For long distance irradiation required for offset printers, either at chain delivery parts or between colors. For regular curing and temporary curing in single-pass printers, and regular curing in multi-pass printers.
For curing application of optical fiber coating, wood coating, and mobile phone case hard coating, etc.
For exposure application for semiconductor wafer manufacturing equipment, liquid crystal panel pattern forming, PCB circuit forming, etc. Kyocera is a global manufacturer of proprietary ceramic materials that offer outstanding thermal conductivity. Ceramic packages with thermally-conductive adhesive provide even higher heat dissipation and reliability in our LED packaging while also greatly reducing energy consumption. Kyocera employs simulation technology to optimize characteristics such as irradiation, focal length and light uniformity. Kyocera offers standard products and customized designs to meet your individual requirements. Kyocera’s proprietary ceramic packages provide excellent heat dissipation, high-density LED mounting and high irradiation. Kyocera has achieved maximum irradiation capabilities at different focal lengths by optimizing the positioning of lenses and LED elements with our optical simulation technology. This allows the G4 Series to be installed at the chain delivery phase of a sheet-fed offset printer. Kyocera’s area-irradiation method employs ceramic LED packages and micro-lens array technology to provide a wide irradiation swath in the direction of delivery, which enhances curing performance and productivity. Unless otherwise noted, all graphs and data on this site are based on Kyocera’s own research. UV LED curing technology is delivering deep, consistent curing, top production speeds, heat-less operation and high reliability with unprecedented uptime to tag, label and film producers.
Market-leading AMS LED UV systems are moving Flexographic printing Full Speed Ahead into a new era of cleaner, faster, heatless curing. High Speed UV LED Intensities up to 25WThe highest intensities are crucial for effective curing and attaining top production speeds in Flexo UV LED.
AMS FLEXO Series is perfect for high-speed flexible packaging applications involving PET and shrink films, where heat is traditionally an issue. AMS LED Lamp Units integrate transparently to flexographic presses in a more optimal way than traditional UV lamps, which require bulky housings, hot air exhaust blowers and standby shutter systems.
AMS FLEXO Series LED UV lamps  fit easily into flexographic print units where they achieve faster production speeds, less heat and higher quality output, without mercury and ozone, and with energy savings of 60% or more compared to traditional UV lamps. After UV paint is applied to the vehicle, the film will remain wet until it is exposed to UV energy.
This process is somewhat similar to the process associated with exposing photographic film, or more graphically, the exposure and development of Polaroid® film, which was popular several years ago. Since 2006, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets.
Digital printing today is the de facto method for short-run, wide- and grand-format or variable-data print production. In the inkjet arena of narrow format, there is Screen (Dainippon), HP, Kodak Versamark and Agfa Dotrix. Wide- and grand-format printing applications have flourished because of the flexible nature of inkjet technology and adaptability of inkjet chemistries to various substrates.
The capability to control this change only when the printer needs it to happen makes the ink appealing to anyone occupied in the use or formulation of inks. Sales of UV inks have been given considerable momentum by new European Union legislation on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC).
Second, UV-curable inks can be printed at higher speeds in both narrow- and wide-format sizes without the need for cumbersome drying systems.
Coupled with that flexibility is the wider range of rigid substrates that these inks have superior adhesion to. Let?s go over some of the verbiage associated with UV inks, and how the UV curable process works.
In starting and completing the UV-curing process, photoinitiators are the prime components. The types of photoinitiators most commonly used in inkjet inks have been of the free-radical nature. A monomer (from Greek mono ?one? and meros ?part?) is a small, single molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
Depending on the UV ink formulation, other additives can also be included, such as flow and wetting aids, antioxidants and stabilizers.
Stabilizers are used to help with the ink?s shelf-life and increase the tolerance to heat, which is important at higher jetting temperatures. Presently, the majority of flatbed inkjet systems use what are called free-radical UV inks, rather than cationic (containing positively charged electrons) UV inks.
Free-radical UV inks use an acrylate or urethane resin, which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to UV radiation.
Free-radical UV inks typically use a shuttered mercury-vapor lamp on either side of the print head to produce enough UV output to complete the curing process. A UV lamp?s peak intensity will have a drop off in performance that is related to the bulb type, usage and duty cycle of the printer. Even though the UV-curing process is fundamentally an immediate process ? inks are certainly ?dry to the touch? right after printing ? some post-curing does take place.
Cationic inks, which generally use epoxy resins instead of urethanes, also are virtually odor-free. The curing process is best described as the following: The protons, generated from the photoinitiator during UV exposure, continue to be active after exposure.

These inks typically have better adhesion to the traditional ?difficult? substrates, like expanded plastics and glass.
Cationic inks cure from UV lamps that are ?tuned? to the specific wavelength of UV radiation needed by the photoinitiator.
These two UV curing lamp systems do not generate the high temperatures associated with mercury-vapor lamps. This article appeared in the SGIA Journal, 2nd Quarter 2008 Issue and is reprinted with permission.
Pulsed UV (Ultraviolet) Lamps for Sterilisation, Curing, Flashlamps, Sintering and Solar Simulation. The ability to shape the lamp to the application, providing better uniformity and enhanced matching of the UV light with the substrate, is a benefit for demanding applications. Illustrating the flexibility inherent in being able to choose the shape of a lamp, Xenon's unique spiral lamp design is Xenon's unique spiral lamp design, specifically developed for Optical Disc manufacturing. These lamps and UV curing systems use ultra-high-peak power UV pulses, not continuous light like other approaches.
UVUltraviolet Curing technology consists of pulsed UV curing systems based on decades of industry-leading engineering and experience.
Pulsed UV curing produces better, deeper, and faster UV curing, with a host of other benefits as well.
The unique capabilities of pulsed UV curing technology can solve the most demanding UV curing problems. The pulsed UV light causes formation of Pyrimidone dimers in DNA, resulting in genetic damage to cells and their ultimate destruction. Pulsed UVUltraviolet light systems offer high peak power that has have been shown to completely eradicate microorganisms and provide a higher rate of sterilisation than continuous mercury UV exposure.
Code 21CFR179.41 issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Department of Health and Human Services, approves the use of Pulsed UV light in the production, processing and handling of food. The Dole Company, a leading researcher in the field of food enhancement, has installed a pulsed light system into the manufacturing processes in their mushroom plants to enhance the natural Vitamin D properties of their food product. These materials facilitate high-performance LED packages that allow high-density LED mounting with excellent heat dissipation. These simulations allow Kyocera to optimize product performance by adjusting both the optical arrangement and the shape of the light-condensing lenses, imaging lenses and reflectors. Installing the AMS FLEXO Series LED UV has allowed OMET to accelerate productivity and provides an eco-friendly alternative to the traditional UV system it replaces.
Once production begins, heat is blasted into the pressroom putting stress on air-conditioning and air recovery systems, and hazardous ozone leaks are not uncommon.With conventional air-cooled UV systems in the flexographic space, costly downtime, speed bottlenecks and inconsistent production results are almost inevitable. Here AMS LED UV is installed on a BOBST Gidue 9-Color M 630 (25-in) Mid-Web line Designed for Flexible Packaging. The polymer chains that make up the coating remain short and unconnected until UV light is directed onto the paint film. This increase has been driven by new developments in ink technology and demand from printer manufacturers and end users. Technologies driving these applications include toner (electro-photography) and inkjet-based printing systems. Ink research and development for inkjet printing has never been greater, with a migration from the original water-based dye and pigment inks to the presently popular mid- and high-solvent and UV-curable inkjet ink types. Within the last two years, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets. UV-curable inks, which were already being used extensively in the screen printing field, are replacing much of the solvent inkjet ink currently in use.
Lastly, the flexibility now being seen in the UV ink formulations allows roll-to-roll capability, opening up fleet graphics applications in the areas of wide- and grand-format printing. Compared to solvent inks, UV does not dry up in the inkjet head and exhibits a lower rate of nozzle failure caused by blockage.
A polymer can be any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of high-molecular weight, consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units ? each a relatively light and simple molecule. After absorbing UV energy from the light source located on the print head, the photoinitiators fragment into reactive materials that start the chemical reaction known as polymerization. Ink formulators work with photoinitiator suppliers to develop inks that are compatible with the UV output of medium-pressure, mercury-vapor bulbs found in most curing systems for inkjet printing.
Monomers provide many specific functions within an inkjet formulation, depending on their viscosity and chemistry. Oligomers determine the final properties of the cured ink film, including its elasticity, outdoor performance characteristics and chemical resistance.
Usually, the colorant is pigment-based because of the greater light fastness and durability of pigments compared with dyes.
Surfactants (surface active agents) are included to ensure the ink film spreads in a controlled fashion, and coats the media or substrate uniformly. Simplistically, stabilizers neutralize or absorb reactive molecules in the ink during storage and prevent polymerization. Recent innovations of new performance-enhancing, cationic-ink chemistry have stimulated their development for inkjet-type applications.
These bulbs are unbelievably hot, and that temperature gets transmitted to the substrate with each pass of the print head. UV curing lamps age, and with subsequent changes in output, they may reach a point in which inadequate energy is emitted to fully cure the ink layer. Dust and ink residues on lamp windows and reflectors also can have an impact on the lamp unit?s output, requiring periodic maintenance to prevent any reduction in cure efficiency. UV-curable inks are essentially on top of the substrate (unlike solvents that etch into the substrate), and the interface between the ink and the substrate is not as strong as solvent inks.
They start to polymerize when exposed to UV radiation in the nanometer range which stimulates the photo initiator chemistry.

The excellent adhesion to difficult substrates is related to the ink?s reduction in shrinkage (due to heat), which is roughly one-third of that experienced by free-radical UV ink systems. Manufacturers also are utilizing UV-light emitting diodes (LED) lamp blocks to supply the necessary UV energy.
Cold curing mitigates the heat issue associated with free-radical UV cure inks while, at the same time, the cured ink is more robust at its cured endpoint. Traditionally, mercury UVUltraviolet lamps have been limited to short arc or linear lamp designs. The spiral lamp design provides better uniformity and enhanced matching of the UV light across the substrate.
Xenon Pulsed UV lamps and systems are widely used by process engineers in markets as diverse as medical devices, Optical Storage, packaging and wood processing.
Pulsed UV light is particularly useful in applications where continuous mercury UV is unable to meet the requirements for complete DNA destruction, process speed, penetration, low product temperature, personnel safety and process flexibility. More research is underway at Dole and other major food producers to find new ways to use light for natural food enhancement, and Xenon, with its pulsed light technology, is working with these industries. With these intensities, the raw power needed to solid cure the heavy blacks and opaque whites in flexographic production is now a reality. But thanks to advances in high intensity UV LED technology, all this is about to change, forever.
When UV light is focused onto the paint surface, chemicals known as photoinitiators are activated, which start the cross-linking process in the paint film.
Major trans-promotional marketing players generally utilize toner-based systems and include such names as Xerox IGen3, Kodak Nexpress, HP and HP Indigo, Oce, Konica-Minolta, Ricoh, Kyocera and Xeikon.
Driving the shift to UV is its ability to almost immediately change the ink state from a liquid to an extremely resilient hard film. Solvent- and water-based inks dry by evaporation and upwards of 80 to 90 percent of those ingredients go into the atmosphere as vapors during the printing process. Ultraviolet light is electro-magnetic radiation, situated between 200 and 380 nm of the light spectrum. But there are downsides, including UV-light exposure hazards and possible sensitization issues related to the handling of uncured UV ink.
Disadvantages from this type of light source include excessive substrate heating, high power consumption and the need for scheduled lamp replacement. Most mono-functional monomers are used as ?solvents,? or flow modifiers, because of their ability to reduce viscosity and combine with other ink components. Pigments used in outdoor advertising and display applications have similar requirements to those used in automotive paints. Careful control of drop-spreading behavior contributes to the dot-gain control, which is vitally important for image quality. There are limitations to free-radical UV inks, which include oxygen inhibition, poor adhesion to difficult substrates and residual odor. If the ink layer is not cured completely, the ink will not reach its intended hardness potential. Moreover, the effects of exposure time to UV radiation are cumulative: If an ink is over-cured, it can become fragile and flake off. In the past, cationic inks have been available for UV-curable analog printing, but the polymerization process could take hours from initiation to completion.
That means a coating does not need to be fully cured after it leaves the light source, just dry to the touch. Cationic inks are sensitive chemistries, and can react with the bases and acids present in inkjet media, resulting in poor adhesion. This feature enables UV inkjet systems to be used on substrates that, until now, had been considered unsuitable, including vehicle graphics, uncoated glass materials and other slick or heat-sensitive substrates. His extensive background in digital imaging, electronic pre-press for print, professional photography and computers, serves members by supplying individualized solutions to their daily business problems. Spiral shaped pulsed UV lamps meet the need for fast, low heat adhesive bonding of two polycarbonate discs as well as complete curing of thick top-layer coatings used with new formats such as Blu-ray Disc™.
Pulsed UV offers faster processing, little or no product temperature build-up, process flexibility, freedom from toxic lamp materials, penetration of plastic packages, and ease of meeting special lamp configuration requirements.
And because curing power is optimized via AMS's PEAK Optics, intensity losses are minimized at reasonable working distances from the emitter window.The AMS FLEXO Series 17W and 25W LED UV Curing Systems have been fully tested and qualified at the highest production speeds with a new generation of UV LED curing inks from FLINT Group, Nazdar and other manufacturers. In the case of Polaroid® film, the whole set of reactions, including exposure and developing, happened in a minute or two before your eyes, just like the UV curing action of UV paints.
The advantages of UV-curable inks overshadow any disadvantages, marking them as the dominant ink system for the future of industrial inkjet printing.
Burton received his Bachelor of Science in Photographic Science from the Rochester Institute of Technology.
In a wide range of applications, pulsed light curing exceeds industry requirements and offers benefits that are distinctive. The pulsed UV light process is environmentally benign since it does not create or use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or create suspended airborne particulates. While a pigment is selected on the basis of the required application, size control and reduction along with dispersion technique are major components of ink formulation.
These ?higher functions? of a monomer add improved film hardness and resistance properties, but may also increase the viscosity of the chemistry.

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