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VACCINATION RECOMMENDATION The CDC now recommends that adults ages 19 to 59 years diagnosed with diabetes should receive vaccinations to prevent hepatitis B.
DIABETES SECONDARY TO OTHER CONDITIONS Conditions that damage or destroy the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation), pancreatic surgery, or certain industrial chemicals, can cause diabetes. PCOS is a condition that affects about 6% of women and results in the ovarian production of high amounts of androgens (male hormones), particularly testosterone. Charcot Foot: Charcot foot or Charcot joint (medically referred to as neuropathic arthropathy) is a degenerative condition that affects the bones and joints in the feet. Respiratory Infections: People with diabetes face a higher risk for influenza and its complications, including pneumonia.
Urinary Tract Infections: Women with diabetes face a significantly higher risk for urinary tract infections, which are likely to be more complicated and difficult to treat than in the general population. Hepatitis: People with diabetes are at increased risk for contracting the hepatitis B virus, which is transmitted through blood and other bodily fluids.
Hypoglycemia Symptoms: Mild symptoms usually occur at moderately low and easily correctable level of blood glucose. Diabetes and Pregnancy: Diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) and pregnancy in a person with existing diabetes can increase the risk for birth defects.
Diabetes and Menopause: The changes in estrogen and other hormonal levels that occur during perimenopause can cause major fluctuations in blood glucose level. An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can eat healthy diets and manage their blood glucose.Read Article Now Book Mark Article The American Diabetes Association (ADA) no longer advises a uniform ideal percentage of daily calories for carbohydrates, fats, or protein for all people with diabetes.
An in-depth report on losing and managing weight safely for health benefits.Read Article Now Book Mark Article EXERCISE Sedentary habits, especially watching TV and sitting in front of a computer, are associated with significantly higher risks for obesity and type 2 diabetes. A hernia is a protuberance of an organ or its fascia through the cavity wall where it normally is contained. These hernias consist of the peritoneum encircling the abdominal organs, along with fats and intestinal portions.
Definition : Ventral hernias are abdominal hernias predominantly found along the midline of the abdomen.
Several types of ventral hernias exist, with each having a different location and etiology. Occurring spontaneously in the abdomen, this can be either be a congenital condition, occurring after birth, present over time from muscular weakness, or an antecedent of a past incision site. This hernia type bulges in the midline and is usually located within 5 to 6 cm above the umbilicus. Aside from having a family history and being congenital, ventral hernias can also be acquired.
A ventral hernia is reducible if it diminishes in size as response to manual pressure or upon lying down.
Manifestations of these types of hernia include a distended and bloated looking abdomen, and abdominal pain upon lifting object, coughing, standing too long, and straining.
A comprehensive history and complete physical examination are both required to evaluate for the presence of these types of hernias.
Diagnostic examinations such as complete blood test and chemistry, urinalysis, ultrasound, and Computed tomography (CT) scan can also be performed to confirm the presence of such hernias.
Episodes of vomiting and sharp abdominal pain with a sudden onset may indicate bowel obstruction and incarceration.
This type of hernia repair is done as the surgeon makes an incision in close proximity to the site of the hernia.
This is considered to be the better option for surgical management of ventral hernias, because of lower infection rates and shorter duration of hospital stay. Picture 4 : A photo showing a laparoscopic repair of the hernia, with trocars inserted for further visualization. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart A Modern Revision Explaining 7 Different Types image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart BSChart Twitter image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Pretty Bristol Stool Chart Science And Outdoors Pinterest image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart Wallclock Zazzle image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart Gifts Shirts Posters Art & More Gift Ideas image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart Samsung Galaxy Case Zazzle image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Home Images Bristol Stool Scale Type 2 image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Nursing Calculation Bristol Stool Chart PVC Lanyard Reference Card image from our index. Use the form below to delete this Bristol Stool Chart Poster R7342dabb5ac94ff8abc4c3e9cb0e0a87 Aiobr 400 image from our index.
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Use the form below to delete this Custom Football Helmets Builder A· All Seeing Eye Pyramid Wallpaper image from our index. Sweet corn is rich in thiamine which is important for brain cell development and also cognitive functions of the brain.
Sweet corns are loaded with potassium which helps in building bone strength, help in muscle contraction and are necessary for heart function. Sweet corn is rich in thiamine which is an important cell for cognitive function including brain cell development. Key recommendations include: Your eating plan should be individualized to accommodate your unique health profile. FDA and the European Medicines Agency concluded that incretin mimetic drugs do not appear to cause pancreatic problems. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond properly to insulin, a condition known as insulin resistance. Certain genetic and hormonal disorders are associated with or increase the risk of diabetes. High doses of statin drugs, which are used to lower cholesterol levels, may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Retinopathy generally occurs in one or two phases: The early and more common type of this disorder is called nonproliferative or background retinopathy. Everyone with diabetes should have annual influenza vaccinations and a vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia.
Exposure to the virus can occur through sharing fingerstick devices or blood glucose monitors.
A high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) can affect the developing fetus during the critical first 6 weeks of organ development. Women with diabetes also face an increased risk of premature menopause, which can lead to higher risk of heart disease. DiagnosisHealthy adults age 45 and older should get tested for diabetes every 3 years.
Rather, these amounts should be individualized, based on your unique health profile. Healthy eating habits along with good control of blood glucose are the basic goals, and several good dietary methods are available to meet them.
They may either be present upon birth from partial closure of abdominal wall, or may be acquired from increased pressure against an abated muscular area.
These may be found as a birth defect, from an incomplete closure of the abdominal wall, or from an incision of a previous abdominal surgery. On a recent survey done at Scotland, 120 patients were diagnosed of having ventral hernias within a span of just 3 months.
Mostly appearing after 5 years, it can even occur soon after the procedure, or even decades after. Present in 3 to 5% of the population, it can occur with or without a previous abdominal incision. It is irreducible or may even be incarcerated if reduction fails and an intestinal part bulges through the hernia sac. If the hernia is incarcerated, more severe abdominal pain, constipation, vomiting and nausea, can be experienced. The bulge is then pushed back within the abdomen, and then closed with a suture, a tissue flap, or a mesh. In this method, several incisions or small punctures are made in the abdomen, through which trocars or hollow tubes are inserted.


These may cause problems with the entire human body, initially thru digestion, and thus be a surgical emergency, or furthermore, lead to mortality.
Based on a study done, ventral hernias can return for 41 of the 1,000 patients repaired using a mesh, and for 430 of the 1,000 patients where open, non-mesh repairs were instituted.
Long Term Outcomes with Transfacial Sutures Versus tacks in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair: A Review. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Open and Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair with Mesh.
Homocysteine can damage blood vessels in the body and in elevated conditions can cause heart attack and stroke. This helps in smooth bowel movements and helpful for those who suffer from chronic constipation. Research has revealed that ferulic acid has an important role in preventing cancer, slowing down aging process and also reduces inflammation. It is important for production of acetycholine which is important for memory enhancing capabilities.
Soups, veggies, casseroles and many other dishes taste good with the addition of sweet corn.
For nutritional advice, consult a dietician or participate in a diabetes self-management education program. The ADA no longer has general recommendations for the percentage of daily calories that carbohydrates, fats, or protein should comprise. These drugs include exenatide (Byetta), liraglutide (Victoza), sitagliptin (Januvia), and saxagliptin (Onglyza and Kombiglyze). Unvaccinated people with diabetes can become infected with hepatitis B through sharing fingerstick or blood glucose monitoring devices. The disease process of type 2 diabetes involves: The first stage in type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance. After delivery, blood sugar (glucose) levels generally return to normal, although some women develop type 2 diabetes within 15 years. Because glucose crosses the placenta, a pregnant woman with diabetes can pass high levels of blood glucose to the fetus. In addition, many of the new generation of antipsychotic medications can elevate the blood glucose level. Early changes appear similar to an infection, with the foot becoming swollen, red, and warm. Adults newly diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should get hepatitis B vaccinations. DEPRESSION Diabetes doubles the risk for depression. People who have certain risk factors should ask their doctors about testing at an earlier age and more frequently. It usually builds up in the abdominal wall, where a region fails and weakens, through which the intestines and other contents of the abdomen may protrude. A third of those who have undergone abdominal surgery, such as appendectomy, often develop this. It may disappear upon lying down and eventually recur and enlarge when one stands, lifts a heavy object, or pressure is placed on the abdomen. When strangulated, the intestine is ensnared in the hernia pouch, decreasing its blood supply and thus is a cause for a medical emergency. However, when strangulation of the hernia is eminent, severe, excruciating abdominal pain is noted, along with tachycardia, high grade fever, protracted vomiting and profuse sweating.
These equipments are applied to the hernia, correctly fitted and with an adequate amount of pressure.
This is done by suturing the muscle, with a use of another muscle or tissue flap, or by inserting a mesh as reinforcement for the hernia site closed. Placed thru these trocars are surgical tools inflating the abdomen with carbon dioxide for further visualization of the hernia. The risk of recurrence increases with a previous hernia repair, a prior abdominal surgery, and an infected hernia. It keeps connective tissue strong and helps in moistening the mucus membranes of lungs, throat and nose. Those percentages need to be individually determined for each person. There is no evidence that any specific eating plan (Mediterranean, vegetarian, or low-carb) is better than another. The FDA is reviewing possible heart failure risks associated with saxagliptin. In 2013, the FDA lifted restrictions on rosiglitazone (Avandia), citing studies that indicated the drug posed no heightened risk for heart attack or death.
Although insulin can attach normally to receptors on liver and muscle cells, the hormone becomes less effective at triggering the mechanisms inside the cell that allow glucose to enter and be burned for fuel or stored.
This can cause excessive fetal weight gain, which can cause complications during delivery as well as increased risk of breathing problems. People taking atypical antipsychotic medications (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine fumarate, and ziprasidone) should receive a baseline blood glucose level test and be monitored for any increases during therapy. GESTATIONAL DIABETES RISK FACTORS Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes that develops during the last trimester of pregnancy. Depression, in turn, may increase the risk for high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) and the complications of diabetes. HYPOGLYCEMIA Tight blood sugar (glucose) control increases the risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Ketones are byproducts of fat breakdown that build up in the blood and appear in the urine.
What is most important is to find a healthy eating plan that works best for you and your lifestyle and food preferences. The heart-protective effects of aerobic exercise are also important, even if people have no risk factors for heart disease other than diabetes itself. Among 5 out of a thousand patients develop these hernias at the laparoscopic port site, however, more patients, 150 out of a thousand people, are likely to have them after a previous open abdominal incision. He may also be asked to strain or cough during examination to further visualize the hernia bulge. With a goal of achieving hernia control, patient found them to be either an uncomfortable or a sufficient contraption for symptomatic control. What is most important is to find a plan that best suits your lifestyle and food preferences. Most people with type 2 diabetes initially produce normal, or even high, amounts of insulin, and the insulin is enough to normally regulate blood sugar.
In addition, 86 million American adults have pre-diabetes, a condition that increases the risk for developing diabetes. The bones may crack, splinter, and erode, and the joints may shift, change shape, and become unstable.
If these processes affect the central portion of the retina, swelling may occur, causing reduced or blurred vision. If the capillaries become blocked and blood flow is cut off, soft, "woolly" areas may develop in the retina's nerve layer.
It is also important for women to closely monitor their blood sugar level during pregnancy.
People who have pre-diabetes have a fasting blood glucose level that is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes. In the beginning, this amount is usually enough to overcome such resistance. Over time, the pancreas becomes unable to produce enough insulin to overcome resistance. In addition to endangering the fetus, gestational diabetes can also cause serious health risks for the mother, such as preeclampsia, a condition that involves high blood pressure during pregnancy. CausesType 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance, in which the body does not properly use insulin. Guidelines recommend that women without diabetes symptoms should be screened for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. For women with type 2 diabetes who take insulin, pregnancy can affect their insulin dosing needs. Avoid carbohydrates that contain added fats, sugar, or sodium. Choosing "good" fats over "bad" ones. In type 2 diabetes, the initial effect of this stage is usually an abnormal rise in blood sugar after a meal (called postprandial hyperglycemia). Eventually, the cycle of elevated glucose further damages beta cells, thereby drastically reducing insulin production and causing full-blown diabetes.
In this more severe condition, new abnormal blood vessels form and grow on the surface of the retina.
Extreme stages of diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. DKA is usually a complication of type 1 diabetes. This is made evident by fasting hyperglycemia, in which glucose levels are high, even early in the morning before eating breakfast. The immune system is also altered, so that the person cannot efficiently fight infection. RETINOPATHY AND EYE COMPLICATIONS Diabetes accounts for thousands of new cases of blindness annually and is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults age 20 to 74. Usually the condition is manageable, but occasionally, it can be severe or even life-threatening, particularly if the person fails to recognize the symptoms, especially while continuing to take insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs. Mild hypoglycemia is common among people with type 2 diabetes, but severe episodes are rare, even among those taking insulin. Monounsaturated (olive, peanut, and canola oils, avocados, and nuts) and omega-3 polyunsaturated (fish, flaxseed oil, and walnuts) fats are the best types of fats. Build up to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions using weight that you cannot lift more than 8 to 10 times without developing fatigue.


Excess body fat plays a strong role in insulin resistance, but the way the fat is distributed is also significant. Major hemorrhage or retinal detachment can result, causing severe visual loss or blindness. Still, people who intensively control their blood sugar (glucose) level should be aware of warning symptoms.
However, in rare cases DKA can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, usually due to a serious infection or another severe illness. HYPERGLYCEMIC HYPEROSOMOLAR NONKETONIC SYNDROME (HHNS) Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketonic syndrome (HHNS) is a serious complication of diabetes that involves a cycle of an increasing blood sugar level and dehydration, without ketones. Avoid unhealthy saturated fats (red meat and butter) and trans fats (hydrogenated fats found in snack foods, fried foods, and commercially baked goods). Choose protein sources that are low in saturated fat.
People with diabetes are also at higher risk for developing cataracts and certain types of glaucoma, such as primary-open angle glaucoma (POAG). For fastest results, regular moderate to high-intensity (not high-impact) exercises are best for people who are cleared by their doctors. Waist circumferences greater than 35 inches in women and 40 inches in men are specifically associated with a greater risk for heart disease and diabetes.
MENTAL FUNCTION AND DEMENTIA Some studies indicate that people with type 2 diabetes, especially those who have severe instances of low blood sugar, face a higher than average risk of developing dementia. Some doctors recommend it as a follow-up after FPG, if the latter test results are normal but the person has symptoms or risk factors of diabetes. Try to eat fatty fish, such as salmon and tuna, which are high in omega-3 fatty acids, at least twice a week. Limit intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including those that contain high fructose corn syrup or sucrose. For people who have been sedentary or have other medical problems, lower-intensity exercises are recommended. Strenuous strength training or high-impact exercise is not recommended for people with uncontrolled diabetes.
People with a "pear-shape", fat that settles around the hips and flank, appear to have a lower risk for these conditions. However, obesity does not explain all cases of type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a pre-diabetic condition that is significantly associated with heart disease and higher mortality rates from all causes. All lifestyle and medical efforts should be made to reduce the risk for these conditions. People with type 2 diabetes are also at risk for nerve damage (neuropathy) and abnormalities in both small and large blood vessels (vascular injuries) that occur as part of the diabetic disease process.
In terms of sexual health, diabetes may cause decreased vaginal lubrication, which can lead to pain or discomfort during intercourse. Women with diabetes should be aware that certain types of medication can affect their blood glucose level. Such abnormalities produce complications over time in many organs and structures in the body.
Reducing sodium can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of heart disease and heart failure. Although these complications tend to be more serious in type 1 diabetes, they still are of concern in type 2 diabetes. Long-term use (more than 2 years) of birth control pills may increase the risk of health complications. People who use blood pressure medication should talk to their doctors about how to balance medications and exercise. Thiazolidinedione drugs such as rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos) can prompt renewed ovulation in premenstrual women who are not ovulating, and can weaken the effect of birth control pills. People with high blood pressure should also aim to breathe as normally as possible during exercise.
The results are given in percentages and indicate a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months.
It can also help control or even stop progression of type 2 diabetes in people with the condition and reduce risk factors for heart disease. People should lose weight if their body mass index (BMI) is 25 to 29 (overweight) or higher (obese). The American Diabetes Association recommends that people aim for a small but consistent weight loss of ? to 1 pound per week. ExerciseAn in-depth report about the benefits and types of exercise.Read Article Now Book Mark Article WARNING ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Various fraudulent products are often sold on the Internet as "cures" or treatments for diabetes.
KIDNEY DAMAGE (NEPHROPATHY) Kidney disease (nephropathy) is a very serious complication of diabetes. The FDA warns people with diabetes not to be duped by bogus and unproven remedies. According to the ADA, there is no evidence to support herbal remedies or dietary supplements (including fish oil supplements) for the treatment of diabetes.
With this condition, the tiny filters in the kidney (called glomeruli) become damaged and leak protein into the urine. There is no evidence that vitamin or mineral supplements can help people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies.
6.5% or higher A1C tests are also used to help people with diabetes monitor how well they are keeping their blood glucose levels under control. For people with diabetes, A1C is measured periodically every 2 to 3 months, or at least twice a year. Lifestyle changes and medical interventions can help prevent, or at least delay, the progression to diabetes, as well as lower their risk for heart disease. The most important lifestyle treatment for people with pre-diabetes is to lose weight through diet and regular physical activity and exercise. While fingerprick self-testing provides information on blood glucose for that day, the A1C test shows how well blood sugar has been controlled over the period of several months. Even a modest weight loss of 10 to 15 pounds can significantly reduce the risk of progressing to diabetes. People should have an exercise goal of 30 to 60 minutes, at least 5 days a week, and follow nutritional guidelines that reduce calorie intake. Quitting smoking is also essential. It is also important to have your doctor check your cholesterol and blood pressure levels on a regular basis.
Your doctor should also check your fasting blood glucose and urine albumin levels every year, and your hemoglobin A1C and lipids every 6 months. In addition to lifestyle measures, the insulin-regulating drug metformin (Glucophage and generic) may be recommended for people who may be at very high risk for developing diabetes. It is a common complication for nearly half of people that have lived with type 1 or type 2 diabetes for more than 25 years. High risk factors include an A1C of greater than 6%, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, obesity, or family history of diabetes in a first-degree relative (parents, siblings, and children). The most serious consequences of neuropathy occur in the legs and feet and pose a risk for ulcers and, in unusually severe cases, amputation. Peripheral neuropathy usually starts in the fingers and toes and moves up to the arms and legs (called a stocking-glove distribution). People who have a history of severe hypoglycemia, vascular complications or other diseases, or longstanding diabetes may benefit from looser control of blood sugar.
People with diabetes should be aware of other warning signs of a heart attack, including sudden fatigue, sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting. Rapid heart rates Lightheadedness when standing up (orthostatic hypotension) Heart disease risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing neuropathy.
Microalbuminuria typically shows up in people with type 2 diabetes who also have high blood pressure. The ADA recommends that people with diabetes receive an annual urine test for albumin. Lowering triglycerides, losing weight, reducing blood pressure, and quitting smoking may help prevent the onset of neuropathy. FOOT ULCERS AND AMPUTATIONS About 15% of people with diabetes have serious foot problems. Daily aspirin is not recommended for people with diabetes who are younger than these ages and who do not have cardiovascular risk factors. Maintaining close follow-up with your doctor.
Most amputations start with foot ulcers. Those most at risk are people with a long history of diabetes, and people with diabetes who are overweight or who smoke.
People who have the disease for more than 20 years and are insulin-dependent are at the highest risk. A doctor uses the results from a creatinine blood test to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Treating children with type 2 diabetes depends on the severity of the condition at diagnosis.
Foot infections often develop from injuries, which can dramatically increase the risk for amputation. Formerly, only insulin was approved for treating children with diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) does not recommend tight blood glucose control for children because glucose is necessary for brain development. Numbness from nerve damage, which is common in diabetes, compounds the danger since the person may not be aware of injuries. In addition to a comprehensive eye exam, fundus photography may be used as a screening tool. People who lose sensation in their feet should have a foot exam every 3 to 6 months to check for ulcers or infections. People should also be screened for intermittent claudication and peripheral artery disease (PAD) using the ankle-brachial index for diagnosis. People should meet with a professional dietitian to plan an individualized diet within the general guidelines that takes into consideration their own health needs.




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