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Hypertension medications are known as anti-hypertensive agents and include least expensive and generic ones.
High blood pressure treatment through drugs or other means is absolutely essential as it has been shown that a reduction in blood pressure by some 5mm Hg can reduce stroke risk by some 34%, ischaemic heart disease by some 21% in addition to significantly reducing the possibility of dementia, heart failure and death from cardiovascular diseases. The fundamental goal of hypertension medication is to prevent important endpoints of high blood pressure in patients such as blindness, heart failure and kidney failure. Over a period of time research and development has led to the development of about five classes of hypertension medications which are today available to patients and are used to varying degree based on the above factors amongst other things.
Diuretics - Data going back as far as 1967 has conclusively shown reductions in both mortality and morbidity with the use of diuretics, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
The fluid that they rid help reduce the burden on the heart in its pumping work and also reduce blood pressure.
As of 2009 Thiazide Diuretics were favored or preferred as first line treatment were drugs are necessary. Some hold the belief that the less popularity in actual usage of Thiazide Diuretics might have everything to do with the open patent on the drug that makes it less attractive for big pharmaceuticals to pursue and promote. The conversion to angiotensin II is undesirable in hypertension patients as it causes the narrowing of blood vessels leading to increased blood pressure. Apart from solving the hypertension problem, ACEIs have also been shown to reduce the progress of diabetic nephropathy (persistent protein in the urine). Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) - CCBs are specific antihypertension drugs also known as calcium antagonists. Apart from hypertension, calcium antagonists also treat migraines and Raynaud's disease whose symptoms are associated with the discoloration of fingers and toes. In other words they block the effect of a specific type of adrenaline thereby reducing heart rate and also dilating blood vessels in turn reducing blood pressure.
Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) - are also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or sartans.
Typhoid fever is an infection caused by the Salmonella typhi or Salmonella paratyphi bacteria.
Antibiotics are used to resist the progress of typhoid and the growth of the typhoid bacteria in the body.
With the use of appropriate antibiotics, the mortality rate in cases of typhoid has been reduced from 15% in the past to less than 1%. If left undiagnosed and untreated, typhoid may result in complications like intestinal perforation and the spread of the infection to other organs, especially to the peritoneum i.e.
Typhoid patients are primarily treated with antibiotic medicines, in order to counter the causes of typhoid. Previously, antibiotics like Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, and Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were used to treat typhoid, but due to various undesirable effects and reasons, they have become obsolete. Modern day antibiotics include Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin, and Azithromycin. Drug selection is based upon the sensitivity of the typhoid bacteria to the drug in question.
Over a period of time, the typhoid bacteria become resistant to the effects of some drugs, despite having been sensitive to them earlier. The frequency and duration of drug administration varies with the severity of the disease, the drug chosen, and the standard dosage schedules advocated for these drugs.
Reducing fever- As patients may have high grade fever as a typhoid symptom, antipyretics (drugs that control fever) like Paracetamol can be used to normalize the body temperature.
Fighting body aches and headaches – Headaches, muscle pains, and generalized body pain can be treated with analgesics (drugs that alleviate pain) like Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, and Diclofenac. Surgery may be required only in patients with complications of typhoid, such as intestinal perforation and peritonitis (spread of the infection to the peritoneum in abdomen).
In the case of people who are long-term carriers of the Salmonella bacteria, if antibiotics fail to destroy the bacteria, the gall bladder may be removed to eliminate the site of the Salmonella typhi colonization. If you have a typhoid infection, rigidly follow the drug schedules prescribed by your doctor. Drink safe water and reduce the risk of water contamination by adopting measures like boiling and chlorination of water.
Complete the prescribed course of medication to avoid becoming a long term carrier of typhoid even after the symptoms have disappeared.
Keep an eye out for the occurrence of similar symptoms again in future, as this could indicate a relapse. Typhoid fever treatment is mainly dependent on the use of antibiotics to kill the typhoid bacteria.
Typhoid symptoms vary widely and are very much similar to the symptoms of other microbial infections. It may take anywhere between 3 and 21 days for typhoid symptoms to appear after the entry of the Salmonella bacteria into a person’s body. In patients who are not undergoing any form of typhoid fever treatment, there is a specific pattern of symptoms, which can be classified into 4 phases. During the first phase, a blood sample taken from the subject is put over a culture medium that favors the growth of bacteria.
Diarrhea - Patients of typhoid may report up to around 6 to 8 rounds of stool discharge within a day. Bradycardia (A decrease in the pulse rate) – It is called relative bradycardia when it relates to typhoid.
The perforation of the intestine  - The last segment of the small intestine is the usual site of perforation.
If typhoid fever symptoms are observed early, the diagnosis and treatment of the infection can be done in a timely manner, with the right antibiotics. Insects like the housefly are indirect causes of typhoid as they help in transmitting the disease through food and water. The bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are the main causes of typhoid fever. The typhoid infection usually spreads through food and water that has been contaminated with the salmonella bacteria. The infectious dose is a term that refers to the number of bacteria that need to enter the body to cause the infection and the characteristic typhoid fever symptoms. The body has a protective mechanism in the form of a highly acidic environment in the stomach to counter various bacteria. Once the Salmonella typhi escapes from the strong acid barrier in the stomach, it travels to the small intestine, where it has to fight against other defense mechanisms of the body, such as Lysozymes (chemicals that destroy infective organisms) and small intestinal secretions that contain some cationic antimicrobial substances.
After passing through all the hurdles the body presents, the bacteria invade the intestinal membranes and stay inside Payer’s patches.
After crossing the intestinal membranes, the bacteria enter the circulatory system and spread to various parts of the body like the liver, bone marrow, and the lymph nodes.
Repeated Use Of Antacids: Drugs that decrease acidity, when consumed frequently, create an environment suitable for the typhoid bacteria. Diseases of the stomach associated with reduced acid production also weaken the acidic barrier of the stomach. Surgery: A history of surgery on the stomach or the intestines is also an important factor.
Though typhoid symptoms completely disappear after the treatment of the infection, there is a chance that the patient will keep shedding the bacteria through his stools or urine for more than a year. About 1 to 5% of people with typhoid fever may end up becoming carriers of the Salmonella bacteria. Some people have a higher possibility of carrying the Salmonella bacteria and transmitting them, as they are given to interacting with a large number of people on a daily basis.
As the main causes of typhoid are usually unsanitary conditions and the consumption of contaminated food and water, it is best to take immediate precautions to counter these factors. Typhoid fever, a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi and paratyphi, may prove dangerous if not diagnosed and treated on time. The Widal test detects the presence of the antibodies that act against the antigens of typhoid bacteria. During typhoid infections, two types of antigens namely ‘H’ and ‘O’ are present in the blood of the patient. When a person acquires a typhoid infection, these antigens are sensed as foreign particles by the body and in response to them, the body produces antibodies. In a test tube (or over a glass slide) the blood sample taken from the patient is allowed to react with a solution that contains antigens (H and O) of typhoid bacteria. It cannot distinguish between the antibodies present due to the current infection and the ones left over from previous infections.
Patients who have been vaccinated against typhoid may also show positive results on the test. The Widal test may be negative in the first week and the titres begin to rise at the end of the first week or at the beginning of second week. It is a more sensitive method than blood culture to detect the presence of the Salmonella bacteria. Culture generated from intestinal secretions may show a positive result even when the bone marrow culture gives a negative result.


Typhidot-M, a new typhoid test, detects IgM and IgG (Immunoglobulins M and G) type of antibodies in the blood of the patient.
IgM antibodies are indicative of recent infection while IgG antibodies indicate past infection. The Widal test, though not very specific for the diagnosis of typhoid, is usually the typhoid test of choice due to its simpler, faster, and cost-effective method.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that occurs in human beings, affecting people of almost all age groups. A carrier of typhoid fever is a person who does not show any symptoms of typhoid, but harbors the Salmonella Typhi bacteria inside his body. Inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation contribute to the spread of the bacteria that causes typhoid fever. The stool or urine passed by a typhoid patient may spread the disease as they contain such bacteria. People such as hotel cooks, hospital workers, and hospital staff carry a high risk of being carriers and contribute to the spread of typhoid fever. People who use antacids frequently are at risk of spreading the infection, as antacids reduce acid production in the stomach and create a favorable environment for the bacteria to thrive. Patients with intestinal diseases, biliary diseases, or diseases of the stomach are also capable of spreading typhoid fever. Children who are less than 1 year of age and people who inadvertently use antibiotic medicines also carry the risk of transmitting this infection. Fever: The body temperature of the affected individual may rise up to around 1030 or 1050 Fahrenheit. Aches: The patient is likely to experience muscle pain, generalized body ache, and headaches.
Neurological Symptoms: The patient’s behavior is altered, and he often wears a confused look. Besides these general symptoms, the typical pattern of fever experienced by patients helps distinguish typhoid from other diseases. Though the symptoms of typhoid fever appear like those of very commonly occurring illnesses, typhoid may prove dangerous if not diagnosed early through a typhoid test or paid adequate attention.
Though the typhoid fever treatment measures are many, the disease is mainly countered in three ways. Complications of typhoid such as intestinal perforation and peritonitis have to be treated with surgical intervention.
If you have had typhoid fever in the past, you might still be a potential carrier of the typhoid bacteria even if there are no visible symptoms. Typhoid fever can turn out to be fatal if it‘s not diagnosed and treated at the right time, and the best way to beat it is by preventing it in the first place. Symptom improvement can be noticed as early as two weeks after beginning treatment, but the best results can take up to three months. Betaserc is known to suppress appetite as a side effect, and as such has recently undergone trials as a treatment for obesity. The drug is also undergoing a pilot study as a possible treatment for certain types of atypical depression, though at relatively high doses.
The side effects related to Betaserc are mild and uncommon, but include headaches, gastric upsets, nausea, or decreased appetite. Drug treatment of high blood pressure has everything to do with specific hypertension symptoms showing in a patient. Due to the uniqueness of their function and effectiveness only the Thiazide diuretics such as the brands Esidrix or Zaroxolyn found here on the common blood pressure medications page are in fact used to lower blood pressure. In fact some hypertension guidelines recommend the drug as a first-line agent for initial therapy in people with hypertension. They are hypertension medications designed to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure, renal disease and systemic sclerosis (denegerative changes on the skin etc). It also stimulates the release of a hormone called aldosterone that causes kidneys to retain sodium and excrete potassium. For this reason they are also independently used in the prevention of diabetic renal failure. Some of the hypertension medications in the class of CCBs have an added benefit of slowing heart rate positively impacting high blood pressure.
Black they are also known as beta antagonists and are considered one of the most important clinical medicine contributors of the 20th century. Non-selective beta blockers such as propranolol block beta 1 and beta 2 receptors found on the respective muscles which affect the heart, blood vessels and air passages.
Angiontensin II receptor antagonists antagonises angiontensin II receptors on blood vessels by preventing them from binding.
They are used mostly to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure as well as damage caused on kidneys by diabetes. Using hypertension guidelines doctors can determine which drugs are suitable for each individual. Using your blood pressure numbers doctors can determine if you can take herbs without the need for hypertension medications. However pharmaceutical diuretics still remain the most prefered first line of treatment drugs by medical doctors. Being a bacterial infection, typhoid fever treatment mainly involves the use of antibiotics to kill the typhoid bacteria. They reduce the duration of the typhoid fever symptoms (from 14-25 days to 3-5 days) if the treatment is started at the earliest.
As this disease is caused by bacterial infection, killing the bacteria automatically stops the symptoms and the progress of the disease. The response of the bacteria has to be tested with culture and sensitivity studies in  the laboratory. This helps reduce the chances of complications, hastens the recovery process, and decreases the duration of the illness. Early diagnosis through the Typhoid test and subsequent treatment of the infection can help avoid complications like intestinal perforation.
Observing the typical pattern of typhoid fever symptoms helps doctors diagnose and treat typhoid better. It is important to note that symptoms refer to the effects experienced by the patient, while signs refer to the doctor’s findings noted after his clinical observation of the patient. This sample is then subjected to microscopic examination to detect and confirm the presence of the Salmonella typhi bacteria. Unlike the fevers brought on by other infections, the fever brought on by typhoid shows a mismatch between the rise in the pulse rate and the rise in the body temperature. Unsafe sanitary practices lead to the contamination of water and food by the typhoid bacteria, in turn encouraging the spread of the disease.
As a result, the ability of bacteria to escape unaffected from this environment decides their fate in the body. Payer’s patches are collections of lymphoid cells (that protect against infections) in the intestinal walls. But when used inappropriately, they may damage some helpful bacteria that live in the intestines and prevent the growth harmful organisms. The infection can be easily diagnosed by taking a typhoid test during the initial stages of the disease, when the symptoms start showing.
Untreated typhoid may result in serious complications like intestinal perforation, peritoneal infection, and intestinal bleeding or ulcers. The substance that triggers the formation of an antibody is called an antigen and a particle produced by the body on exposure to an antigen is called an antibody.
The antigen ‘H’ is derived from the flagella (a tail-like structure) of bacteria, while the antigen ‘O’ comes from the body of these organisms.
Now, if the blood contains antibodies against these antigens, clumping appears in the mixture.
Also, the results of multiple tests are more reliable as a single test might not prove conclusive.
High yield may be observed during the first week of infection and this decreases gradually by the third week.
Typhidot is capable of detecting typhoid within 2-3 days of infection and its results can be generated within few hours. As Typhidot can distinguish between IgM and IgG, it becomes easier to diagnose recent infections. It is called so because its neurological and behavioral symptoms resemble the symptoms of the typhus infection (caused by a different microbe). A patient may turn into a carrier of typhoid bacteria even after his symptoms have disappeared.
When a person drinks water or eats food that is contaminated with such bacteria, he acquires the infection. In untreated cases, typhoid fever may complicate things with intestinal perforation, spread of the infection to the peritoneum (sac around the intestines, in the abdomen), intestinal bleeding, or other serious complications.
Various antibiotics are used to kill these bacteria, and examples of these include Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, and Cefotaxime.


For headaches, body aches, and muscle pains, analgesics (painkillers) like ibuprofen and diclofenac are used.
Insist on important practices like washing hands properly, eating uncontaminated food, and drinking uncontaminated water. If a dose is missed, it should be taken as soon as it is remembered unless this might cause a "doubling up" of the dose. Women under the age of fifty who took this medication for twelve weeks lost up to seven times the weight of those who took a placebo, all without serious side effects.
It's thought that Betaserc's properties as a histamine antagonist will act to increase bioavailability of dopamine and serotonin in the nervous system.
This means an attempt must be made to know the causes of high blood pressure in a particular patient before treatment commences. The drug is relatively cheap but is however in some cases generally less used than newer drugs due to increased risk of new-onset of diabetes. Taking a dose of your hypertension medications in the morning will save you potentially annoying trips to the bathroom at night which might disturb your sleep. In hypertension patients combination therapy of a thiazide diuretic plus ACEIs is recommended for stage 2 hypertension which is a systolic blood pressure greater than 160mm Hg or a diastolic reading of greater than 100mm Hg. Other factors for selecting the appropriate drug include the patient’s tolerance toward the drug, the presence of any kidney or liver disease, and the data generated from the studies conducted in that particular geographical region. If you have been infected with typhoid, ensure that you strictly follow your doctor’s advice to recover quickly and avoid becoming a long-term carrier of the typhoid bacteria.
If left untreated, the infection can cause various complications, some of which may even require surgical intervention. The possible reason for such a large variation in number could be that the Salmonella bacteria have varying abilities to resist the highly acidic environment of the stomach. The symptoms begin to manifest when an adequate number of bacteria have been produced after replication.
These harmful possibilities make the early diagnosis and typhoid fever treatment very important. Though it is easier, faster, and cheaper to perform than other tests, the Widal test has a few limitations.
Cultures can be generated using samples like blood, urine, stool, bone marrow, and intestinal secretions.
Stool culture is a good way of detecting a long-term carrier state, as the carrier person can shed Salmonella for more than a year.
If you suspect a typhoid infection or see any typhoid fever symptoms, consult a doctor immediately. The choice of drug, its dosage, and the duration of the therapy depend on factors such as the severity of the illness, the age of the person, and the sensitivity of drugs. This medication, a histamine antagonist, dilates blood vessels in the middle ear, relieving internal pressure from excess fluids, and reducing the severity of light-headedness or vertigo. In order for you to see this page as it is meant to appear, we ask that you please re-enable your Javascript! For this reason it is recommended for people who are 65 years and older whose risk for diabetes is outweighed by potential benefits.
It's desirable for angiotensin I to remain in that state as it serves the purpose of excreting sodium (salt) in the urine. Patients who are ACEI intolerant my have their doctor combining with a suitable class of hypertension medications. This affects muscle contraction by causing less contraction therefore increasing arterial diameter. The angiontensin II is a chemical that causes muscles about blood vessels to contract with the net effect of narrowing blood vessels. So, the next best thing to preventing typhoid is to seek immediate clinical treatment for the infection.
When a person consumes water or food that has been contaminated by these insects, the Salmonella typhi bacteria enter the person’s body, causing the typhoid infection.
One of these samples is spread over specific culture media that is designed to favor the growth of Salmonella.
Previously it was a fatal disease, but with the use of antibiotics, death rate due to the disease and its complications has reduced to a great extent nowadays.
Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, or trouble concentrating. These are some of the blood pressure medication side effects associated with hypertension medications.
Sodium is a water- holding molecule its excretion will also imply the loss of excess water from the bloodstream. It is rather important to note that accurate blood pressure equipment reading is necessary to establish a particular stage of hypertension.
Beta blockers are a class of hypertension medications designed to reduce the effect on the heart of excitement or physical exertion and force of contraction causing an antihypertensive effect. The pattern of symptoms and signs varies as per the duration of typhoid and the course of treatment adopted. Carry a piece of non-dietetic hard candy or glucose tablets with you in case you have low blood sugar. Also be sure your family and close friends know how to help you in an emergency.Also watch for signs of blood sugar that is too high (hyperglycemia).
These symptoms include increased thirst, loss of appetite, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dry skin, and dry mouth. Check your blood sugar levels and ask your doctor how to adjust your insulin doses if needed.Never share an injection pen or cartridge with another person. Sharing injection pens or cartridges can allow disease such as hepatitis or HIV to pass from one person to another.Insulin glargine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include diet, exercise, weight control, foot care, eye care, dental care, and testing your blood sugar.
Changing any of these factors can affect your blood sugar levels.Your doctor will need to check your progress on a regular basis. It is not known whether insulin glargine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby.
Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.How should I use insulin glargine?Use this medication exactly as it was prescribed for you.
Your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist will give you specific instructions on how and where to inject this medicine. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles and syringes.Insulin glargine should be thin, clear, and colorless.
Call your doctor for a new prescription.Choose a different place in your injection skin area each time you use this medication.
Do not inject into the same place two times in a row.Use each disposable needle only one time. Throw away used needles in a puncture-proof container (ask your pharmacist where you can get one and how to dispose of it).
Keep this container out of the reach of children and pets.The SoloStar injection pen contains a total of 300 units of insulin. Do not press the button more than one time per injection unless your doctor has prescribed a dose greater than 80 units.Never share an injection pen or cartridge with another person. Sharing injection pens or cartridges can allow disease such as hepatitis or HIV to pass from one person to another.Check your blood sugar carefully during a time of stress or illness, if you travel, exercise more than usual, or skip meals. These things can affect your glucose levels and your insulin dose needs may also change.Watch for signs of blood sugar that is too high (hyperglycemia). Check your blood sugar levels and ask your doctor how to adjust your insulin doses if needed.Ask your doctor how to adjust your insulin glargine dose if needed. Carry an ID card or wear a medical alert bracelet stating that you have diabetes, in case of emergency. Any doctor, dentist, or emergency medical care provider who treats you should know that you are diabetic. Storing unopened vials, OptiClik, or SoloStar devices: Keep in the carton and store in a refrigerator, protected from light.
Unopened vials, OptiClik, or SoloStar devices may also be stored at room temperature for up to 28 days, away from heat and bright light. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to use the medicine and skip the missed dose. You should not use more than one dose in a 24-hour period unless your doctor tells you to.It is important to keep insulin glargine on hand at all times. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.What happens if I overdose?Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Your blood sugar may become dangerously low if you drink alcohol while using insulin glargine.
Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, confusion, or seizure (convulsions).



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