24.02.2016
To fully appreciate the effects of light on your skin and scalp viability you must first understand the Light Spectrum.
UVA, UVB and High Energy Visible Light (HVL) all share the aging spectrum of Solar Radiation*. The accumulation of daily sun exposure leads to premature aging of the skin, linked to the development of wrinkles, age spots, skin cancer and dry skin*.
In addition, Solar Radiation on your scalp skin leads to damage to your scalp's vascular and lymphatic network, forhead and neck sagging, premature hair loss and hair greying. Solar Radiation floods our Planet with both potentially lethal and healing light wavelengths. The High Energy Visible Light from the green spectrum progressively through to Ultra-Violet have various negative effects on differing depths within the skin.
We have all focused on SPF Factor Sunscreens to protect our skin from the aging effect of Solar Radiation however all evidence suggest that this SPF Factor may have very little to do with Skin and Scalp Anti-aging.
The number for SPF Factor Sunscreen (i.e SPF-15, SPF-30, SPF-50) relates ONLY to the protection of the skin from UVB radiation and therefore SPF Sunscreen Factor has an insignificant benefit in the fight against SOLAR induced skin aging. UVB Radiation (280-315nm) is relatively superficial and its penetration is restricted almost entirely to the Epidermal Layer of the skin only 0.15mm deep.
It is this shallow concentration of energy which creates the sunburn and inflammation of the skin.
UVB irradiation is a complete carcinogen and can generate squamous cell carcinomas.Chromophores are substances that absorb Light. Many candidates for substances capable of absorbing UV light in skin exist, but DNA and Urocanic acid have been identified as being biologically important. Urocanic acid is found predominantly in the stratum corneum of the skin where it acts as an internal sunscreen or photoprotectant against UVB-induced DNA damage. UVB irradiation of Urocanic acid in the skin produces chemicals that suppress the skin's immune system.
Because UVB is essentially completely absorbed in the epidermis it is dangerous to long term health, however it has been important to understand that Photo-Aging changes in the skin are not caused in the main part by UVB. It is therefore also important to note that SPF Sunscreen in Cosmetics is almost a false promise of anti-aging protection and there is a large body of evidence to suggest that these sunscreen chemicals may be considered harmful to long term health. Anti-oxidants Protect.Anti-oxidants are the true answer to protecting your skin from damaging Solar Radiation whilst at the same time allowing healing light to support your skin.
If you must wear Sunscreen always use anti-oxidant rich serums first on your skin to quench free radicals as they are formed. It is important to remember that free radicals are generated as the Solar Radiation oxidises the lipids within your Sunscreen or Moisturiser also.
At levels found in sunlight, UVA is 10 times more efficient than UVB at causing lipid peroxidation. Cells exposed the UVA can stop actively growing and dividing (a decrease in cell viability), or the cells can activate a genetic program of controlled cell death (apoptosis). UVA creates Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Dermis layer of the skin and Lipofusin (Oxidaized Age Spots).UVA induced Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species break down the skins vital Collagen and Elastin. UVA does not interact directly with the DNA but causes mutations that are mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species and in this way UVA promotes the formation of melanoma and carcinoma. UVA generates Free Radicals and ROS to activate enzymes within the skin that degrade collagen and elastin thereby promoting the formation of Glycation Wrinkles (deep, rigid wrinkles) and uneven pigmentation.
In addition to more efficiently generating ROS in skin, UVA causes additional biologic effects different from UVB. Whereas UVB is almost entirely absorbed in the epidermis, UVA is capable of reaching dermal layers and even affecting circulating blood cells and hair follicle viability in the scalp.
This creates special problems for those who spend long hours in cars or naturally lite office windows. Because UVB is essentially completely absorbed in the epidermis, it has been important to understand that photoaging can be produced by UVA alone.
Small amounts of UV irradiation result in the induction of a series of destuctive proteases enzymes called matrix metallopeptidase (MMP's). Collectively, they are capable of degrading the collagen and elastin framework of skin, scalp and the vascular system. High Energy Visible Light Radiation penetrates deeper than UVA through the dermis into thesub-dermis, the follicles of the scalp, the circulation vessels and the lymphatic vessels. This spectrum of Solar Radiation promotes the greatest DNA damage via Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species. In turn it activates MMPs to promote degradation of Collagen and Elastin resulting in the formation of glycation wrinkles and advances premature aging. It accelerates premature hair loss in both men and women by damaging the vital support network and structure of the follicle. It does this by creating Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species which cause the degradation of the Lymphatic System and the Vascular System of the skin and hair follicle by more than 50% as we age. This degrading of the Vascular and Lymphatic Systems in the skin and scalp is only evident in Solar exposed skin and does not take place in skin that has not been exposed, such as the skin of the buttocks. It is this deep penetrating energy which penetrates easily through glass or water causing a cascade of deep inflammatory responses within the skin and scalp every day.
It penetrates the Sebaceous Gland and Follicle instigating Peroxidation of Sebum (Skin's natural oil), causing it to thicken and create Comodomes which block the follicle creating acne. Various factors in a chromophore's structure go into determining at what wavelength region in a spectrum the chromophore will absorb.
It is clearly visible when light is viewed through a Prizm or in nature it may be seen in the form of a Rainbow. Red Spectrum Visible Light Radiation penetrates deeper than all other Solar Radiation through the dermis into the subcutaneous fatty layers below the Sub-dermis. Sunlight coupled with living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere causes unwanted and harmful stresses on skin and scalp. The most severe consequence of photodamage is skin cancer.Less severe photoaging changes for the skin result in wrinkling, scaling, dryness, and mottled pigment abnormalities consisting of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Additionally, the deep circulatory and lymphatic vessels which support hair follicles may be degraded so that they no longer can supply the required oxygen and nutrition to the follicle, nor can the lymphatic system remove waste byproducts such as Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)and Hydrogen Peroxide.
For a photochemical reaction to occur in the skin, ultraviolet (UV) light and High Energy Visible Light (HEV) from the sun must be absorbed by a chromophore, beginning a series of photochemic reactions that may result in skin cancer or photoaging changes. These photochemical reactions can result in changes to DNA, including oxidation of nucleic acids initiated by free radical oxygen molecules.
The body is well equipped to deal with oxidative stress, naturally using antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymic antioxidants to lessen these changes. However, sunlight and other free-radical generators (eg, smoking, pollution) can overwhelm the system, making natural protective controls inadequate, resulting in oxidative damage. ROS are an inherent part of the normal daily metabolism of all cells, including skin and follicles.
Through a series of 1-electron subtractions, molecular oxygen is in sequence changed to superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and, finally, to water. Cellular enzymes and controlled metabolic processes ordinarily keep oxidative damage to cells at a minimum. These molecules are extremely chemically reactive and short-lived and they react at the place where they are created.
Other reactive molecules such as molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide are not free radicals per se, but are capable of initiating oxidative reactions and generating free-radical species. They are much longer living than the other Free Radical Species and often migrate damage further into the extracellular tissue.
The skin naturally relies on anti-oxidants to protect it from oxidant stress generated by sunlight and pollution. A relative symphony of enzymic and nonenzymic anti-oxidants interacts to provide protection in both the intracellular and extracellular space.
Examples of enzyme anti-oxidants are Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase which reduce hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. Because low-molecular-weight anti-oxidants protect skin against oxidative stress, undergoing depletion in the process, it is desirable to add to the skin's natural reservoir by applying the anti-oxidants directly to skin and scalp. Although anti-oxidants can be supplied to skin through a diet rich in anti-oxidants and oral supplementation, physiologic processes related to absorption, solubility, and transport limit the amount that can be delivered into skin and hair follicle. Direct application has the added advantage of targeting the anti-oxidants to the area of skin needing the protection.
In addition, many anti-oxidants are deeply colored and have distinctive odours, adding to the complexity of producing an acceptable aesthetic product. To protect deeper layers of skin, anti-oxidants need to be formulated in a way that delivers them into skin and scalp.
This is why our Phyto-Stem Serums are all rich in colour and the aroma of pure plant essences. Finally, anti-oxidants need to have photoprotective effects including reduction of erythema (redness), reduction of sunburn cell formation, reduction of DNA changes, reduction of UV immunosuppression, reduction of pigment abnormalities, and,eventually, reduction of skin cancer risk and photoaging changes. To achieve the SPF Factor rating of a sunscreen it must be applied at 2mg per square centimeter of skin. The average face skin is 300cm square which would require approximately 6grams of sunscreen on your face to achieve the SPF Factor indicated on the bottle.
It has been clinically assessed that the average person applies less than quarter of the required amount of sunscreen to achieve the protection level suggested on the bottle label. Now, recent acne studies have provided more information about the role of sebaceous lipids and inflammatory mediators including MMPs.(matrix metalloproteinase enzymes). Sebum includes several MMPs, which play a prominent role the inflammatory process of acne and MMP's are thought to originate in Keratinocytes (skin producing cells) and Sebocytes (sebum producing cells). It has been shown in laboratory tests that peroxidation (oxidation) of sebum lipids can activate inflammatory mediators in the mouth of the follicle. Oxidised squalene in sebum can also stimulate hyperproliferative behavior of keratinocytes, suggesting that this oxidised lipid may be partly responsible for comedone (black head and white head) formation. In skin and hair, melanin differs in eumelanin or pheomelanin while in the eye it is exclusively eumelanin. Red hair is particularly rich in pheomelanin, whereas brown and black hair is composed mainly of eumelanin.Different melanin polymers have different response to UV radiation. It is therefore acceptable to assess that Red, Blonde, Light Brown and White Haired people are susceptible to free radical scalp skin damage after 5 to 10 minutes of UV exposure.
As UVA levels are relatively constant all year round and a little effected by cloud cover, it is UVA and High Energy Visible Light which are the most damaging to long term scalp viability. The sun emits a wide spectrum of electromagnetic waves of which ultraviolet light (UV) is the most aggressive towards cellular compounds.
Large amounts of UVB and UVC are screened out by ozone, the major photoprotective agent formed in earth’s atmosphere. In contrast, hair is fully penetrated by both UVA and UVB.The Earth's ozone layer acts as a shield, absorbing around 90% of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The massive depletion of ozone due to CFC Aerosols in the past 50 years has left our scalp and face skin enormously more susceptible to accelerated aging from UVA than any previous generation. Ozone is not expected to reestablish itself back to pre-1970’s levels until the year 2060. UV-light Skin Analyzer Facial Detector Beauty Equipment(JB-320) Introduction:High-definition skin detector, beautiful appearance, easy to carry, ultra-thin design, more sophisticated. GUANDZHOU JIBAO BEAUTY EQUIPMENTS CO.,LTD is a professional beauty equipment company which integrates the development, production and sales of beauty equipment.
Our heated body blanket will help keep clients warm and comfortable while luxuriating after a relaxing therapeutic massage or body treatment.
For example, at the bottom of the spectrum radio waves have photons with low energies, so their wavelengths are long with peaks that are far apart.
UVA rays have the longest wavelengths, followed by UVB, and UVC rays which have the shortest wavelengths.
Certain oral and topical medicines, such as antibiotics, birth control pills, and benzoyl peroxide products, as well as some cosmetics, may increase skin and eye sensitivity to UV in all skin types.
Exposure to UVB radiation helps the skin produce a type of vitamin D, (vitamin D3), which plays an important role - along with calcium - in bone and muscle health. UV radiation, in the form of lasers, lamps, or a combination of these devices and topical medications that increase UV sensitivity, are sometimes used to treat patients with certain diseases who have not responded to other methods of therapy. Phototherapy involves exposing a patient to a carefully monitored dose of UV radiation on a regular schedule.
UV exposure is also greater in areas of snow, sand, pavement, and water due to the reflective properties of these surfaces. UV is most intense at noon when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, and UV rays have the least distance to travel through the atmosphere.
Many people believe that you cannot get sunburned on a cloudy day; this is simply not the case. Some surfaces, such as snow, sand, grass, or water can reflect much of the UV radiation that reaches them. The Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a rating scale, with numbers from 1 to 11, which indicate the amount of skin-damaging UV rays reaching the Earth’s surface during the day. The daily UVI forecasts the amount of UV reaching your area at noon when the sun typically reaches its highest point in the sky. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers UVI forecasts by ZIP code on their UV Index page.
Many illustrations of the UVI use a system of colors to designate levels of UV exposure for a particular area on the map. Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players. Now is clear that it has a fundamental function that go beyond the simple role of "shield".
It is known that exposition to solar light induces a series of reactions in the skin, like erythema, hyperalgesia and hyperpigmentation. Sunlight is composed by a broad spectrum of wavelength, more important of them are the visible light (400-700nm) and UV radiation, distinct in UVA (320-400nm), 95% of total UV, and UVB (290-320nm), remaining 5%. Physical characteristics of these radiations give them different proprieties: UVB radiation reaches the epidermis and, to a lesser extent, the upper part of the dermis and interacts directly with DNA which results in its damage, while UVA radiation penetrates more deeply into human skin and can also cause DNA damage, but it primarily induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (1) (2).


Studies demonstrates that skin exposition to sunlight leads to a wide range of homeostatic modifications. Almost 1% or respirated oxygen is physiologically converted into ROS in mitochondria , exposing in this way all aerobic organisms to oxidant stress. The pathological unregulated ROS production causes directly cell damage, in fact these molecules react unspecifically potentially with all cellular compounds, generating for example peroxydated lipids, denaturated proteins (mainly oxydating disulfide bonds) and bases modification into the DNA chain. Daily skin exposure to solar radiation causes cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a primary factor in skin damage.
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation has recently been shown to generate a variety of ROS products like the hydroxyl radical (HO) with long term detrimental effects on cells like cancer formation and premature aging of the skin.
UVA radiation leads to an immediate measurable increase in free iron in human skin fibroblast and keratinocyte cytoplasm and provide a new insight into UVA-induced skin damage, since iron is a catalyst of biological oxidations.
Furthermore these phenomena are exacerbated by UVA-mediated destruction of cellular reducing equivalents (9) and denaturation of antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase . The physiological increasing of iron in female body after menopause, due to the cessation of menstrual fluxes, is responsible for the accelerated aging (1) of women skin in post-menopausal life (5). Reactive oxygen species (ROS ) are also important second messengers for the induction of several genes in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions; in fact ROS induce the cytoplasmatic enzyme Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) (10) (11) activity, that in turn lead to an increase of c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels in cell. Moreover it seems that UV rays directly stimulate the activation of the second messenger c-JUN N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) (10) (13) . Another protein whose induction is stimulated by UV irradiation is the enzyme heme-hoxygenase-1 (the HO2-isoform is constitutivelyy expressed in many cell types) that catalyze the formation of biliverdin from hemoglobin and have a important role in protection from oxidative damage and, thus, an antiflogistic activity. An important consequence of the UV-induced altered redox state of the cell is the generation of less known second messengers: UVA-induced iron increase, combined with ROS formation is responsible of the induction of many oxidized membrane compounds in the form of 4-hydroxynonenal, ceramides and oxidized phospholipids, all of which are potent activators of many signaling molecules (Nf-Kb) which modulate of the expression of many genes involved in flogistic process. In this way UVR-induced iron release determine an exacerbation of the direct effect of UVR on cell structures. Tumor necrosis factor-? is a proinflammatory cytokine produced inside the skin in response to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) by mRNA induction in both keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Paracrine effects of this molecule is enhanced by IL1 , another important cytokine that acts sinergically producing an increased effect.
Studies demonstrates that modifications in the promoter region of TNF gene that is the putative binding site for AP-1 and Nf-Kb lead to a lack of synthesis of TNF-? confirming their role in TNF gene induction.
The principal physiologic function of TNF is the stimulation and the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to sites of its liberation in order to activate these cells.
In case of very prolonged exposition to sunlight there is a production of a large amounts of this cytokine that lead to its systemic effects like fever (by production of prostaglandins by cytokine-stimulated hypothalamic cells), acute phase protein synthesiss, cachexia, low cardiac output and intravascular thrombosis, that in extreme cases can lead to shock. In addition to these proinflammatory effects, TNF-? has many other effects directly on the keratinocytes. Surprisingly recent studies have demonstrated that TNF-? is necessary for the early stages of skin carcinogenesys and development of squamous cells carcinoma.
The PKC-Akt axis is likely to be responsible for the TNF-?-induced decrease in DNA repair since sperimental blocking of Akt activity restored DNA repair (16). The cospique activation of the akt-signaling pathway is mediated by a citoplasmatic protein named ATM that is activated by direct interaction with reactive oxygen species and is able to induce (via the MAP-kinases way) the activity of another protein, TSC2, that in turn inactivate the regulatory protein m-TOR, the principal phosphatase responsible to the inactivation of Akt (17). Macroscopically, one of the most appreciable sign of solar exposition is actinic hyperkeratosis, that results by the action of TNF-? directly on epidermal cells. This leads to an increased thickness of stratum corneum and consequently to an improving filter-effect. This can be considered an adaptative modification of the biologic system, in fact now it is known that the stratum corneum has an important role in scattering solar light (18) (19), decreasing it absolute intensity. As previously said one of the main effects (direct or not) of UV rays on skin cells is the spontaneous formation of lipid intermediates (peroxydated lipid chains) that have the "role" to inform the cell about the presence of potentially harmful radiations. Thus, skin aging is associated with increased AP-1 activity increased MMP expression , enhanced collagen degradation, and decreased collagen synthesis with consequent ECM degradation that contributes to premature skin aging (photoaging) statistically correlated to sun exposition. Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells located in the stratum basale of epidermis (they are also present in other sites like the middle layer of the uvea, in inner ear, in meninges, in bones and hearth).
These cells are originated from neural crests and, like other neuroepitelial-derived cells, have a elevated activity in oxidation of cyclic aminoacides. Everyone knows that a delayed consequence of solar exposition of the skin is hyperpigmentation.
Melanins are biological polymers derived by aminoacid tyrosine, present virtually in all superior animals. The first step of melanine synthesis requires tyrosinase, a copper containing protein that oxidates tyrosine to DOPA and subsequently DOPA to DOPA-quinone.
The physiological response of melanocyte to sunlight consist in a strong induction of the melanogenesys and in the movement of melanosomes through the cellular dendrites to reach neighbor keratinocytes (in man approximatively 35 KC for each MC). The activation of melanocytes by sunlight may involve the transformation from a physical signal (UV) to a chemical mediator. Other studies supposed that also direct DNA damage should induce the melanin synthesis (24). AHR mediated gene induction increased also the transcription of CYP1A1 gene and this can explain the circadian variability on drugs metabolism (23). Light activated melanocytes transfer melanin to keratinocytes - mainly to the basal cells - by a pinocytotic process, that is strongly induced by both ?-MSH , ACTH via MC-1R receptor and by an increased intracellular c-AMP concentration.
In keratinocytes melanin is still enclosed into melanosomes, that form a cap on the cell nucleus. Upon exposure to UV light radiation, melanin pigments revealed two distinct photobiological reactions: photoprotective and phototoxic reactions.
Thus melanin has a potential pro-damaging role in UV exposed skin, and melanocytes front this eventuality segregating all steps of its biosynthesis into membrane-surrounded organelles. Despite these melanines demonstrate to have an overall potent cell-protective effect in addition to the classical hypothesis of direct UV schermation, it neutralizes radical species (ROS, RNS) produced in solar tissue exposition (26). Melanocytes are cells exposed to a very high level of radiations that are powerful mutagenic agents, and because of the embryological origin they are cells prone to migration.
This must be potentially deleterious for the organism because of their facilitating action on the genesis of malignant cancer (melanoma (28) is in fact one of most aggressive cancers in humans).
It can be considered a mechanism to contrast pro-cancerogenic effects of sunlight on skin (29). This can explain the more dangerous effect rescontrated in sporadic and prolonged sunlight exposition compared to the constant exposition under the sun.
Although melanins are ubiquitous in humankind, our understanding of their chemistry is surprisingly limited. Melanins seem to be heterogeneous, with some small regions of order at the nanometer scale.
There are different types of melanin, and the ratio of these pigments produces different hair colors, again genetically determined.
Although people with dark hair may still produce the yellow-orange pheomelanin, it is largely masked by the dark eumelanin pigment and cannot easily be seen.
Melanin reduces ultraviolet induced DNA damage by absorbing or scattering the ultraviolet radiation that otherwise would have been absorbed by the DNA.
Skin color depends upon the size, number, shape, and distribution of melanosomes, as well as the chemical nature (level of activity) of their melanin content. There is a striking correlation between geographic conditions, particularly exposure to sunlight, and skin tone.
Early humankind living in the sun-soaked savannah plains of Africa developed a dark-toned skin, rich in the pigment melanin.
There are other benefits to having a high concentration of melanin in the skin and other parts of the body. It seems that, as early peoples migrated away from the equator into areas less exposed to the sun, there was not enough UV radiation to produce sufficient vitamin D to prevent diseases such as rickets. Light-skinned people visiting sunny locations may not have enough melanin to block the sun sufficiently, and may burn their skin without the protection of sunblock. As the distribution map of skin color shows, skin color variation is not deter mined purely by distance from the equator.
The popularity of tanning seems cyclical, alternately being perceived as a healthy vibrant look and as a worrying reminder of the dangers of sunburn and carcinogenic melanomas. Skin is alive, so when melanin is destroyed by UV ra diation, the skin responds to this damage.
Melanogenesis is the name of the process where melanins are produced by specialized pigment cells called melanocytes, in response to UV radiation.
Regular tanning beds use several fluorescent lamps (see light bulbs and lamps) that have phosphor blends designed to emit UV in a spectrum that is somewhat similar to the sun.
A tanning bed or sun bed (whether at home or in a salon) is a device emitting ultraviolet radiation used to produce a cosmetic tan.
The World Health Organization (WHO) does not recommend the use of UV tanning devices for cosmetic reasons. Lotions that contain dihydroxyacetone (DHA) as the active ingredient are used in many sunless tanning products.
Another sunless tanning product is a tanning pill that contains canthaxanthin, most commonly used as a color additive in certain foods (see plants and other organic molecules). While some light skinned people tan or use cosmetic means to darken their skin, dark-skinned people may use cosmetic means to lighten their skin.
The term skin whitening covers a variety of cosmetic methods used to lighten the skin’s color. It’s one of the great paradoxes of life: what we perceive as beautiful has a tendency to be bad for us.
A person’s natural skin color is determined by the concentration of a pigment called melanin in the skin. UV radiation is a carcinogen; it causes mutations in your DNA that your body has to repair before new cells are made in order to prevent cancer from developing. If you are currently frequenting your local tanning salon or laying out and lathering yourself in baby oil, the best thing you can do is stop cold turkey.
Unfortunately, despite the nonsensical banter from politicians and TV personalities, skin cancer remains a formidable enemy in the US, affecting over 2 million people each year (4).
See your primary care doctor or dermatologist once a year for your annual skin exam as well as your regular skin care. The BS-1200P facial skin scanner system is one of the advanced images analysis system in the world, using digital images technologies via RGB and UV spectrum. Together, these free radicals and reactive oxygen molecules are called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Superoxide Dismutase protect cells from superoxide; extracellular Superoxide Dismutase protects the extracellular space. For topical application of anti-oxidants to be useful, however, several obstacles must be overcome. Instability makes them difficult to formulate in an acceptable, stable composition for cosmetic use.
To facilitate maximum bio-availability our Serums and formulated for immediate Trans-follicular penetration, not slow Trans-epidermal penetration, and are always supplied in light-inpeneterable Airless Pump Packaging. Sunscreen is not the answer to long term protection of the skin from Solar Radiation and premature aging.
Specializing in producing the beauty instrument, we have our own brand products, but also have independently researched and developed a lot of new or customers' local high-tech machines. Soothing warmth relaxes and invigorates feet while relieving the pain of arthritis or other conditions. UV radiation is only one form of radiation and it is measured on a scientific scale called the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.
All EM radiation (also called EM energy) is made up of minute packets of energy or 'particles,' called photons, which travel in a wave-like pattern and move at the speed of light. The photons of microwaves have higher energies, followed by infrared waves, UV rays, and X-rays. While UVA and UVB rays are transmitted through the atmosphere, all UVC and some UVB rays are absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer.
Sunburn is a sign of short-term overexposure, while premature aging and skin cancer are side effects of prolonged UV exposure. However, the amount of UVB exposure needed to obtain a benefit depends on several factors, such as: the amount of vitamin D in your diet, skin color, sunscreen use, clothing, where you live (latitude and altitude), time of day, and time of year. Also known as phototherapy, this method of UV exposure is performed by a trained healthcare professional under the supervision of a dermatologist. In some cases, effective therapy requires that a patient’s skin is first treated with a prescription drug, ointment, or bath that increases its UV sensitivity.
Because the sun is directly over the equator, UV rays only travel a short distance through the atmosphere to reach these areas. Exposure is also decreased because UV rays must travel a greater distance through ozone-rich portions of the atmosphere to reach the earth’s surface. Higher altitudes have greater UV exposure because there is less atmosphere to absorb UV rays. During the summer months the sun is in a more direct angle, resulting in a greater amount of UV radiation.
Especially in the hot summer months, it is a good idea to remain indoors during the peak sun hours of 10am and 4pm. Even under cloud cover it is possible to damage your skin and eyes, and cause long-term damage.
Sunglasses rated for 100% UV protection, a wide-brim hat, and broad-spectrum sunscreen can help protect your eyes and skin from reflected UV rays.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an internationally recognized system of colors corresponding to levels of the UVI. Because of its location skin is the first tissue that front many environmental agents and for this reason, in the past, it was considered a simple protective layer of the rest of the body.
In fact using clinical models to assess the generation of free radicals from oxidative stress, higher levels of free radical activity were found after visible light exposure (3). Also the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells is enhanced by iron-catalyzed lipid secondary messengers formation. TNF also stimulates endothelial cells to express adhesion molecules that make the endothelial surface adhesive for leukocytes (selectins and integrins).


In fact it facilitates UVB-induced apoptosis and probably contributes to remove damaged cells.
The effect of these proteases leads to a degradation of part of the ECM and the basal lamina until generation of characteristic blisters (flittene) of sun scalded skin. Melanocytes are the cells responsible for this phenomenon via the production, in specific organelless called melanosomes, of the photopigment melanin. Subsequent reactions are mainly spontaneous and lead, finally, to the formation of two distinct families of compound: eumelanins and pheomelanins. Probably this process is carried out by the interaction between a tryptophan photoproduct that generates in cell exposed to UV rays, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a citoplasmatic receptor whose ligand was completely unknown until few years ago.
The intermediate precursor of brown-black eumelanin, 5-6-dihydroxyindole, appears to possess the most potent photoprotective (antioxidant) property. Is now clear that intraluminal pH is fundamental for melanogenesys: a neutralization of melanosomal pH strongly decreases melanogenesys in human melanocytes (27). The optical properties we can see depend on the ability of monomers and oligomers (made up of small numbers of monomers) that make up melanin to absorb light, and the ability of melanin particles to reflect and scatter incident light for different wavelengths. Variation in the color of our eyes from brown to green depends on the amount of melanin in the iris, which in turn is determined genetically. The actual appearance of hair, and its overall reflective quality, is determined primarily by the pigment type, but also by the density and distribution of the pigment granules. However, the red-yellow pheomelanin is believed to cause the warm, golden, or auburn tones found in some types of brown hair. Adjacent patches of hair follicles may show a very precise split between the two pigment types.
This prevents the development of melanoma, a potentially deadly form of skin cancer, as well as other health problems related to exposure to strong solar radiation. These differences have evolved to find the balance between the benefits and the dangers of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation we absorb from the sun. Within the skin cells, melanin concentrates above the nucleus, shielding the vital DNA from radiation damage.
Melanin boosts the immune system, and darker-skinned groups have been shown to have a lower incidence of a number of serious diseases, including Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, and spina bifida.
This vitamin helps promote bone growth, maintaining the right balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body. Their bodies compensated by producing less melanin, so that more sunlight would be allowed through.
Dark-skinned people visiting areas where there is less exposure to the sun may apparently not produce enough vitamin D, but can get it from supplements or food sources. Sunshine is the primary source of UV radiation, but artificial sources such as tanning beds produce similar effects.
Skin cells will produce more melanin, replacing what has been lost and increasing the percentage of melanin in the skin. The radiation produced is primarily UVA, with some UVB always being emitted, but the combinations of UVA and UVB can vary. Overexposure to UV radiation from the sun and artificial sources is of considerable concern for its adverse effects on health.
DHA, which is derived from plant sources like sugar beets and sugar cane, is a colorless sugar that interacts with the dead cells located in the stratum corneum of the epidermis. While the FDA has approved the use of canthaxanthin in food, it does not approve its use as a tanning agent. The producers claim that the tyrosine stimulates and increases melanin formation, thereby accelerating the natural tanning process.
These powders and moisturizers, once applied, create a tan that can easily be removed with soap and water. This is an even more controversial process than tanning, as the desire for whiter skin is intertwined with issues of health, self-image, racial inequalities and colonial attitudes.
Most skin-lightening treatments are aimed at inhibiting tyrosinase, to reduce or halt the production of melanin.
Tan skin, while masking cellulite and stretch marks, is quite literally a sign of skin damage. When the skin is exposed to excessive amounts of UV radiation (with frequent sun or tanning bed exposure), the body can’t fix the mutations fast enough and skin cancer can develop. A sunburn is an immediate indication that the skin has been directly damaged by UV rays and is actively trying to repair that damage by increasing blood flow to the affected area (giving you a painful red hue). Research estimates that one in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime and, on average, twenty Americans die of skin cancer every day (1,6). Sincery a professional supplier of aesthetic medical and beauty equipments with certificates of CE, ISO, FDA. At the top of the spectrum, gamma rays have photons with very high energies and short wavelengths with peaks that are close together. Also, the FDA has not cleared or approved any indoor tanning device for producing Vitamin D.
While this type of therapy does not eliminate the negative side-effects of UV exposure, treatment is carefully supervised by a doctor to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.
UV radiation is also the strongest near the equator because ozone in these areas is naturally thinner, so there is less to absorb the UV radiation. The one-electron reduction of dioxygen by Fe2+ results in superoxyde formation, which in turn leads to the well-known Haber-Weiss-Fenton (7) (8) sequence generating hydroxyl radical (OH).
This function act sinergically with the chemotactic and leukocyte-activating effect of TNF-? to improve the elimination of dead cells. The chronicle action of UV on human skin produces a simile-aging (1) effect; in fact several alterations of skin connective tissue that occur during aging are mediated by mechanisms that are similar to those that occur in response to UV irradiation (21).
This interaction activates the AHR and lead to a complex migration into the nucleus and to the binding to specifics DNA binding sites, modulating several gene transcription (23). There are at least three types of naturally occurring melanins: eumelanin, pheomelanin and neuromelanin. Once separated from living tissue, they form an amorphous mass and lose their inherent structure, making them very difficult to analyze. Melanins seem to have some semiconductor properties, and none of the proposed band models adequately account for this. The range of colors produced by melanins is limited to shades of yellow, brown, red, and black. This effect is most obvious in the patterns and markings of other mammals, such as leopards, tigers, and certain breeds of dog. The amount of UV radiation that is absorbed or scattered is determined by a number of factors: the size, shape, and distribution of melanosomes, as well as the wavelength of the incident ray. In an environment where there is little to break the path of sunlight onto the skin, this barrier is a great advantage. Darker-skinned individuals also age better, as their skin is better protected from sun damage. This may be because they are exposed to high levels of reflected UV radiation from the snow, or because their diet with its high proportion of fish is rich in vitamin D. This melanin has two effects, acting as a barrier to protect the skin from further damage, and darkening the natural color of the skin. Tanning bulbs are long fluorescent tubes, and fall into two main categories: low pressure lamps and high-pressure bulbs. UV radiation plays an important role in the development of skin cancer, cataracts, (see colorblindness), and other eye conditions. One of the original sunless tanning lotions caused streaking and an orange skin tone, which gave the fake tan a bad reputation. However, more scientific data is needed to determine the validity of these claims and to assess the safety of using large amounts of tyrosine. Exfoliants such as topical cosmetics or chemical peels may be used, or the skin may be treated with lasers, depending on the response of the individual’s skin to treatment.
While the number of melanocytes in the skin is fairly similar from person to person, the activity level of these cells when it comes to producing melanin varies greatly and is determined primarily by genetics. Conversely, darker individuals have continuous production of eumelanin, naturally protecting them from UV DNA damage and lowering their incidence of skin cancer.
While the production of melanin in the skin is influenced primarily by genetics, it can also be revved up temporarily in response to UV radiation. To bring the damage with different degree to skin, hurting skin accurately the circumstance present at the front of client, and offer one set of medical suggestion for the client.
These ranges describe the activity level, or how energetic the photons are, and the size of the wavelength in each category.
These pigments induce, in some cases, the (paradoxical) generation of reactive species, and these phototoxyc effect of melanines could be enhanced by free iron, that is also increased in cells exposed to UV (as previously said). Both the chemical composition and the physical properties differ for the various types of melanin, suggesting that their chemical and biological responses may behave differently when exposed to light. Individuals with black or brown eyes have eyes with more melanin to block the sun’s rays. Low levels of pheomelanin (in the absence of eulamelanin) are characteristic of cream-colored hair in many animals. A tan effect is also created when existing melanin is oxidized, but this doesn’t last as long. As with some tanning products, there is some evidence suggesting that there are harmful side effects to skin-lightening products.
The activity of melanocytes is partially responsible for the wide spectrum of skin color that exists among humans. Exposure to UV light causes an increase in Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), a hormone released from the brain. Also can compare the different client's face images before and after beauty treatment on skin. For all the above competitive edge, our products are deeply favored by a vast number of customers,including Europe, America, Canada and Southeast Asia. Those with blue, green, or hazel eyes have little protection from the sun and may experience discomfort, irritation, burning, and tissue damage if the eyes are not protected by sunglasses when exposed to bright light. A small amount of brown eumelanin in the absence of other pigments apparently causes blond hair. White hairs contain no melanin at all: their whiteness is an optical effect, due to the way they reflect the light. Upon taking the tanning pill, canthaxanthin is deposited all over your body, including in your skin, which turns an orange-brown color.
The release of this hormone into the blood stream revs up production of melanin by melanocytes in the skin, resulting in the golden brown skin color we call a tan. A landmark study that was published in the June 2010 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention determined that tanning bed users had a 74% increased risk of developing melanoma. According to new data, every time you tan you put yourself at increased risk, no matter how old you are (7). Pheomelanin is a lighter pigment found in red hair, and is concentrated in the redder areas of the skin such as the lips. The number of bulbs used by tanning beds vary: those designed for the home use 20 to 30 bulbs, commercial beds use 30 to 40 bulbs, and specialist stand-up booths use as many as 60 bulbs.
Various side effects, including canthaxanthin retinopathy, a condition in which yellow deposits form in the retina of the eye, have been identified. Eumelanin, the most abundant form of the compound, can be either black or brown and is associated with darker skin tones and suntans. The extra melanin from a suntan is supposed to protect cells from further damage via UV radiation, but the melanin producing pathway takes time (it takes at least four hours to see a tan and then 5-7 days of repeated sun exposure to get the full effect). The use of high pressure tanning devices was reported to be particularly dangerous, increasing the risk of melanoma to four times that of people who did not use tanning beds (3). It is used extensively in the medical research and profession to examine, it can pickup the high resolution face images at RGB and UV two kinds of spectrum environments, thus science analysis skin characteristic, and can put forward the best character characteristic skin care project to client. Because people with red hair are less able to make the dark eumelanin pigment, their skin is generally quite pale and burns easily with sun exposure.
Last month, Polizzi even slammed president Obama for imposing a new 10% tax on tanning beds that went into effect on July 1st.
Pheomelanin is a yellow-red pigment present in abundance in people with red hair and fair complexions. Overall, the amount of exposure is thought to be the greatest risk factor for development of cancer and the cumulative number of tanning hours logged was a significant predictor of cancer development risk. Republican political opponent, John McCain, was quick to respond to Snooki’s criticism of Obama with a tweet supporting Polizzi’s “freedom to tan,” a fairly controversial move considering McCain’s recent struggle with the deadly skin cancer, malignant melanoma.
Some individuals are unable to produce melanin at all due to gene defects or enzyme deficiencies that they are born with. Basically, while you spend time building up your base tan you are concurrently building up mutations in your DNA, predisposing yourself to skin cancer.
This study is the largest ever to examine the use of indoor tanning as a risk factor for melanoma. Naturally, with tanning now in the political hot seat (both literally and figuratively), we at House Call think it’s only appropriate to re-educate our readers on the process of tanning and the dangers of skin caner with scientific research and medical literature leading the debate (instead of reality TV stars and politicians).
These defects result in very light colored skin, hair and eyes (a condition known as albinism). Packing plastic rap on the part that need to loss weight could avoid the effective constituent being evaporated and help the weight loss product to be absorbed by subcutaneous fat.4.
Fix the air bag on the part that needed to loss weight and adjust the degree of tightness.5. Making air wave act on the fat could change the construction of fat with further purpose of shattering and dissolving fat and improve metabolism. After finishing the treatment, put all the buttons to their original places and turn off the power.



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Comments Uv light for skin conditions quiz

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  3. POZETIF_KIZ
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