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Innovative ideas can result from individual inspiration, but more frequently emerge from the organized or incidental exchange of thoughts between individuals with expertise in specific fields. In a company covering a wide range of R&D activities, synergies are usually sought and identified in a formalized way. The development of UV-curing technologies has been largely driven by joint efforts of all its stakeholders, including raw material manufacturers, formulators, equipment manufacturers and end users, as well as university researchers and consultants. With this paper we would like to address the idea of value chain technology development and marketing by means of a few ongoing collaborations in the UV-curing area. RadTech NA Automotive Focus Group and Team UV The RadTech NA Automotive Focus Group (AFG) has brought together leading paint companies, equipment suppliers, raw material suppliers and consultants with the objective to increase penetration of UV-curing technology in automotive OEM.
In September 2000, decision makers from all major automakers and all major part suppliers attended the first AFG symposium, which presented the state of the art in UV-curing technology.
The Team UV Racecar project began in 2001, which involved a group of 17 AFG member companies with the intention to demonstrate the superior decorative and performance characteristics of UV inks, coatings and adhesives on a racecar.
Members of the AFG agree that it is worth their time and effort to achieve the goal of advancing the cause of UV curing in the automotive industry. In this particular case, the co-operative effort was focused on marketing throughout the value chain. UV-Curable Composites and Gel Coats Composites in the present context are materials in which the radical co-polymerization product of an unsaturated polyester resin and styrene acts as a matrix for glass fiber structural elements, providing the mechanical strength and stability against deformation even at elevated temperatures.
One important drawback, especially in the thermal cure of open molds, is styrene emission into the environment.
The challenge of curing very thick layers loaded with glass fibers has been mastered with the introduction of phosphine oxides as radical photoinitiators and especially when bis-acyl phosphine oxides (BAPO) became available5,6. Gel coats are pigmented coatings applied on the exterior side of the composite part as a protective layer or as a decorative layer providing smoothness, gloss and color. We have recently entered into a collaboration with a composite manufacturer and its formulator with the objective to increase the market penetration of the UV technology by jointly optimizing the UV composite and gel coat manufacturing process and offering it to potential end users.
The capital investment linked to the introduction of a new manufacturing process must be justified by the prospective return.
UV-Curable, Cationic, White Base Coatings for Two-Piece Aluminum Cans White coatings are often applied on beer, beverage and aerosol cans as an opaque base for high-quality, multicolor halftone graphics and product information.
100%-solid UV-curable coatings attracted the can industry's attention more than two decades ago.
We took up these challenges as an additives manufacturer by developing model formulations based on cheap glycidylether resins and heavy-metal-free salts as photoinitiators7,8. Conclusions The radiation-curing market teaches us that inclusion and alignment of potential stakeholders down the value chain is as important as early and strong promotion of new ideas. Our September issue focuses on sustainable solutions, specialty chemicals, architectural coatings and the latest pigment technology.
Since 2006, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets. Digital printing today is the de facto method for short-run, wide- and grand-format or variable-data print production. In the inkjet arena of narrow format, there is Screen (Dainippon), HP, Kodak Versamark and Agfa Dotrix. Wide- and grand-format printing applications have flourished because of the flexible nature of inkjet technology and adaptability of inkjet chemistries to various substrates.
The capability to control this change only when the printer needs it to happen makes the ink appealing to anyone occupied in the use or formulation of inks. Sales of UV inks have been given considerable momentum by new European Union legislation on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Second, UV-curable inks can be printed at higher speeds in both narrow- and wide-format sizes without the need for cumbersome drying systems.
Coupled with that flexibility is the wider range of rigid substrates that these inks have superior adhesion to.
Let?s go over some of the verbiage associated with UV inks, and how the UV curable process works. In starting and completing the UV-curing process, photoinitiators are the prime components. The types of photoinitiators most commonly used in inkjet inks have been of the free-radical nature.
A monomer (from Greek mono ?one? and meros ?part?) is a small, single molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. Depending on the UV ink formulation, other additives can also be included, such as flow and wetting aids, antioxidants and stabilizers. Stabilizers are used to help with the ink?s shelf-life and increase the tolerance to heat, which is important at higher jetting temperatures.
Presently, the majority of flatbed inkjet systems use what are called free-radical UV inks, rather than cationic (containing positively charged electrons) UV inks.
Free-radical UV inks use an acrylate or urethane resin, which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to UV radiation. Free-radical UV inks typically use a shuttered mercury-vapor lamp on either side of the print head to produce enough UV output to complete the curing process.
A UV lamp?s peak intensity will have a drop off in performance that is related to the bulb type, usage and duty cycle of the printer. Even though the UV-curing process is fundamentally an immediate process ? inks are certainly ?dry to the touch? right after printing ? some post-curing does take place. Cationic inks, which generally use epoxy resins instead of urethanes, also are virtually odor-free.
The curing process is best described as the following: The protons, generated from the photoinitiator during UV exposure, continue to be active after exposure.
These inks typically have better adhesion to the traditional ?difficult? substrates, like expanded plastics and glass. Cationic inks cure from UV lamps that are ?tuned? to the specific wavelength of UV radiation needed by the photoinitiator. These two UV curing lamp systems do not generate the high temperatures associated with mercury-vapor lamps. This article appeared in the SGIA Journal, 2nd Quarter 2008 Issue and is reprinted with permission.
3D printing technology has been progressing at a fairly steady pace for the past few years, but now, thanks to California-based startup Carbon3D, the technology is about to take a massive leap forward. The company has developed a radical new technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) that is anywhere from 25 to 100 times faster than most 3D printers. Being able to cure (harden) a liquid resin on demand is a very useful feature in 3D printing. Another factor that tends to influence the price of resins is the cure speed and pot-life (durability of resin once mixed with the PI, kept away from light sources). Finally, the final polymer properties, the physical and chemical properties of the hardened resin are also a factor to take in account.

Photoinitiators are mostly organic compounds, molecules that have a combination of functional groups (molecular sub-structructures) in them that adsorb a given wavelength of light. One very important concept to grasp is that intensity of the light source is only a factor in this chain of events, and it is not even the most important one. This tuning depends on may things: the type of molecule, it's structure, component elements and electric distribution of charges. Resin systems using visible light are a particularly practical variant of light activated resins. Indeed, removing th eneed for expensive and dangerous UV sources to cure a resin permits for much more compact and cheaper designs, without the need of special glasses and optics, as well as expensive Mercury lamps of UV fluorescent tube contraptions as sources.
On the other hand, visible light Photoinitiators, generally working in the near UV-violet-blue spectrum are sensibly more expensive than UV systems. There is a fine line where the cost of the apparatus and the cost of the resin system meet and our goal here is to widen that area, by lowering the cost of the visible light resin system to a minimum. UV dyes may be used to avoid bleeding of excess light and thus inaccuracies in the shapes, as well as layer curing thickness control.
Brief Description: Activated by UV light (typically 359nm) Curing times vary according to the intensity of the light and depth of composite, but curing can be as little as 3 to 6 minutes.
Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Of course we would undertake the shipping cost in the case that it is the consequence of a mistake on our side. If you change your mind about the product and return it to us, you will be asked to contribute to the product shipping costs.
You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. Such a synergistic idea-generation approach promises highest return in a world where specialization often comes with a certain distance, even from related subjects. Technology developments responding to new market needs, however, require, as a rule, joint efforts by industrial partners specialized in complementary technology branches. Focus Groups established within the RadTech organization are good examples of partnerships facilitating such endeavors. In these projects we participate as raw material suppliers with the most comprehensive range of additives in the paint industry (Figure 1), creating effects throughout the whole value chain (Figure 2) and with expertise on their combined use. Previous studies1-4 carried out by key players from these industries, partly as a joint effort, have impressively demonstrated the potential of UV-cured topcoats in providing a significant improvement in scratch and solvent resistance while reaching or exceeding the durability of the most advanced commercial thermoset systems.
Industry experts on safety, formulation, application, processing and durability presented the latest information. UV curing may be the single technology that achieves the advances needed for future automotive coatings, despite unsolved problems like curing of shaded areas. The Model U is a concept car demonstrating innovative Green technologies, such as the use of hydrogen as a fuel and renewable resources as raw materials for plastic parts.
Parts of such materials are manufactured by automatic processes such as press molding or injection molding, or are handcrafted by contact molding. It has been shown in the 90's that this safety hazard can be largely eliminated by conversion from thermal to UV cure. These photoinitiators benefit cure in depth, even in the presence of glass, pigments or UV-absorbing light stabilizers, and the use of rather inexpensive ozone-free lamps emitting comparatively harmless light above 350 nm or of diffuse sunlight. The project partners holding strategic positions within the value chain (Figure 4) are thoroughly convinced of the superiority of the UV approach with respect to economy, ecology and safety. Among them is the clear perception that end users want a superior solution rather than just chemicals or dedicated equipment.
Waterborne thermosetting coatings have superseded solventborne systems in the majority of beer and beverage can manufacturing plants. Unexpectedly, specific iodonium hexafluorophosphate salts showed higher reactivity than iodonium hexafluoroantimonate photoinitiators in glycidylether formulations and enabled cure of opaque white can coatings meeting or exceeding end-use requirements.
Radiation curing requires fundamental changes in material and process technologies, leading to improved material properties but also to numerous challenges during implementation.
This increase has been driven by new developments in ink technology and demand from printer manufacturers and end users. Technologies driving these applications include toner (electro-photography) and inkjet-based printing systems.
Ink research and development for inkjet printing has never been greater, with a migration from the original water-based dye and pigment inks to the presently popular mid- and high-solvent and UV-curable inkjet ink types. Within the last two years, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets. UV-curable inks, which were already being used extensively in the screen printing field, are replacing much of the solvent inkjet ink currently in use. Lastly, the flexibility now being seen in the UV ink formulations allows roll-to-roll capability, opening up fleet graphics applications in the areas of wide- and grand-format printing.
Compared to solvent inks, UV does not dry up in the inkjet head and exhibits a lower rate of nozzle failure caused by blockage. A polymer can be any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of high-molecular weight, consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units ? each a relatively light and simple molecule. After absorbing UV energy from the light source located on the print head, the photoinitiators fragment into reactive materials that start the chemical reaction known as polymerization. Ink formulators work with photoinitiator suppliers to develop inks that are compatible with the UV output of medium-pressure, mercury-vapor bulbs found in most curing systems for inkjet printing. Monomers provide many specific functions within an inkjet formulation, depending on their viscosity and chemistry. Oligomers determine the final properties of the cured ink film, including its elasticity, outdoor performance characteristics and chemical resistance.
Usually, the colorant is pigment-based because of the greater light fastness and durability of pigments compared with dyes. Surfactants (surface active agents) are included to ensure the ink film spreads in a controlled fashion, and coats the media or substrate uniformly. Simplistically, stabilizers neutralize or absorb reactive molecules in the ink during storage and prevent polymerization. Recent innovations of new performance-enhancing, cationic-ink chemistry have stimulated their development for inkjet-type applications. These bulbs are unbelievably hot, and that temperature gets transmitted to the substrate with each pass of the print head.
UV curing lamps age, and with subsequent changes in output, they may reach a point in which inadequate energy is emitted to fully cure the ink layer.
Dust and ink residues on lamp windows and reflectors also can have an impact on the lamp unit?s output, requiring periodic maintenance to prevent any reduction in cure efficiency.
UV-curable inks are essentially on top of the substrate (unlike solvents that etch into the substrate), and the interface between the ink and the substrate is not as strong as solvent inks. They start to polymerize when exposed to UV radiation in the nanometer range which stimulates the photo initiator chemistry.
The excellent adhesion to difficult substrates is related to the ink?s reduction in shrinkage (due to heat), which is roughly one-third of that experienced by free-radical UV ink systems.
Manufacturers also are utilizing UV-light emitting diodes (LED) lamp blocks to supply the necessary UV energy. Cold curing mitigates the heat issue associated with free-radical UV cure inks while, at the same time, the cured ink is more robust at its cured endpoint.
UV light triggers photo polymerization (hardening) in the resin, while oxygen inhibits it. CLIP is essentially a chemical process that leverages this interaction in order to eliminate the mechanical steps and layering of traditional printers. Carbon3D is able to draw from the entire polymer family, meaning they can make objects out of everything from silicone to rubber to polyester. Keep your fingers crossed and we might see CLIP printers out in the wild by the end of the year. Their task is to facilitate the chain reaction by, for example, extending the life of the intermediary radical, giving it enough time to trigger a chain reaction. For our use, it's enough to know that we are designing Resin Systems that have to be tuned to a given light source spectrum, intensity, type of monomer and co-polymers and sometimes activators.
Their acvivation spectra range from Near UV (UVA) to UVB and UVC (germicidal or EPROM Flash UV).

The remainder is an Ultra Violet initiator which can be activated by UV light sources or even the Sun itself. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. The procedure here is less conceivable and predictable than with internal innovation processes. Over a dozen people from non-RadTech member companies have responded to press releases about this new group with commitments to become involved. This will not happen quickly, but, with cooperation and commitment, the problems can be solved and the technology adopted. Interestingly, the Model U has a high-performance, low-VOC developmental UV-cure clearcoat supplied by Akzo Nobel.
It is likely that in the future, the most successful projects will be the result of both co-development of key technologies and co-marketing of the benefits throughout the value chain. Conventional manufacturing involves thermal cure in an oven using peroxides as radical initiators, often in combination with cobalt salts and amines as accelerators for curing at lower temperatures.
UV curing is a "cold" polymerization process and comparatively much faster than thermal curing. Hence, key requirements for the use of the composite molding technology, even for small-scale production in a less sophisticated environment, are met. In this particular case an additional challenge is, therefore, to sell ecological and safety benefits.
This led to a significant reduction, but not to an elimination, of VOCs and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, because waterborne coatings may contain 13 to 27% solvent, which is used to control viscosity, disperse pigments and aid in wetting. The inherent deficiencies of acrylate systems with regard to adhesion, flexibility and pasteurization resistance were remedied later by the introduction of cationic epoxy-based UV clearcoats.
At this point collaborations with leading metal container coating formulators were initiated to ensure market proximity and a faster promotion of this technology along the value chain. Such challenges can be best met by close co-operation between technology leaders in complementary fields. Major trans-promotional marketing players generally utilize toner-based systems and include such names as Xerox IGen3, Kodak Nexpress, HP and HP Indigo, Oce, Konica-Minolta, Ricoh, Kyocera and Xeikon. Driving the shift to UV is its ability to almost immediately change the ink state from a liquid to an extremely resilient hard film. Solvent- and water-based inks dry by evaporation and upwards of 80 to 90 percent of those ingredients go into the atmosphere as vapors during the printing process. Ultraviolet light is electro-magnetic radiation, situated between 200 and 380 nm of the light spectrum. But there are downsides, including UV-light exposure hazards and possible sensitization issues related to the handling of uncured UV ink. Disadvantages from this type of light source include excessive substrate heating, high power consumption and the need for scheduled lamp replacement.
Most mono-functional monomers are used as ?solvents,? or flow modifiers, because of their ability to reduce viscosity and combine with other ink components.
Pigments used in outdoor advertising and display applications have similar requirements to those used in automotive paints. Careful control of drop-spreading behavior contributes to the dot-gain control, which is vitally important for image quality.
There are limitations to free-radical UV inks, which include oxygen inhibition, poor adhesion to difficult substrates and residual odor. If the ink layer is not cured completely, the ink will not reach its intended hardness potential. Moreover, the effects of exposure time to UV radiation are cumulative: If an ink is over-cured, it can become fragile and flake off. In the past, cationic inks have been available for UV-curable analog printing, but the polymerization process could take hours from initiation to completion. That means a coating does not need to be fully cured after it leaves the light source, just dry to the touch. Cationic inks are sensitive chemistries, and can react with the bases and acids present in inkjet media, resulting in poor adhesion. This feature enables UV inkjet systems to be used on substrates that, until now, had been considered unsuitable, including vehicle graphics, uncoated glass materials and other slick or heat-sensitive substrates.
His extensive background in digital imaging, electronic pre-press for print, professional photography and computers, serves members by supplying individualized solutions to their daily business problems. Objects produced via CLIP look almost like injection-molded plastic, and come out of the bath without any noticeable layers.
Both of these factors are to be taken in account if we want to formulate successful resin systems.
An example may be the creation of a radical, an electrically charged molecule, through the toggling of the position of a chemical bond, dragging electrons from their stable form to an unstable intermediate. These activators are quite crucial as without them the reactions would be aborted, before there was time for the monomers to get to the activated radicals. Just as a piano string that produces a certain pitch of sound depending on it's length and tension, PIs are tuned to a given quanta of electromagnetic energy - light wave length.
9663 keypad coating is lower outgassing and is designed to endure vacuum metalizing processes. The prices and cure speeds are very diverse, as well as the monomers they apply to (Epoxy, Acrylic, Polyester, Urethane).
The product contains no VOC's and needs no acetone or other harmful solvents to clean up after use.
This symposium has been followed up by similar symposia at RadTech Europe in 2001, and RadTech Indianapolis in 2002. Hence, success calls for careful selection and adaptation of all constituent parts of such a technology package and their proper alignment towards a robust, cost-effective and highly competitive process by specialists in the respective fields as well as for continued joint support of the end users.
Tightening environmental regulations urge development and introduction of virtually emissionless coating processes. However, UV curing of white cationic base coatings remained a challenge, not least because the most efficient cationic photoinitiator salts contain the heavy metal antimony, which was rejected by most formulators. Their combined market knowledge, together with the support of end users, are key factors for sustained success. The advantages of UV-curable inks overshadow any disadvantages, marking them as the dominant ink system for the future of industrial inkjet printing. Burton received his Bachelor of Science in Photographic Science from the Rochester Institute of Technology.
This intermediate radical can then interact with other resins components to start the polymerization.
The mission, vision and agenda of this group will be developed, and projects will be designed to support the information needs of this important market. In contact molding, gel coat is applied by spraying on the surface of the open mold that has been previously treated with a release agent.
The speed requirements also suggested the use of expensive cycloaliphatic epoxies as principal formulation components.
The joint efforts attracted considerable market attention and opened up new potential applications such as flexographic printing inks. While a pigment is selected on the basis of the required application, size control and reduction along with dispersion technique are major components of ink formulation.
This company offers a good, reasonably priced product that can safely be used off the shelve. After partial UV cure, the gel coat is covered with a first layer of composite material and then fully cured after repeated UV exposure. Additional composite layers are applied until the desired thickness is achieved (Figure 3). These ?higher functions? of a monomer add improved film hardness and resistance properties, but may also increase the viscosity of the chemistry.

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Comments Uv resin curing light 2014

  1. Playgirl
    Seen on TV??manufacturers often carefully create these tests the same test standard used.
    Super glue works much better you will get.