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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Natural diabetes treatment Since my diagnosis with diabetes at the age of eleven, my own diet has changed dramatically. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research.
A rash is the abnormal change in the skin and this change affects the texture, color and appearance of the skin.
Itching is an unpleasant feeling in the human body that causes the reflex or desire to scratch.  Research has proved that itching has a number of similarities to pain but their behavioral response patterns are different. Rashes can be of two types, they could either induce an itching sensation or they might be non itchy rashes. Infants often suffer from itchy rash due to infection, dry skin or as a result of overactive glands in the infant.  Itchy rashes in infants can be petechial rash which are serious and require immediate medical attention or they can be erythematous rash which are usually not as serious as the petechial rashes.
Certain childhood diseases cause red itchy spots in children and this condition is known as Exanthem. Itchy rashes are a common cause of worry during the last five weeks of pregnancy when the stretching of the skin is the greatest; however this condition clears with delivery. Many a times itchy rashes also appears s itchy red bumps and this could be due to various causes such as insect bites, acne, razor bumps, presence of a foreign object in the skin, side effects of various drugs, infection, immune deficiency or as a reaction to external stimuli. Itchy nevuses is another type of itchy rash that is a chronic condition where in the delimited rash appears on the mole or macule of the affected individual.
Itchy rashes also appear as itchy scaling patches in case of fungal infections and genetic disorder.
In severe cases itchy rashes are characterized by itchy red patches that have blisters, crusts or are scaling.  Some of these conditions are severe sunburn, photosensitivity, sever cellulitis, shingles, cold sore, eczema, impetigo, paronychia, scabies, paget disease, pompholys and more. Other than the above mentioned conditions, itchy rashes could also be an indicator of other internal diseases. Stem cells are unique in the fact that they have three specific characteristics that are unlike those of most cells. The spinal cord runs along the vertebrae and is where all of the the major nerves in the body meet.
Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can be caused from numerous things such as, trauma, loss of normal blood supply, or compression.
Since the early 1900s, cell based therapies have been researched to find a better treatment or possibly even a cure for SCIs. Su Liu (Washington University School of Medicine and the Center for the Study of Nervous System Injury) published one of the first papers that showed the ides of ESCs differentiating into oligodendrocytes to help treat SCIs. In 2010, Geron Corporation started clinical trials using hESC-based therapy to treat SCIs based on Keirstead’s work. Baylor College of Medicine and Integra LifeSciences supported an experiment to treat SCIs involving decorin, a small proteoglycan that is primarily found in extracellular matrix.
Reduction in the amount of cells under different experimental diabetes conditions, day 14 (Streptozotocin-induced diabetes, day 7), splenic segment of the pancreas.
TRAIL expression in pancreatic islet cells under different experimental diabetes conditions, day 14 (Streptozotocin-induced diabetes, day 7), splenic segment of the pancreas. Apoptotic cells under different experimental diabetes conditions, day 14 (Streptozotocin-induced diabetes, day 7), splenic segment of the pancreas. While conditions such as goose bumps, roseola, skin tags and warts are non itchy, conditions such as bumpy hives, folliculitis and acne are itchy in nature. Petechial itchy rashes may be caused by meningococcal infection, enterovirus infection, or due to tight clothing or even due to forceful coughing or vomiting.
Exanthem is often coupled with headaches, high fever and malaise and is caused by bacteria or virus infection or as reaction to the toxin of these viruses or bacteria or as an immune reaction. Irritation caused due to alkaline saliva is one of the most common causes for itchy rashes around the mouth. During the last three months of pregnancy, pregnant women will notice itchy bumpy reddish rashes on the stretch marks on the abdomen and this condition is known as Polymorphic eruption or Polymorphous Eruption of Pregnancy. These itchy red bumps may or may not be painful depending on the conditions and each condition has to be treated separately depending on the cause of the itchy rashes. Some of these conditions are Nodular prurigo where in a number of itchy red nodules that has a warty surface appears on the limbs, Erythema nodosum which affects the lower legs, forearms or thighs and is characterized by raised red patches on the skin caused due to Tuberculosis or as a side effect to certain drugs. Some of these conditions are mild sunburn, hives, Angioedema, Scombroid fish poisoning, Pityriasis rosea, Amyloidosis, Granuloma annulare and Dermatomyositis. Fungal infections are associated with scaly areas and they can infect the feet, groin, body or scalp and are mostly caused due to ringworm infection. At times contact with certain plants such as chrysanthemum or even nettle can sure itchy rashes with blisters. In the case of skin cancers which could be squamous or basal cell carcinoma and melanoma tend to appear as ulcers on the skin.
These conditions are mostly caused due to fungal infections, sexually transmitted diseases, clogging of sweat glands, cyst, lice and more.
This condition is called as Onychomycosis which causes the ends of the nail to turn white or yellow and causes the nail to become fragile. Some of the diseases that have itchy rashes as one of their symptoms are liver diseases, Chron’s disease, kidney disease, Celicac disease, Chemochromatosis, Schistosomiasis, Lymphomatoid granulomatosis, drug induced jaundice and more.
Diseases that can possibly be treated with stem cell therapy can range from type I diabetes, to neurodegenerative diseases, to soft tissue injuries. It helps facilitate the control of not only motor functions of the extremities but also daily functions of organs in the body.
In Greece, Hippocrates invented an extension bench, which provides a person suffering from an SCI or a spine deformity with immobilization and traction using a stiff board and ropes.
Since hESCs are pluripotent, they can give rise to cells that are involved in the central nervous system. This causes the transmittance of signals to be disrupted resulting in SCI symptoms such as paralysis. The research proposed in the paper showed the promise of finding a cure to these currently non-curable injuries.

Keirstead published his studies on how hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can be transplanted and cure rats with SCIs.
In 2011, Geron stopped recruiting subjects due to financial reasons and their need to focus on cancer research but continue collecting data using the patients already enrolled. Geron found that there were no surgical complications, no serious adverse events, mild adverse events due to immunosuppressive drugs (nausea and low magnesium levels), no neurological changes, no injury to spinal cord due to injection, and no evidence of immune responses. It has been found that condroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are expressed in excess when SCIs occur. Embryonic stem cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes and myelinate in culture and after spinal cord transplantation.
If you do plan on losing more than about a stone in weight then I would visit your doctor for more tips on how to do this without risk. I’ve had diabetes for seven years now, but to tell you that how I maintain weight is perfect would be totally wrong of me. 1).At day 3 of the experiment a well pronounced interstitial edema associated with hyperemia of blood vessels and capillaries in the acinar tissue of pancreatic islets was determined histologically.
Some of the diseases that cause red itchy spots are chicken pox, which causes rashes over the face and the trunk, Measles, which casus itchy rashes on the trunk, face, limbs and mouth accompanied with cough.
Scalp ringworm infection is also responsible for itchy rashes coupled with scaly skin and hair loss. This condition is also known as PUPPP (Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques of Pregnancy) and is often noticed during the first pregnancy as the abdomen is the tightest at this stage. Some of these itchy red bumps are even gender specific such as Perioral dermatitis, which causes scaly rashes around the eyes and mouth in women and Grover’s disease which almost always appears only in men who are unwell and over 50 and is characterized by the pimple like red bumps appearing on the back and chest.
Psoriasis causes itchy rashes due to genetic disorder and it affects the knees, elbows, genital area, scalp and other parts of the body.
Gravitational eczema often appears on the lower legs of a person suffering from thrombosis or venous diseases.
While dandruff and scalp ringworm are the main culprits for itchy rashes on the scalp, ringworm infection of the beard and fungal infection of the groin and inner thighs causes itchy rashes on beard and groin. In such cases, itchy rashes often disappear, when the treatment for the internal diseases are successful.
Nanog and Oct4 are specific transcription factors that prove the cells in culture are ESCs.
It was not until 1998 that the first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) was isolated and grown in a laboratory setting by James Thompson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison [3]. It was not until after WWII, did the treatment of spinal cord injuries evolved, yet they still remained fairly poor and inefficient. Much current treatment focuses on rehabilitation, which provides SCI patients with new way of living to accommodate for their injury. Given the right conditions, an hESC can differentiated into an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC). Oligodendrocytes help develop neurons correctly and are specifically involved with myelinating axons of cells. Keirstead started by inducing differentiation of hESCs in order to create high purity OPCs. This study is titled: Phase 1 Safety Study of GRNOPC1 in Patients With Neurologically Complete, Subacute, Spinal Cord Injury.
Voronkova2[1] Department of Pathologic Anatomy, Volgograd State Medical University, Russia[2] Department of Pharmacology, Volgograd State Medical University, Russia1. Compared with the intact control group, the total volume fraction of the pancreatic islets was not significantly reduced. For example, a person suffering from severe psoriasis will suffer from itchy rash condition where as an individual suffering from mild psoriasis may not feel the urge to itch.
Erythematous itchy rashes could be caused due to eczema, viral skin rash, diaper rash, thrush, measles and  heat rash. Some of the other diseases that cause this red itchy spots condition are Fifth disease, hand foot and mouth disease, Hepatitis B, Roseola infantum, scarlet fever and more.
While most of these conditions are associated with certain infections, allergic reaction or other internal diseases, the casues of some of these conditions remains unknown.
Fox-Fordyce disease is another disease that causes itchy rashes in the armpits or groins due to the clogging of sweat glands in young women between the age of 13 to 35 years. With the correct environment and given the correct growth factors OPCs can form a fully mature oligodendrocyte cell.
The myelin sheath along the axon of a cell helps propagate action potential down the cell, allowing signals to reach other cells.
This can increase the success of action potential traveling, promoting signal propagation, and potentially restore motor function. CSPGs are induced by transform growth factor beta (TGF?) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
Before I really begin I must also say that I have been brought up by great parents who taught me to eat everything, and so I do!
However, there was a slight decrease in the area of ?-cells in all segments of the pancreas (Table 5). This differentiation does not occur with a single step but more realistically occurs over multiple steps involving progenitor and precursor cells.
In 2009, President Obama finally lifts the ban that was placed upon hESC research in 2001 by President Bush.
A complete SCI is characterized by the loss of function below the level of injury where an incomplete SCI patient still maintains some or all function. Some growth factors that are known to be involved in this process include fibroblast, epidermal, and platelet-derived growth factors. This signaling process is essential to the central nervous system and results in functioning in the body (eg. Through this experiment, they also showed that when ESCs were inserted into a rat’s central nervous system, the cells differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes which are known be cause myelination (via in vitro studies). Transplanting OPCs instead of pure undifferentiated hESCs reduced the risk of hESCs differentiated into other cell types and also reduced the formation of teratomas. In order for human trials to be conducted, the safety of inserting GRNOPC1 was determined via animal studies. Decorin has the ability to limit TGF? and EGFR, decreasing the expression of CSPGs, and increasing axon reformation and spinal cord function.

In vitro, a co-culture of fibroblast and neuronal cells from rat spinal columns were tested with decorin. If there is something that you don’t like, there are loads of other diabetic recipes and ideas that you will eat and appreciate. Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body doesn’t produce or properly use insulin, a hormone needed to convert glucose into energy.
The cells with moderate dystrophic and destructive changes were revealed in the central part of the islets of Langerhans. Hence in 2010, Geron Corporation initiated the first clinical trials of hESC-based therapy to heal acute spinal injury [4]. Complete SCIs can lead to quadriplegia (paralysis below injury including the arms and legs) or paraplegia (paralysis below injury including only the legs). It was found that after the OPCs were transplanted to the spinal cord, they formed into fully mature oligodendrocytes and helped to myelinate damaged axons. This cell transplantation resulted in no teratomas 1 year after transplantation, small, non-harmful cysts at injection sites, no toxicity or cell migration outside the central nervous system, no stimulated pain, and no major susceptibility to immune attack.
Since over time the high blood sugar levels associated with diabetes-the nation’s fifth-leading cause of death by disease-can lead to complications of the eyes, blood vessels, nerves, kidneys and other organs, anything that would ease the typical daily regimen of insulin injections and the like would be most welcome by patients. According to experts at the Mayo Clinic, that “simplification” is exactly what’s happening.
Immunohistochemical reaction in the central part of the pancreatic islets revealed insulin-positive cells with marked expression of insulin. This result was only found when OPC treatment occurred 7 days after the injury was implemented. The Food & Drug Administration, for example, is in the process of approving both insulin patches and inhalants as alternative delivery methods to insulin injections.
2008).The most commonly used diabetic experimental models are non-genetic models that use hydrophilic ?-cell glucose analogues, such as alloxan, streptozotocin, chlorozotocin, cyproheptadine, etc.
It was also found to cost an extra $1 million to $4.3 million for health care and living expenses for a single patient with an SCI. Breakthroughs in blood glucose monitoring that would allow continuous testing throughout the day are currently in development. Compared with the intact control group, the total area of islet cells in all segments of the pancreas was slightly reduced. The success of this experiment showed how hESC-based therapy soon after SCI could help remyelinate spinal cord cell axons and restore an organism’s locomotive function. The total glucagon-positive cell area did not change as compared with the control group (Table 5).At day 7 the islets were swollen, hyperemic and collapsed. In this type of experimental models of diabetes mellitus streptozotocin (an N-nitrosourea derivative of glucosamine) is most commonly used (McNeill J.H.
There was no statistically significant reduction in the total volume fraction of islets in all segments of the pancreas.
?-cell necrosis was accompanied by moderate leukocyte infiltration of the stroma and acinar cells with only few leukocytes in the islets. Although diabetes mellitus usually has obvious clinical symptoms such as hyperglycemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, severe weight loss, it is difficult to measure the contribution of each of the links to the pathogenesis of diabetes and to assess the extent of pancreatic islet ?-cell damage and death.
The toxic effect of alloxan and streptozotocin on cells in pancreatic islets manifests itself not only by necrosis but also by apoptosis of pancreatic islet ?-cells (Daisy Mythili M., et al. Compared with the control group, there were not any statistically significant changes in the islet volume fraction in all segments of the pancreas. Insulin-positive cells tended to be located in a random pattern; however, glucagon-positive cells were predominantly found at the periphery.
The study of apoptotic mechanisms will enable us to identify specific targets for purposeful creation and development of anti-diabetic medications.2. There was moderate hypertrophy of ?-cell nuclei in all segments of the pancreas.At 28 day edema, hyperemia of blood vessels and inflammatory infiltration were replaced by focal sclerotic changes of the acinar tissue and pancreatic islets. The animals were kept under standard vivarium conditions at pharmacology department of Volgograd Medical University, and were provided with a nutritionally balanced diet that the laboratory animals consume consistently.
As before, a slight decrease in the islet volume fraction in all segments of the pancreas was reported. The blood glucose was determined in samples obtained from the tail vein of rats by enzymatic method, using "Glucose FKD" assay kits (Russia) on SF-46 spectrophotometer at ?=450 nm in 10 mm cuvettes.
Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard histological stain techniques (Korzhevsky D.E. 2005).For detection of ?-and ?- endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans the primary antibodies against insulin and glucagon were used (Table 2). The reliability of the obtained results was defined using both positive and negative control antigens, as well as negative control antibodies.Immunohistochemical reaction was based on visual evaluation, taking into account the intensity of color, or on determination of the specific amount of positively stained cells (Allred DC, et al. 1998).Photo images were captured with an «AxioScope» microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany) and a «PowerShot» digital camera (Canon, Japan).
In the course of the study we determined the relationship between the total ?-and ?- endocrine cell area and the total area of the islet (S,%), between the volume fraction (ML, %) of islets and exocrine glands, as well as the area of ?-cell nuclei (S, µm2). The analysis of the parameters for normally-distributed values was performed using Student's t test. The total volume fraction of islet tissue in the gastric and splenic segments was almost twice as much as the volume fraction of islets of the intestinal segment (Table 3).
The total area of nuclear ?-endocrine cells in all segments of the pancreas had no statistically significant differences during all periods of observation. Insulin-positive cells were predominantly found in the central part of the pancreatic islets; however, glucagon-positive cells were more frequently encountered at the periphery.
There was a statistically significant (p ? 0.05) direct relationship between the total volume fraction of pancreatic islets and the area of ?- endocrine cells depending on their location. A weak positive cytoplasmic staining of islet cells in the central part of the islet for Bcl-2 protein was reported.
In the nuclei of individual ?-endocrine cells ambiguous or weak expression of p53 protein was determined.

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