Complications caused by type 2 diabetes quiz,type 2 diabetes meal replacement shakes 2014,jan van eyck kreuners,treatment diabetes in elderly jokes - 2016 Feature

Note: There are other types of diabetes such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LATA). The world population had reached 7 billion, and approximately 382 million are suffering from the effects and long term complications of diabetes mellitus. The WHO (World Health Organization) has predicted that by the year 2030, the 7th leading cause of death worldwide will be diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes is 1 of 4 top non-communicable diseases (the others are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke and ischaemic heart disease) which kill people globally.
In New Zealand there is an estimated number of more than 240,000 people living with diagnosed diabetes. For this article, we’ll be focusing our attention on DM type 2 because we can prevent it unlike DM type 1. Note: The classic triad of symptoms of diabetes are excessive urination, excessive thirst, and excessive hunger. However if your cells become insulin resistant the insulin has a hard time unlocking the door to let the glucose into your cells.
Hyperglycaemia caused by long term (years) insulin resistance leads to the complications of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Hopefully this has convinced you that improving your diet, lifestyle and overall health are much easier and definitely the preferred option. We are a team of people - passionate about health & researching the latest information for you!
In some cases, a placenta that is seen to be low-lying will move upwards later in pregnancy. Any bleeding from placenta praevia at the entrance to the womb in the second half of the pregnancy can be heavy and a risk to the baby and the mother's health. If bleeding is not extensive, your doctor will probably prescribe bed rest, either in the hospital or at home. Diabetes is a serious disease that can develop from lack of insulin production in the body or due to the inability of the body's insulin to perform its normal everyday functions. Of the sixteen million Americans with diabetes, 25% will develop foot problems related to the disease. Diabetes often leads to peripheral vascular disease that inhibits a person's blood circulation. Rocker Soles designed to reduce pressure in the areas of the foot most susceptible to pain, most notably the ball-of-the-foot. If you are a diabetic, you should be particularly alert to any problems you may be having with your feet. Ask your doctor to check the sense of feeling and pulses in your feet at least once a year. Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice.
As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass surgery) has been considered the “gold standard” for weight loss surgery. Malabsorption describes the effect of limiting the body’s ability to absorb calories from food in addition to certain vitamins and minerals.
An appropriate diet, dedicated exercise and an active lifestyle are paramount to maintaining weight. DVT (deep vein thrombosis) describes a blood clot that forms within the veins of the pelvis or leg. Infections at the incision sites are uncommon when the procedure is performed in a laparoscopic fashion.
Large studies have demonstrated the potential of dying as a result of complications after gastric bypass surgery are very low and around 0.25%. A marginal ulcer is a superficial erosion along the small intestine at the junction of the gastric pouch and small intestine connection (gastrojejunostomy). A stricture is a dense scar at the connection between gastric pouch and the small intestine and can produce similar symptoms as a marginal ulcer. It can be very difficult to differentiate a stricture from a marginal ulcer based on symptoms alone, especially in the first several months after surgery. The treatment of marginal ulcers generally requires the patient to take antacid medications twice daily and a liquid medication (Carafate) 3-4 times per day for 6 to 12 weeks. Intestinal obstructions are usually caused by a mechanical blockage of the small intestine.
The nature of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass predisposes the patient to poorly absorb certain vitamins and minerals. The absorption of various chemicals and nutrients in the intestine after gastric bypass can predispose to the formation of a certain form of kidney stones. Hernias at the incision sites are uncommon when the procedure is performed laparoscopically. Approximately two years after surgery some patients will regain 5-10% of the total weight initially lost. A hiatal hernia is an anatomical abnormality in which part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm and up into the chest. Normally, the esophagus (or food tube) passes down through the chest, crosses the diaphragm, and enters the abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus. In individuals with hiatal hernias, the opening of the esophageal hiatus (hiatal opening) is larger than normal, and a portion of the upper stomach slips up or passes (herniates) through the hiatus and into the chest. The vast majority of hiatal hernias are of the sliding type, and most of them are not associated with symptoms.
Normally, there are several mechanisms to prevent acid from flowing backwards (refluxing) up into the esophagus. Another mechanism that prevents reflux is the valve-like tissue at the junction of the esophagus and stomach just below the sphincter.
Hiatal hernias are diagnosed incidentally when an upper gastrointestinal x-ray or endoscopy is done during testing to determine the cause of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as upper abdominal pain. Since sliding hiatal hernias rarely cause problems themselves but rather contribute to acid reflux, the treatment for patients with hiatal hernias is usually the same as for the associated GERD. The symptoms in individuals with hiatal hernias parallel the symptoms of the associated GERD. It a low grade epidermal growth that arises from the hair follicle and has a quick progression. It is a Keratoacanthoma variant which is characterized by lesions that sometimes grow several centimeters in size. It is characterized by the growth of lesions that can sometimes be as many as hundred or more in number.
It causes occurrence of hundreds and thousands of small follicular keratotic papules on the skin over the entire body. Also known as Solitary Keratoacanthoma, these are benign but locally aggressive lesions that grow rapidly. The papules usually arise over areas of the body that are exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, forearms and the dorsum of hands. The disease may also occur due to carcinogens (chemical substances that give rise to cancer).
Genetic factors are believed to be involved in the development of some forms of multiple Keratoacanthoma that are found to affect several members of the same family. A weakened or compromised immune system can also make individuals vulnerable to this disease. Certain nodules of this type seem to be associated with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, which also gives rise to warts.
Systemic retinoids (such as Isotretinoin), 5-fluorouracil, steroids, bleomycin and intralesional methotrexate have been found to yield some success in treating the condition. If non-invasive treatment fails to cure the condition, surgical removal of the papules may be necessary.
A small Keratoacanthoma is usually treated by freezing the lesion (or lesions) with liquid nitrogen with the aid of a cotton wool swab or a spray. In some patients, a large growth is removed by radiotherapy, which requires several visits over a period of days. In rare cases, Mohs microscopically controlled surgery or MMS may be needed for removal of larger Keratoacanthomas.
In case of a surgical removal, doctors may recommend usage of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug or an oral analgesic (such as Metacam or Torbugesic) for relief from post-operative discomforts like pain.
Keratoacanthoma growths are found to be benign and do not cause any cancerous complications. Careful observation by an experienced physician can help differentiate a cancerous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) from a KA growth. Multiple lesions of this type are also seen in patients of Grzybowski eruptive keratoacanthoma. The disorder can be managed with the aid of oral medicines like Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate or Acitretin. Take a look at these Keratoacanthoma images to know how the lesions caused by this skin disease look like. If you suspect yourself to be suffering from Keratoacanthoma growths, get in touch with a doctor, dermatologist or plastic surgeon.
No, it’s not something you can prevent by putting on a protective suit or by taking antiviral drugs.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic debilitating disease that happens when an organ inside your body called the pancreas doesn’t produce sufficient amounts of insulin OR when your body doesn’t know how to handle the insulin it makes. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly caused by lifestyle factors and isn’t simply something you can blame on your bad genes.
The signs and symptoms of DM type 2 can be gradual making it hard for you to detect if you have it.
But this triad is seen more often among diabetics who don’t manager their blood glucose levels well and also in type 1 diabetics. Insulin simply does its best to escort the glucose in your blood into your cells where its either used as fuel or stored as fat. So the glucose stays in your blood causing your blood glucose levels to increase (hyperglycaemia).
The infographic below shows you that DM type 2 doesn’t paint a pretty future for you if you choose to let it overcome your health. This simply measures the level of glucose in your blood after you have fasted (not eaten) for 8 to 10 hours. You don’t want to become just another number in the history of the diabetes pandemic do you? After a low-lying placenta diagnosis, seek medical advice if there's any bleeding during pregnancy.
Mothers with a placenta praevia are also at increased risk of delivering prematurely, before 37 weeks of pregnancy.How do I know if I have placenta praevia?If you have vaginal bleeding, your doctor or midwife will do an ultrasound to look for problems with the placenta, including placenta praevia.

In the hospital, the staff will be able to monitor the baby's heart rate and make sure that your blood loss is not affecting you or the foetus.
RCOG: A low-lying placenta (placenta praevia) after 20 weeks US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Insulin is a substance produced by the pancreas gland that helps process the food we eat and turn it into energy. Diabetic foot conditions develop from a combination of causes including poor circulation and neuropathy.
With this condition, there is a narrowing of the arteries that frequently leads to significantly decreased circulation in the lower part of the legs and the feet. Orthotics designed with Plastazote foam, the #1 material for protecting the insensitive diabetic foot, are usually recommended.
It is very important for diabetics with neuropathy to take necessary precautions to prevent injury and keep their feet healthy. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes plan that   fits   your lifestyle characteristics. Foot products that can cut off circulation to the feet, such as products with elastic, should not be worn by diabetics. Walking, dancing, swimming, and bicycling are good forms of exercise that are easy on the feet. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family. The reason for this is that this procedure has demonstrated predictable, impressive and durable weight loss with a low rate of severe complications. The ability of the pouch to dilate and enlarge over time is a natural phenomenon referred to as “receptive relaxation”.
To perform a gastric bypass the small intestine is divided approximately three to four feet downstream from the stomach.
During the first 3-6 months there is dramatic weight loss and it is not uncommon for patients to lose 40 to 50% of their excess weight. The source of blood loss is usually from the dense network of blood vessels that surround the gastrointestinal tract. Although there are two points of newly created connections after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass the overwhelming majority of leaks occur at the connection between the gastric pouch and small intestine (gastrojejunostomy). Dr Laker will be able to give you an idea of what your risk is based on your history and a number of other factors.
However, should your operation need to be converted to an open procedure there is a substantially higher chance of developing a surgical site infection. Patients often report the sensation of pain or discomfort as food enters the gastric pouch. Strictures create an obstruction or blockage as food passes from the gastric pouch and into the small intestine. Marginal ulcers can bleed and even perforate on rare occasions and require emergent surgery to correct.
This essentially “stretches” the connection and allows food to more readily pass across the connection.
The majority of intestinal obstructions after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the result of either adhesions (scar tissue) or internal hernias. In the case of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass the gastric pouch can fuse and erode into the old stomach (remnant stomach) creating an abnormal connection between the two structures. Malabsorption of vitamins and minerals can usually be managed by taking the vitamin and mineral supplements as recommended by Dr Laker.
However, should your operation need to be converted to an open procedure there is a substantially higher risk for developing a hernia.
Although hiatal hernias are present in approximately 15% of the population, they are associated with symptoms in only a minority of those afflicted. Although hiatal hernias are occasionally seen in infants, where they probably have been present from birth, most hiatal hernias in adults are believed to have developed over many years. One mechanism involves a band of esophageal muscle where the esophagus joins the stomach called the lower esophageal sphincter that remains contracted most of the time to prevent acid from refluxing or regurgitating.
The esophagus normally enters the stomach tangentially so that there is a sharp angle between the esophagus and stomach. During surgery, the stomach is pulled down into the abdomen, the esophageal hiatus is made smaller, and the esophagus is attached firmly to the diaphragm. If the GERD is severe, complicated, or unresponsive to reasonable doses of medications, surgery often is performed. Read on to know what is Keratoacanthoma and also learn about its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. This quick growth is followed by a spontaneous resolution at a gradual pace over 4-6 months. The prevalence of both keratoacanthoma and Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is found to be higher in industrial workers who are exposed to tar and pitch. It usually happens in abnormal circumstances when there is multiplication of cells in the hair follicle which in turn leads to the growth of a cellular mass into a Keratoacanthoma.
Medical treatment is usually set aside for cases where it is not possible to carry out surgical intervention. However, an antimicrobial ointment may provide soothing sensations if the adjacent tissue is found to be irritated, inflamed or cracked. The nodules usually resolve naturally within a few weeks or months (Spontaneous Involution).
This is a painless treatment that causes lesions to form into scabs which fall off after a few weeks.
Firstly, it is not always easy for doctors to make sure that a lesion is a keratoacanthoma and not some form of skin cancer. But even though these growths are non-cancerous themselves, these are often confused with lesions appearing due to an underlying squamous cell carcinoma. However, taking adequate protection from sunlight can help one avoid development or aggravation of this condition. These Keratoacanthoma photos will help you get an idea about the physical appearance of this disorder. Proper diagnosis and timely treatment can help you avoid discomforting symptoms as well as potential cancerous complications from this disorder.
If you have excess adipose tissue in your body (aka visceral and subcutaneous fat), you’ll also have an excess of hormones called adipocytokines. We are spending more and more time sitting on our butts staring at our various gadgets, computers and TV’s. A diet rich in carbohydrates (grains, starches and sugars) will seal the deal for you when it comes to developing diabetes.
This can occur especially at night to the point that it keeps you up all night because of frequent trips to the loo. Your cells aren’t able to get enough energy (glucose) because insulin is not doing its job properly.
HbA1c is important because it tells you how well you are managing your blood glucose levels (i.e. In placenta increta, the placenta has grown into the uterus; and in placenta percreta, it has grown through the uterus. Most women with placenta praevia have no bleeding and are usually diagnosed by a routine ultrasound scan early in pregnancy.
If you are close to your due date, your doctor may choose to do an amniocentesis to see if baby is mature enough for delivery. Diabetes affects approximately 16 million Americans and is classified into 2 different types: Type 1 and Type 2.
Diabetic Neuropathy can cause insensitivity or a loss of ability to feel pain, heat, and cold. Poor circulation contributes to diabetic foot problems by reducing the amount of oxygen and nutrition supplied to the skin and other tissue, causing injuries to heal poorly. Plastazote is a material designed to accommodate pressure "hot spots" by conforming to heat and pressure.
If you have diabetes and are experiencing a foot problem, immediately consult your foot doctor. If you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol, work with your health care team to lower it.
To create restriction the stomach is divided using state of the art surgical stapling devices. Several years after the procedure an individual can expect to accommodate significantly more food. Fortunately, the majority of complications that occur are generally not life threatening and can be managed without further surgery. When the stomach or small intestine is divided there is the potential to damage adjacent vessels with resulting blood loss.
A DVT becomes more problematic if the clot dislodges and travels to the heart and is then pumped into the pulmonary (lung) arteries. Post-operative wound infections can generally be treated with local wound care (dressing changes) and potentially a course of antibiotics.
Strictures generally develop within weeks after the procedure and are unlikely to form months later unless it is the result of an untreated marginal ulcer or fistula. An endoscope (small tube with a camera on the end) can be passed from the mouth and into the gastric pouch allowing the surgeon to differentiate between the two complications.
There are certain medications that can increase the chances of developing an ulcer and these must be avoided. In some patients repeated endoscopies may be necessary until the stricture has been appropriately dilated. Adhesions are bands of scar tissue that can form after surgery and can pinch or trap a segment of small intestine. Blood work should be obtained twice annually for the first year or two after surgery and then annually. Individuals with a history of kidney stones may have an increased risk of developing additional stones after bypass surgery. Wound infections also increase the chances of developing a hernia as does obesity and diabetes. In addition, the segment of small intestine available to absorb ingested calories will become extremely proficient. When hiatal hernias produce symptoms, they almost always are those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or its complications.
The sphincter only relaxes when food is swallowed, so the food can pass from the esophagus and into the stomach. The thin piece of tissue in this angle, composed of esophageal and stomach wall, forms a valve that can close off the opening to the esophagus when pressure increases in the stomach, for example, during a belch. As a result, the pressure normally generated by the diaphragm overlying the sphincter and the pressure generated by the sphincter no longer overlap, and as a result, the total pressure at the gastro-esophageal junction decreases.

At the time of surgery, the hiatal hernia is eliminated in a manner similar to the repair of para-esophageal hernias. Medical research indicates the ultraviolet rays of the sun as causes for the growth of KA sores. For this reason, a Deep Incisional or Excisional biopsy is needed for detection of the disease. This is particularly true for multiple lesions that are difficult to be surgically removed because of their size or location.
Topical applications of 5-fluorouracil and Imiquimod may provide effective results in such cases.
There may be a development of blisters which may dry out to develop into scabs (crustlike surfaces). The lesion is then cut out using an elliptical hand movement that ensures its complete removal.
Small growths have been found to be successfully removed by both Cryotherapy and Laser therapy.
A pathological examination may reveal the presence of squamous cell carcinoma where a dermatological test shows a keratoacanthoma lesion. Squamous Cell Carcinoma is a cancerous skin condition that highly resembles Keratoacanthoma lesions. It is found to arise in individuals suffering from Ferguson-Smith familial keratoacanthoma, a condition that is seen to be more common in men. Take note of your lifestyle and dietary habits that could be contributing to you developing DM type 2.
Some of which are thought to make your tissues become resistant to insulin so that the actions of insulin are ignored. If you accumulate fat in the abdomen (apple shaped) compared to accumulating it in your thighs, buttocks and hips (pear shaped), then you’re at a higher risk for developing DM type 2. If you smoke, it’s time to add smoking cessation to the top 3 of your bucket list, ASAP. Some people may not experience any symptoms at all until a late complication develops (such as a wound that won’t heal on the toe or even a stroke). If your triglycerides are high your risk for developing both DM type 2 and heart disease is greatly increased. Though you don’t have to have diabetes to start making better dietary and lifestyle choices. This condition is often first suspected because the woman has both a praevia and a prior caesarean section.
If you start bleeding, your doctor will probably not perform a cervical examination if placenta praevia is suspected, because this can further disturb the placenta and promote dangerous bleeding.What are the treatments for placenta praevia?Because 90% of placenta praevias early in pregnancy resolve on their own, early treatment is often not necessary unless there are other complications. Diabetics suffering from neuropathy can develop minor cuts, scrapes, blisters, or pressure sores that they may not be aware of due to the insensitivity. By customizing to the foot, Plastazote provides the comfort and protection needed in diabetic footcare. Always wear seamless socks, stockings, and nylons with your shoes to help avoid the possibility of blisters and sores developing. The proximal portion of the small intestine (the end of small intestine still in connection with the stomach) is reattached to the small intestine approximately 5 feet downstream (closer to the colon). Complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are categorized as “early” and “late” complications. Another source of bleeding that can occur after the surgery has been completed is from the staple lines created to form the gastric pouch or where the small intestine has been re-connected to itself. In addition, SCD (serial compression device) boots are placed on the patients lower legs prior to surgery and remain in place until the patient is up into a chair and walking.
There is no way to prevent the formation of postoperative adhesions, however, adhesions are much less likely to form after a laparoscopic procedure.
Sometimes the fistula can be treated and closed endoscopically and at times may require surgery to correct.
This occurs because the formation of the hernia often interferes with the barrier (lower esophageal sphincter) that prevents acid from refluxing from the stomach into the esophagus.
The sphincter normally is attached firmly to the diaphragm in the hiatus, and the muscle of the diaphragm wraps around the sphincter. Second, when the gastro- esophageal junction and stomach are pulled up into the chest with each swallow, the sharp angle where the esophagus joins the stomach becomes less sharp and the valve-like effect is lost. However, in addition, part of the upper stomach is wrapped around the lower sphincter to augment the pressure at the sphincter and further prevent acid reflux. If you have a medical condition, please consult a physician to get a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. These initially look like reddish or skin-colored papules but rapidly develop into dome-like nodules at a later stage. The therapy may be useful in case of large tumors where resection may possible lead to cosmetic disfiguration.
Dermatologists often mistake this condition for a benign Keratoacanthoma which can be dangerous for patients. As you can see obesity and diabetes go hand in hand.The WHO predicts that by 2015, 700 million adults worldwide will be obese or overweight, that’s next year!New Zealand isn’t spared from obesity. Exposure of the foetus to diabetes during pregnancy is thought to be a contributing factor to the increase in type 2 diabetes in children.
Usual complications like eye and nerve damage, stroke, heart disease and kidney problems will be kept to a minimum if you do your best to keep your glucose levels on track and within the normal range. You can use the glucometer just before a meal and 1-2 hours after a meal to find out how the meal has affected your blood glucose levels. Lookout for part two of this article with secrets to preventing diabetes or maybe even reversing it if you already have type 2 diabetes.
It can be confirmed by ultrasound, CT scan or MRI, though those tests are not completely reliable.
Type 2, commonly referred to as adult onset diabetes, is characterized by elevated blood sugars, often in people who are overweight or have not attended to their diet properly.
If these minor injuries are left untreated, complications may result and lead to ulceration and possibly even amputation. Preventing foot complications is more critical for the diabetic patient because poor circulation impairs the healing process and can lead to ulcers, infection, and other serious foot conditions. Footwear constructed with Plastazote is also recommended frequently for the diabetic patient. Be sure to choose seamless socks that are made of materials that wick moisture away from your feet and absorb shock and shear. This anatomical rearrangement effectively creates an anatomy where food and digestive enzymes have bypassed 40-60% of the small intestine limiting absorption of calories and other essential nutrients.
Early complications are generally those that occur right around the time of surgery or within the first 30 days. A PE can place significant strain on the heart and if left untreated can have major consequences. Additionally, it is known that patients with GERD are much more likely to have a hiatal hernia than individuals not afflicted by GERD. The muscle that wraps around the diaphragm augments the pressure of the contracted sphincter to further prevent reflux of acid.
The lesions may also change into fluid-filled blisters with an ulcer or a horn-like keratin plug developing at their centre.
The stitches are taken out after a week or so and only a linear scar may be apparent at the site. Thirdly, a scar resulting from medically treated lesions are better in appearance than those which are allowed to resolve spontaneously. Patients are also found to be at increased risk for suffering from subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer.
You can then adjust your diet to foods that do not send your blood glucose levels through the roof. Women with one of these conditions usually require a hysterectomy after delivery of the baby, because the placenta does not separate from the uterus.What are the symptoms of placenta praevia?The main symptom of placenta praevia, and the greatest risk to you and your baby, is vaginal bleeding.
Your doctor will usually repeat ultrasounds later in pregnancy to verify the position of the placenta. Important Reminder: Be sure to call your doctor immediately if a cut, sore, blister, or bruise on your foot does not heal after one day. The remainder of the stomach is left in its native position, however, there no longer remains a connection to the esophagus and therefore food no longer enters the majority of the retained stomach.
Although the need for blood transfusion is uncommon it may be necessary as a life saving maneuver.
The post-surgical anatomy creates potential spaces that can trap a loop of small intestine leading to an obstruction.
Complete excision is the preferred mode of treatment for all skin neoplasms that are suspected to be Keratoacanthoma lesions.
Your doctor will probably request another test called an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm whether you have pre-diabetes or diabetes. You will be able to work out which foods are best for you personally and which to steer clear of. If you have bled too much, other symptoms include anaemia, pale skin, rapid and weak pulse, shortness of breath, or low blood pressure. Women with placenta praevia as their due date approaches nearly always give birth by caesarean delivery. Diabetes disrupts the vascular system, affecting many areas of the body such as the eyes, kidneys, legs, and feet. It is very important for diabetics to take the necessary precautions to prevent all foot related injuries. Getting a diagnosis of pre-diabetes should make you even more proactive to making the necessary dietary and lifestyle changes to prevent yourself from developing full blown diabetes. The bleeding that signals placenta praevia may occur at the end of the second trimester or beginning of the third trimester. Make sure the lining is smooth and there are no foreign objects in the shoe, such as pebbles.
Since GERD occurs in the absence of a hiatal hernia, factors other than the presence of a hernia can cause GERD. Lesions that arise on the lower legs or are larger in size take longer to heal, even up to 2 months.
When a diabetic patient takes the necessary preventative footcare measures, he or she reduces the risks of serious foot conditions. Measuring your blood glucose after you eat will give you a different reading than the one you took before the meal.

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