more serious and life threatening.
Moreover, children should be guided not to intake excess of water as it can lead to rare but a serious complication of water intoxication.


Those who need to use desmopressin should only drink water when thirsty as usage of this drug prevents any excess excretion of water by making kidneys less responsive to altered fluid levels of the body.
The usual treatment recommends decreasing the intake of salt and using hydrochlorothiazide or indomethacin medications to reduce the output of urine.
Children administered with any prescription medications should have regular supervision by the doctor as long as a particular treatment continues. The usual symptoms of dehydration include dry mucous membranes, dry skin, sunken eyes, weight loss, and rapid heartbeat. The major dietary component responsible for fluctuations in blood glucose levels is carbohydrate. Hence, it is very crucial to seek right treatment and prevent complications, once diabetes insipidus is suspected in children. Hence, a daily dose of desmopressin (synthetic version of ADH) in a pill or spray form is recommended to restore insufficient ADF levels. The doctor can treat the condition by mere replacing medications with alternative drugs, when certain drugs seem to be the cause of diabetic insipidus.
Signs of electrolyte imbalance include frequent headaches, fatigue, irritability, muscle pains and lethargy. Samnata et al (1985) defined the peak incremental index of a certain sugar as the ratio between the maximal increments of the glucose level after ingestion of the sugar compared to the maximal increment produced after ingestion of glucose.
The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels (American Diabetes Association, 2001).
He also mentioned that both the glycemic and the peak incremental indices are closely related, highly dependent and positively correlated to the plasma glucose produced after ingestion of any given sugar. The glycemic effect of any foodstuff is defined as its effect on blood glucose level postprandially. Therefore, any change in the plasma glucose level after ingestion of a certain sugar will markedly affect both the glycemic index and the peak incremental index.
It's probably best to store this in the refrigerator because almond flour baked goods tend to get moldy quickly at room temperature. Both the glycemic index (GI) and the peak incremental index (PII) are used to assess the glycemic effect of different food stuffs (Jenkins et al., 1981).
Hence, the glycemic and the peak incremental indices measure how fast and how much a food raises blood glucose levels. Jennie et al (2003) who studied the use of low glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes found that diets with low glycemic indices (GI), compared with conventional or high-GI diets, improved overall glycemic control in individuals with diabetes, as assessed by glycemic index, peak incremental index, reduced HbA1c and fructosamine.
Foods with higher index values raise blood sugar more rapidly than foods with lower index values do in case of the glycemic index and much more in case of peak incremental index.
They concluded that using low-GI foods in place of conventional or high-GI foods has a clinically useful effect on postprandial hyperglycemia similar to that offered by pharmacological agents that target postprandial hyperglycemia. In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls regarding the glycemic and the peak incremental indices of the studied sugars. Similarly, the American Diabetes Association (2002) stated that the use of low-GI foods may reduce postprandial hyperglycemia.Honey is the substance made when the nectar and sweet deposits from plants are gathered, modified and stored in the honeycomb by honey bees. On the other hand, both the GI and PII of honey were significantly lower when compared with sucrose in patients and controls.
Similarly, Samnata et al (1985), who studied the glycemic effect of glucose, sucrose and honey in 12 normal volunteers, eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and six patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), found no significant differences between the normal volunteers and diabetic patients regarding the glycemic and peak incremental indices of both sugars. It is composed primarily of the sugars glucose and fructose; its third greatest component is water.
Since the glycemic index (GI) is the ratio between the area under curve (AUC) of the studied sugar and the AUC of glucose, and the peak incremental index (PII) is the ratio between the maximal blood glucose increment of the studied sugar and that of glucose; it may be expected that both GI and PII will be the same in both diabetics and non-diabetics.


Glucose and fructose, the major constituents of honey, account for about 85% of the honey solids.
Also, Shambaugh et al (1990) found that sucrose caused higher blood sugar readings than honey in normal volunteers.
In the study of Samnata et al (1985), honey ingestion in both diabetics (IDDM) and non-diabetics also resulted in a significantly lower PII compared to the glucose and sucrose. The principal oligosaccharides in blossom honeys are disaccharides: sucrose, maltose, turanose, erlose. In the study done by Al-Waili (2004), honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused a lower elevation ofplasma glucose levels (PGL) in both diabetics (IDDM) and normal subjects. Also, Watford (2002) demonstrated that very small amounts of fructose, which is the main component of honey, could increase hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen storage, as well as reduce peripheral glycemia which could be beneficial in diabetic patients. In the study performed by Agrawal et al (2007), honey was found to produce an attenuated postprandial glycemic response especially in subjects with glucose intolerance. They referred these results to the possibility that the glucose component of honey might be poorly absorbed from the gut epithelium.
Also, Tirgoviste et al (1983) studied blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to various carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes, and they found that the increase in plasma glucose was significantly higher after administration of more refined carbohydrates such as glucose than after the complex ones such as honey.
Meanwhile, Oizumi et al (2007) and Arai et al (2004) found that consumption of a palatinose (a disaccharide found in honey)-based balanced formula suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia, glycemic and peak incremental indices and produced beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome–related parameters (namely, the lipid profile and visceral fat accumulation) in diabetic patients. Measurement of C-peptide, however, provides a fully validated means of quantifying endogenous insulin secretion. They stated the reason of this observation to be due to the fact that although palatinose is completely absorbed, yet it has the specific characteristics of delayed digestion and absorption as reported by Dahlquist et al (1963) and Lina et al (2002). C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin by the pancreatic cells as a by-product of the enzymatic cleavage of proinsulin to insulin. Our results showed that honey, compared to glucose and sucrose, caused a significant elevation in the C-peptide levels in non-diabetic subjects. Meanwhile, in diabetic patients, the plasma C-peptide levels did not differ significantly between the three types of sugars. Aim of the studyThe aim of this work was to compare the effects of honey, sucrose and glucose on plasma glucose and C-peptide levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.3. To our knowledge, no similar work was done to study the effects of honey on C-peptide levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus. All subjects were within 68–118% and 77–125% of their ideal body weight and height, respectively. The patients were recruited from the regular attendants of the children clinic of the National Institute of Diabetes in Cairo, Egypt.
The study was approved by the local ethical committee, and an informed written consent was obtained from at least one parent of each subject before the study. The honey dose for each patient was calculated based on the fact that each 100 gm of the honey used in this study contained 77.3 gm sugars. Venous blood was sampled just before ingestion and then every 30 min postprandial for 2 h thereafter.



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