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The global economic slowdown demonstrates clearly the link between broad‑based economic growth and sustained improvements in the lives of the poor.
The effects of ongoing food price volatility, together with serious oil price fluctuations and falls in global economic growth have been devastating for the poor.
The first component will lift agricultural productivity, by working with other donors and research institutions using environmentally sustainable approaches. The second component will improve rural livelihoods, through improving the functioning of markets in ways that increase job opportunities and incomes for the rural poor. The third component will build community resilience, through supporting social protection mechanisms to enable vulnerable people to withstand natural and economic shocks that increase food prices. From 2009‑10, Australia will facilitate economic growth through expanded support for microfinance activities in both urban and rural areas.
Poor infrastructure is a major constraint to economic development and achievement of the MDGs. In the Pacific, significant socio‑economic benefits have resulted from increased investment in infrastructure provision, maintenance and policy reform. Australia's support for transport infrastructure focuses on improving access to markets and essential services. The second component will (i) strengthen the capacity of infrastructure agencies and (ii) support conditions for increased infrastructure financing.
Even in countries with high enrolment rates, such as the Philippines and Indonesia, overall education quality is often inadequate, with major weaknesses in basic literacy and numeracy. Developing the knowledge and skills necessary for life and productive livelihoods is also reflected in the growing importance of technical and vocational education. In fragile or weakly performing states, long‑term sustainability requires coordinated and predictable investment to strengthen local capacities. The Australian Government recognises the power of education as an investment that helps individuals achieve their potential and societies to be stronger and more productive. In 2009‑10 Australia will continue to strengthen national education systems, help put more children into school and improve the quality of education provided in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, East Timor, Bangladesh, Fiji, Vanuatu, Samoa, Kiribati and Laos. Australia's education assistance will work to reach the disadvantaged and marginalised, including through the provision of more equitable access to quality education for girls and boys with disabilities, and those in disadvantaged Muslim and Indigenous Peoples' communities in the Philippines.
In the Pacific, Australia will continue to help develop livelihood skills through existing and new programs in Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa and Fiji. Partnerships with the World Bank and UNICEF will enhance the reach and impact of Australian aid in the education sector.
Higher education opportunities, particularly scholarships, are an important tool for capacity building and improved governance.
Through the Australian Development Scholarships program, Australia provides around 1,000 new scholarships annually in tertiary and higher education. Reaching the MDGs relies on effective health care systems which ensure health care is available to the poor, particularly those in rural areas. Australia will encourage improved delivery of basic health services by working with partner country governments and other donors to ensure funds are directed to where they are needed most.
In 2009‑10, Australia will continue to support countries in the region to address major immediate health concerns and build stronger health systems over the longer term, particularly in the areas of health workforce and financial planning. Improving maternal and child health will remain a priority, including through increasing access to family planning services, increased numbers of skilled birth attendants and the use of health performance incentives to ensure services reach vulnerable groups.
The reduction and control of tuberculosis has international priority under MDG 6 and has been identified by the Government of Indonesia as a national health priority. Australia is committed to reducing the spread of the HIV epidemic and mitigating the effects on people living with HIV and their respective communities. The principal geographic focus for Australia's HIV support will be the Asia‑Pacific region, particularly in Papua New Guinea, East and South Asia and Pacific Island countries.
Governance matters because it either enables or impedes the achievement of broader development goals, such as growth, poverty reduction and improvements in health and education. Building capacity for effective economic and public financial management is critical for development, attracting investment and ensuring that public resources are used sustainably and targeted to areas of need.
Effective delivery of basic services such as health, education and infrastructure helps to restore the legitimacy of government in fragile environments. Effective governance also includes a commitment to combat corruption and improve transparency and accountability in government. Civil society organisations, oversight and integrity systems and democratic processes contribute to improved accountability in government.
Australia is committed to work at all levels of society in partner countries to support improvements in government capability, responsiveness to citizen needs and accountability.
In many countries in which the Australian aid program works, basic services such as education and health are delivered by sub‑national levels of government. Anti‑corruption activities will include working with partner countries on their own efforts to address corruption through improved public financial management and procurement systems that limit opportunities for corruption. Australia will provide significant assistance to law and justice reform efforts across the Pacific and Southeast Asia.
Australia will work to improve democratic processes through electoral support, civic education, parliamentary strengthening, peace building and work to increase the participation of women in government. Australia will continue to support engagement between communities and government, to improve the ability of citizens to participate in making decisions that impact upon their lives.
The first component will develop leadership practices of current and emerging leaders in the Pacific and East Timor, including increased participation by women as active citizens and elected representatives. The fourth component will support efforts to improve the effectiveness of public sector agencies in the Pacific and East Timor, through training and technical assistance.
Performance‑linked aid is the provision of additional assistance to partner governments and agencies to recognise progress in achieving identified policy or administrative reforms or improvements in specific development outcomes. Performance‑linked aid will support progress towards partner government reform priorities. This initiative will assist partner governments to develop and implement reforms and will enhance opportunities to improve policy dialogue. Additional assistance could recognise, for example, improvements in the quality of public expenditure, levels of funding from partners' own budgets committed to national development priorities, the integrity of public accountability systems, or the effectiveness of revenue collections.
The Australian Government is committed to equitable development, with the gains and benefits of development assistance available to all.
Addressing gender inequality and supporting women's full participation in economic, social and political life are priorities for Australia's aid program. Gender inequalities are most visible in women's access to education, to health services, to economic opportunities and political participation. Decreased growth and lower levels of schooling and employment opportunities will leave women and girls highly vulnerable to the global recession.
Australia is working to narrow the gender gap by targeting direct assistance to reduce violence against women and improve economic opportunities for women, as well as enhancing their participation in decision-making.
Other specific development assistance initiatives promote gender equality and empower women. In order to promote women entrepreneurs Australia is identifying barriers that disproportionately restrict Pacific women's ability to do business.
Efforts will focus initially on reducing preventable impairments in two areas; avoidable blindness and road safety.
Compounded by the impacts of climate change and driven by demographic change, industrialisation and rising demand for resources, environmental degradation can undermine economic growth and impact negatively on livelihoods.
The negative impacts of environmental degradation and climate change will be felt most acutely by the poorest and most vulnerable. As well as the assistance required by developing countries to build capacity to adapt to climate change impacts and participate in emerging carbon markets, significant commitments will be required to help bridge knowledge and financing gaps for emission mitigation in areas such as reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), energy efficiency, renewable energy supply, transport and urban waste management.
Australia's development assistance to the environment sector to date has focused primarily on: supporting adaptation to climate change, greenhouse gas mitigation through reduced deforestation and forest degradation, and multilateral environment funds.
Supporting developing countries to implement lower carbon growth strategies is an increasing focus for Australia's development assistance. Conflict, insecurity and humanitarian crises undermine development progress and future growth prospects through the destruction of local communities, livelihoods, institutions and infrastructure and places pressure on fragile government systems. Australia and Australians have a track record of responding quickly and effectively to major humanitarian crises, especially those resulting from natural disasters. Australia will continue to contribute to international responses to humanitarian crises, taking a leadership role in response operations in the Asia‑Pacific region where this is appropriate. AusAID is leading a whole-of-government taskforce to develop a Deployable Civilian Capacity, an idea raised at the Australia 2020 Summit.

Australia will continue to strive to increase the effectiveness of humanitarian action through improved donor coordination, strengthened accountability and support for global response mechanisms, in particular the World Food Programme, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Red Cross Movement, and the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (UNCERF). Australia's emergency response is supported by effective disaster risk reduction, aimed at strengthening partner countries' capacity to respond to disasters. The Government is committed to increasing the effectiveness as well as the volume of its development assistance.
The Australian aid program is continuing to change the way it delivers and manages aid to improve effectiveness.
Key priorities over the coming year include the development of an updated operational policy and management framework, encompassing reforms aimed at strengthening policy dialogue with partner countries, moving more consistently towards program-based approaches and the use of partner government systems to deliver aid, streamlining program portfolios, providing more predictable aid levels to partners and developing new approaches to risk management that are better suited to new aid delivery mechanisms. Note: Where possible, Budget documents are available in HTML and for downloading in Portable Document Format(PDF).
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend an average individual consume two cups of fruit and two and a half cups of vegetables every day. If you find yourself blaming your lack of fruit and vegetable consumption on lack of time, don’t be afraid to try canned or frozen fruits and vegetables. For those of you, who find little appeal to certain fruits and vegetables, don’t give up hope.
Whether you grown your own, support local farmers, or buy from a grocer, take advantage of the diverse selection of seasonal fruits and vegetables and eat to a healthier life! In response to the global recession, Australia will increase its aid in areas that support broad‑based growth and employment generation, in particular in rural development, infrastructure and private sector development, including financial services. Changes in climatic conditions, soil degradation, scarcity of arable land, a decline in the standard of rural infrastructure and use of outdated agricultural practices have affected the global community's capacity to respond. Australia's response will include both short and medium‑term investments to support increased agricultural productivity, better functioning of rural markets, trade reform, improved fisheries management and removal of barriers to rural private sector growth. A key strategy will be to invest in the critical science and innovation upon which productivity depends. Key markets targeted will include agricultural input and output markets, land, finance and labour markets. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) will play an expanded role in Australia's increased support for measures to improve food insecurity and rural development. Conversely, infrastructure investment has a demonstrated positive impact on economic growth and poverty reduction.
Increased funding will help partner governments maintain and enhance investments in essential infrastructure, while generating jobs and improving service delivery, in response to the unfolding global recession. Major programs are underway in Indonesia, the Philippines, the Greater Mekong sub‑region, East Timor, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific. For example, Australia will work with the Government of Indonesia to reform communication bandwidth pricing and licensing; facilitating new technologies and providing a source of revenue to continue development of this sector. The initiative will focus on funding infrastructure needs and improving infrastructure activities' development impact in East Asia and Papua New Guinea. This component will strengthen the corporate structures and management capacity of infrastructure delivery agencies. Failure to bridge this gap will result in failure to achieve the Education for All goals,16 including the MDG of universal primary education by 2015. The poor quality of local education and higher education institutions can undermine gains in building local capacity, income generation, social stability and national development.
Approximately one third of education sector expenditure relates to strengthening higher education and the provision of development scholarships. In collaboration with UNICEF, Australia will support improved education for disadvantaged communities in Papua, in Indonesia. Scholarships help to align Australian expertise with the leadership challenges facing developing countries in Australia's priority regions. Service delivery is hampered both by inadequate funding and by failures in fundamental components of health systems, especially the supply and distribution of basic medicines and health workforce planning and management. Assistance to the health sector is a major component of the Government's response to the global recession and will help partner countries manage budgetary pressures on essential items such as pharmaceutical supplies and immunisation. Australia has recently joined other nations as a founding member of the High‑Level Task Force on Innovative Financing for Health Systems.
Major health sector support programs are underway in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and the Solomon Islands. Following a review, the Government has revised family planning guidelines for the development assistance program to support the same range of family planning services for women in developing countries as are supported for women in Australia, subject to the national laws in partner countries. Vanuatu and Solomon Islands aim to achieve no incidence of malaria by 2011 in selected provinces and maintain this status for three consecutive years in order to declare these provinces malaria free by 2014. Debt owed to Australia by Indonesia will be forgiven in parallel with the Government of Indonesia contributing funding for tuberculosis programs through The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The strategy will direct a sustained effort to achieve the MDG 6 target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV by 2015, through assisting partner countries achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.
Improving the capacity of the public sector at all levels supports the delivery of basic services and the effective management of public goods such as water and sanitation systems, roads and natural resources. Effective governance occurs when government, the private sector, civil society organisations and citizens work together to identify needs, find solutions and deliver services.
Reliable and equitable access to legal and judicial services contributes to stability, community safety, private sector initiative and the protection of human rights in all societies. Corruption is a primary impediment to sustainable growth and improved service delivery, leading to under‑investment in public goods and entrenched inequality.
Effective leadership practices also play an important role in improving standards of governance. Spending on governance constitutes the largest proportion of the aid program, reflecting the importance of effective governance to improved service delivery, economic growth and social stability.
Increased emphasis is also being given to encouraging effective leadership, improving social accountability and civil society participation in decision-making.
Support will also go towards strengthening oversight and accountability institutions such as audit bodies, ombudsmen and anti‑corruption commissions.
An integrated approach recognises the interdependencies across the various institutions within the justice sector, including policing, prosecutions, public defenders, courts, and corrections.
Australia will also participate in international initiatives such as the Indonesian‑led Bali Democracy Forum. Programs to support the role and build the capacity of civil society organisations to monitor, and in some instances deliver, services will be developed and strengthened.
Approaches that increase citizen and community participation will be supported and civil society organisations will be strengthened to hold government to account and, in some cases, as an alternative mechanism for service delivery.
This includes reducing corruption in service delivery through systems strengthening, particularly at sub‑national and local levels.
It will expand performance‑based partnerships with regional tertiary institutions to improve the quality of graduates recruited to the public sector. Performance measures and the use of performance payments will be jointly determined with partner governments and aligned with their priorities. The initiative will support Pacific Partnerships for Development with individual Pacific Island countries. Additional funding may also recognise improvements in the delivery of basic services in priority areas such as health, education and infrastructure, or improvements in the business‑enabling environment through microeconomic or regulatory reform. Gender equality and the empowerment of women (MDG 3) are not only development goals in their own right, but are necessary to the achievement of all MDGs.
This threatens to reverse progress in gender equality and women's empowerment, increase current poverty and imperil future development.32 Declining employment in export-oriented industries and tightening of microfinance lending, as well as a fall in remittances, are likely to disproportionately impact on women, who tend to have fewer employment opportunities and social security benefits as well as unequal control over economic and financial resources.
Australia is working with local and regional stakeholders to develop programs that address the findings of this report.
Research to be undertaken on the barriers and successful pathways to women's leadership in the Pacific region will help shape future assistance. They are more likely to be excluded from education, health services and employment, than others in their communities. An Avoidable Blindness Fund has been established to strengthen eye health and vision services in Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
If unmanaged, these impacts will cause significant economic, environmental and human costs in the Asia‑Pacific region. Vulnerable rural and coastal communities, dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods, require assistance to diversify and sustainably manage their sources of food and income, build resilience and adapt to the impacts of climate change. In Asia, rapid industrialisation compounds the challenge of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions as developing country governments seek to maintain economic growth and expand energy access.

Under the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership for example, the first large‑scale REDD demonstration activity of its kind is being planned in Indonesia. Violence and insecurity impact on personal safety, health, access to income and education, and leave a legacy of trauma. Australia provides assistance to over 30 humanitarian and protracted emergency situations worldwide each year.
Australia will also take an active leadership role in policy dialogue and advocacy in international fora such as in the role of chair of the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) Donor Support Group.
Once established, a national deployable civilian capacity will enable rapid deployment of civilian experts to provide stabilisation and recovery assistance to countries experiencing conflict, post-conflict situations or natural disaster.
In 2009‑10 Australia will work with the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, partner governments, and NGOs to strengthen prevention, mitigation and preparedness efforts. Australia's aid program was reviewed favourably by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD in 2008. If you require further information on any of the tables or charts on this website, please contact The Treasury. Despite the known health benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, Americans as a whole do not consume the recommended amounts each day. To learn more about the health benefits of fruits and vegetables, more ways to incorporate them into your diet, and local nutrition education programs available in Bosque County, contact your local Kate Whitney at the Extension Office at 254-435-2331.
Action to extend social protection measures will be a major component of the Government's aid response to the global recession. Core funding will be increased for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). This component will also help Pacific Island countries to achieve better returns from sustainable management of tuna fisheries and coastal fisheries.
Australia will also provide increased core funding for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) with the aim of increasing the rate of productivity growth for food crops, livestock and fisheries.
Reliable transport infrastructure improves access to services and markets, encourages entrepreneurial activity and promotes economic integration. A Pacific Regional Infrastructure Facility coordinates major donor support for improvements in basic infrastructure services in Pacific Island countries including in transport, water and sanitation, energy, telecommunications and utility reform. Australia will assist countries to expand basic sanitation services, increase hygiene promotion, and increase urban and rural water supply and sanitation infrastructure in Asia, the Pacific and Africa. It also contributes to an enabling environment and governance conditions that make increased, recurrent infrastructure financing an attractive proposition for government and the private sector.
This in turn is likely to undermine the chances of achieving other MDGs, and limit the growth in knowledge and skills needed for future growth. The majority of education expenditure relates to basic education and education system strengthening. These scholarships are enhanced by a short‑term work placement in the Australian workforce. Ensuring the availability of sufficient funding to support health service delivery is increasingly the focus of international efforts. New health programs have been established in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Cambodia and East Timor. Australia will also provide additional funding of up to $15 million over four years through United Nations agencies, bilateral programs and Australian NGOs for family planning and reproductive health activities to help reduce maternal deaths. Participation in governance is particularly important for marginalised groups, including women, the poor and ethnic minorities. As donors scale up development assistance and use partner government systems to implement programs, it becomes increasingly important to support country, regional and global efforts to combat corruption. This work will respond to challenges emerging from the global recession in developing countries such as shrinking revenues and increased demand for government services. In 2009‑10, work will continue to strengthen Pacific media to provide citizens with greater access to information and increase government accountability. Citizens' access to information will be improved, particularly through the media and civic education for school students and civil society organisations. Oversight and accountability institutions will be strengthened and support built for anti‑corruption action at the country level and through multilateral partnerships. There are significant multiplier effects from investing in women and girls.26 Women who have the opportunity to participate in the economy are key actors in addressing poverty and are able to ensure their children are educated.
Australia is also working with members of Vision 2020 Australia to support Vietnam's Prevention of Blindness strategy and with the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID) to expand the number of eye health workers in the Pacific, Papua New Guinea and East Timor.
Accordingly, environmental degradation and climate change represent complex challenges for the development assistance program.
In 2009‑10, Australia will work with Indonesia to develop a second REDD demonstration activity and a national carbon accounting system. The increasing frequency and ferocity of natural disasters and greater public awareness of their impact is leading to greater emphasis on disaster preparedness and risk reduction in an effort to mitigate the worst humanitarian effects of such disasters. Increased coherence in addressing issues of human security and stability will be achieved through a new Crisis Prevention, Stabilisation and Response Group in AusAID. In cooperation with other government agencies, AusAID will pre‑identify, train, deploy rapidly and sustain civilian technical expertise. The DAC review noted efforts to promote effectiveness, including through the establishment of the Office of Development Effectiveness (ODE) and the production of the first Annual Review of Development Effectiveness. Another great benefit of summer is the abundance of fresh delicious, fruits and vegetables available.
The international research centres that are members of CGIAR include the World Fish Centre, the International Rice Research Institute, the Africa Rice Centre and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
Expanded assistance will increase poor people's access to financial services, including savings and insurance schemes and microfinance.
In East Timor, for example, Australia will support national and district level governments to plan water and sanitation activities and develop policy.
These groups frequently experience poor state responses to their needs and exclusion from non‑state and customary governance systems. Assistance will include increasing the capacity of government systems, through tailored training programs, placement of Australian and other experts with partner country governments, and encouraging the adoption of best‑practice systems of performance improvement such as Public Expenditure and Financial Analysis. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of effective government agencies and the significant role played by customary and community‑based justice systems. Increased support will also reduce impairments caused by traffic accidents, building on Australia's existing support for the World Bank's Global Road Safety Facility. The program will build on Australia's experience of deploying civilian experts in post‑conflict situations, for example in East Timor and Solomon Islands, and improve Australia's integration into multilateral reconstruction and stabilisation operations. When you shop for frozen vegetables, choose those without sauces which can add unwanted salt, fat, and calories. Additional funding for Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) will expand its support for collaborative research partnerships between Australian researchers and their counterparts in developing countries.
Information and communication technology promotes broad‑based growth through greater integration of markets and economies. In Vietnam, Australia, in conjunction with other key donors, will support a National Target Program for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, with a community focus on hygiene promotion. At the global level Australia is contributing to innovative funding approaches, including to the GAVI Alliance which is providing greater access to the benefits of immunisation. A whole-of-government approach will draw on the expertise of a range of Australian agencies including the Australian Federal Police and the Commonwealth Attorney General's Department. When attention is paid to gender equality, women's participation in the life of the community and in politics is higher and economic growth is stronger. Partnerships will be enhanced with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and other centres of Australian expertise. Reliable and affordable energy supplies promote agricultural and private sector development and improve living standards in poor households. If you’re grilling steaks, marinate fresh bell peppers, onion, and squash and throw them on the grill as well.

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