Do not stare at high brightness LEDs, because doing so may cause permanent damage to your eyes. The optics of our eyes focus visible light onto the retina, which is the light sensitive part of our eyes, similar to the way a magnifying glass can focus an image of the sun onto a piece of paper. The IEC specification was written to apply to primarily to lasers , though it also applies to LEDs. The standards mentioned above rely on measurements that can only be made with very expensive specialized equipment, though some manufacturers state the safety classification of their LEDs, under specified operating conditions, in their data sheets.  Take note of these comments on the data sheets for LEDs you may use. I bought lots of little led light torches (white) because the light in my bedroom is too dim for me to be able to read in comfort. Normal LED lights have 60Hz refresh rate, while rectified LED lights have 120Hz refresh rate.
Some people can detect flickers in 60Hz refresh rate, whether consciously or unconsciously. A lot of those high intensity Cree LED flashlights (5W, 7W, 400 – 1300 Lumens and above, etc) have those little Laser stickers on the side of the lens housing warning users not to look directly into the light. In LED illuminated environment, it will affect our retina and also how long you use , how worse you will get. UVA and UVB rays penetrate the eye whereas most UVC rays are absorbed by our ever thinning ozone layer.
When UV is absorbed by a molecule, energy is transferred to the molecule and causes damage to the tissue.
Tinted lenses or sunglasses with no UV filter cause the pupils to dilate even more in sunlight than if one were to wear no  lenses at all – this allows even more light flood into the eye resulting in increased UV exposure. Children are more vulnerable to UV damage as they have larger pupils and clearer lenses – a greater amount of light penetrates the ocular tissues causing an increased risk of complications. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 20% of Cataracts are caused by UV Damage and Prevalence is higher in high risk UV areas, like sunny Southern Africa.
People are generally aware of damages of the UV radiation on their skin but they often don’t know the risk for their eyes. The sun emits three kind of ultraviolet radiations, depending of their wavelengths: UVA, UVB and UVC. These radiations are invisible to the human eye but can have disastrous effects on the human body. Moreover, make sure that children have a good eye protection, especially if they are under ten. The superior performance of Nikon lenses is aided by Nikon’s UV cut 400 process, which blocks harmful UV light. For example, at the bottom of the spectrum radio waves have photons with low energies, so their wavelengths are long with peaks that are far apart. UVA rays have the longest wavelengths, followed by UVB, and UVC rays which have the shortest wavelengths. Certain oral and topical medicines, such as antibiotics, birth control pills, and benzoyl peroxide products, as well as some cosmetics, may increase skin and eye sensitivity to UV in all skin types. Exposure to UVB radiation helps the skin produce a type of vitamin D, (vitamin D3), which plays an important role - along with calcium - in bone and muscle health.
UV radiation, in the form of lasers, lamps, or a combination of these devices and topical medications that increase UV sensitivity, are sometimes used to treat patients with certain diseases who have not responded to other methods of therapy.
Phototherapy involves exposing a patient to a carefully monitored dose of UV radiation on a regular schedule. UV exposure is also greater in areas of snow, sand, pavement, and water due to the reflective properties of these surfaces.
UV is most intense at noon when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, and UV rays have the least distance to travel through the atmosphere.
Many people believe that you cannot get sunburned on a cloudy day; this is simply not the case. Some surfaces, such as snow, sand, grass, or water can reflect much of the UV radiation that reaches them.
The Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a rating scale, with numbers from 1 to 11, which indicate the amount of skin-damaging UV rays reaching the Earth’s surface during the day. The daily UVI forecasts the amount of UV reaching your area at noon when the sun typically reaches its highest point in the sky. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers UVI forecasts by ZIP code on their UV Index page. Many illustrations of the UVI use a system of colors to designate levels of UV exposure for a particular area on the map.
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We will therefore have to convert you, our current Acuvue® patient to different contact lens systems as and when your contact lenses need to be ordered. We have investigated various options to get the Acuvue products via another supplier but unfortunately at this stage any arrangement will not be viable.
Please be assured that we will endeavour to give you a suitable, healthy replacement contact lens.   Should you have any concerns, please contact your Classic Eyes Optometrist.
If left untreated, most types of glaucoma progress (without warning or obvious symptoms to the patient) towards gradually worsening visual damage and may lead to blindness. Dynamic Visual Acuity– the ability to see objects clearly while either the test target or the observer is in motion. Focusing and tracking – These are two separate skills but are inseparable as they must work together to achieve good, clear vision. Peripheral Awareness – the ability to see people and objects “out of the corner of your eye” while concentrating on a fixed point. Fusions and Flexibility Stamina – being able to keep both eyes working together, even under high speed and physically stressful conditions.
Visual concentration – ability to maintain a high level of focus on a key target or objective for increased awareness and fewer distractions.
Depth Perception – Both eyes working together gives us the ability to judge the distance, the speed and the revolution of objects in space. Many studies show that professional athletes have much better visual skills than non-athletes. Professional athletes and their coaches have found that vision can play such an important part in sports performance. Ultraviolet Radiation & Your EyesMost people understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Small amounts of exposure to UV light are recommended as UVB radiation induces the production of Vitamin D in the body.
Spending long hours in the sun without eye protection also increases your chances of developing eye diseases.
PHOTOKERATITIS – This is a painful inflammation of the cornea caused by extreme exposure to UV radiation (aka corneal sunburn). CATARACTS – This is a loss of transparency in the lens of the eye causing vision to become cloudy and blurred. PINGUECULUM – A yellowish, slightly raised lesion that forms on the surface tissue of the white part of your eye. SKIN CANCER around the eyelids – Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer to affect the eyelids. Close fitting, wrap-around frames provide the best protection because they limit how much stray sunlight reaches your eyes from the sides and above. Larger frames will also help shield as much of the delicate tissues and skin around your eyes as possible.
Children and teenagers should also be wearing UV eye protection as they typically spend more time in the sun than adults. UV absorbing contact lenses help protect against the transmission of UV radiation to the cornea and into the eyes. Focusing and tracking – These are two separate skills but are inseparable as they must work together to achieve good, clear vision.
Peripheral Awareness – the ability to see people and objects “out of the corner of your eye” while concentrating on a fixed point. Fusions and Flexibility Stamina – being able to keep both eyes working together, even under high speed and physically stressful conditions. Visual concentration – ability to maintain a high level of focus on a key target or objective for increased awareness and fewer distractions.
Depth Perception – Both eyes working together gives us the ability to judge the distance, the speed and the revolution of objects in space.
This first-of-its-kind public opinion poll sheds new light on the state of consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviors related to eye health. The sun is the source of all energy, and it brings with it many benefits, from sustaining photosynthetic life to aiding the production of vitamin D in humans. Short-wavelength UV light that interacts with skin cells generates highly reactive free radicals.
Oxidative stress is caused by the imbalance between the production of free radicals and the body’s ability to neutralise them with anti-oxidants. UVB provides the energy your skin needs to make vitamin D, but it is also responsible for sunburn and direct DNA damage. The amount of UV light the skin comes into contact with depends on many factors, such as the time of day, the season, altitude and geographical location. Sunlight, especially UVA and UVB rays can cause sunburn, premature skin ageing, eye damage, a weakened immune system, photoallergic and phototoxic reactions, and even skin cancer. They activate melanin pigment already present in the upper skin cells, producing a short-term tan. They stimulate the production of new melanin, responsible for longer-lasting tans, and stimulate cells to produce a thicker epidermis.
Both UVA and UVB rays have detrimental effects on the skin but the intensity of UVA rays is rather constant throughout the day whereas the intensity of UVB fluctuates.

The European Cosmetics Trade Association (formerly Colipa) has also set UV-protection standards for sunscreens. The sun protection factor (SPF) multiplied with skin´s natural protection in minutes indicates the maximum length of exposure to sun without risking UV induced skin damage. If you are unsure which sun protection factor fits to your skin type or condition try the skin test to find out or ask your dermatologist. It is well known that sunlight can elevate the mood, although the exact process behind this is not fully understood. Studies have shown that the rate of serotonin production in the brain is directly affected by the amount of sunlight the body is exposed to that day. Similarly, people who have reduced exposure to sunlight, usually in the winter months in the northern hemisphere, experience symptoms of depression, difficulty concentrating, low energy or fatigue, and excessive sleeping. Getting adequate levels of UVB exposure is necessary for many vital processes within the body. Serotonin, produced in the brain, is directly affected by the amount of sunlight the body is exposed to that day. Vitamin D is necessary for many vital processes in our body and keeps among others our bones healthy and lowers the risk of depression. Polymorphus Light Eruption (PLE) is the most common form of sun allergy and is diagnosed in about 90% of all patients with sun allergy.
Acne aestivalis (Mallorca acne) is triggered when UV radiation combines with certain ingredients in topical cosmetics or sunscreens, such as emulsifiers, causing irritation and inflammation of the sebaceous follicle.
Phototoxic and photoallergic reactions can develop when a medicine, which does not normally cause sensitivity, undergoes photoactivation when it interacts with UV light as it enters the skin causing cutaneous manifestations.
If you are not sure if the medication you are using can cause photosensitivity, or you want general information about which medications can cause photosensitivity, please contact a pharmacist or dermatologist. Premature Ageing can be triggered by sun exposure and can appear in fine lines and leathery skin. Skin cancer is most likely to appear on skin that is more exposed to the sun, so facial skin is at risk. Acnitic keratoses are dry scaly patches of skin caused by damage from years of sun exposure.
Regular dermatological checks are required – every change of skin should be reported immediately to the doctor.
If you have any concerns about any sun damage symptoms we recommend you consult your doctor or dermatologist. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. We all know the importance of sunscreen, but do you know what it’s actually doing to protect you? With the continued evolution of science, we know much more today about the sun and its effects on our skin than ever before. UV radiation is the electromagnetic light spectrum, comprised of wavelenghts of light so short we can’t see them with our naked eye.
Physical Barrier: Reflects UV radiation away from your skin (such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide). Chemical Barrier: Absorbs the UV radiation before it can affect your skin (oxybenzone, dioxybenzone, and sulisobenzone). Remember that temperature and UV rays are not linked; even though it’s cool out, UV rays can still be powerful!
It is divided according to its effects on living tissue into three wavelength bands: UV-A, UV-B and UV-C. While UV light in low doses, such as that from the sun, is good for health (provided needed vitamin D3, for example), high levels can cause cancer, eye damage and damage to the immune system. Sources of UV radiation in the workplace include various kinds of welding arcs, UV lamps, UV lasers, germicidal lamps, trans-illuminators, hand-held UV units, photo-therapy units, copy machines and more. Another source of information is the US government’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which provides detailed technical guidance on mitigating health risks from UV light with respect to laser hazards. Just as the piece of paper might smolder and catch fire, a light that is brightly focused on your retina can cook and thus permanently damage your eye. These are intended to illuminate large areas, and for those designed for direct view applications, to be viewed at a significant distance.
A new standard, IEC TR 60825,  is in development that promises that includes a section that is intended to address LEDs directly.
After a little while I noticed a flicker in my right eye, had my eyes examined by an optometrist who found nothing amiss.
All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee in Chung Shan Medical University.
Contrary to other parts of your body, your eyes will never recover from damage and cumulative damages can lead you to hazardous eyes diseases.
UVA represents 95% of UV radiation on earth’s surface and induces sun tanning but also skin aging and can cause eye damages, especially in children.
They are particularly exposed to severe eye damage as their eyes are not able to filter the sun’s UV rays.
UV radiation is only one form of radiation and it is measured on a scientific scale called the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. All EM radiation (also called EM energy) is made up of minute packets of energy or 'particles,' called photons, which travel in a wave-like pattern and move at the speed of light. The photons of microwaves have higher energies, followed by infrared waves, UV rays, and X-rays.
While UVA and UVB rays are transmitted through the atmosphere, all UVC and some UVB rays are absorbed by the Earth’s ozone layer.
Sunburn is a sign of short-term overexposure, while premature aging and skin cancer are side effects of prolonged UV exposure. However, the amount of UVB exposure needed to obtain a benefit depends on several factors, such as: the amount of vitamin D in your diet, skin color, sunscreen use, clothing, where you live (latitude and altitude), time of day, and time of year. Also known as phototherapy, this method of UV exposure is performed by a trained healthcare professional under the supervision of a dermatologist. In some cases, effective therapy requires that a patient’s skin is first treated with a prescription drug, ointment, or bath that increases its UV sensitivity. Because the sun is directly over the equator, UV rays only travel a short distance through the atmosphere to reach these areas. Exposure is also decreased because UV rays must travel a greater distance through ozone-rich portions of the atmosphere to reach the earth’s surface. Higher altitudes have greater UV exposure because there is less atmosphere to absorb UV rays. During the summer months the sun is in a more direct angle, resulting in a greater amount of UV radiation.
Especially in the hot summer months, it is a good idea to remain indoors during the peak sun hours of 10am and 4pm.
Even under cloud cover it is possible to damage your skin and eyes, and cause long-term damage. Sunglasses rated for 100% UV protection, a wide-brim hat, and broad-spectrum sunscreen can help protect your eyes and skin from reflected UV rays. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an internationally recognized system of colors corresponding to levels of the UVI. However medication or surgery (traditional or laser) can halt or slow-down any further vision loss. You do not see things in the same way that you see something in front of you, but rather you simply become aware of someone or something on your left or right. Poor eye teaming can cause your eyes to misjudge the precise distance of your target, which in turn will cause your brain to misjudge the correct distance. Tests conducted on athletes reveal they often have greater depth perception or better eye-hand coordination. Another factor to consider is that certain medications eg Tetracycline, sulfa drugs, oral contraceptives, diuretics and tranquilizers, can increase your body’s sensitivity to UV radiation.
Vitamin D is necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system as well as for bone growth and maintenance of bone density. UVB damage to the eyes is also cumulative, so it’s never too late to start protecting your eyes. Symptoms include red eyes, a foreign body sensation, extreme sensitivity to light and excessive tearing. In most cases, lesions occur on the lower lid but they can occur anywhere on the eyelids, in the corners of the eye or under the eyebrows. Your eyes will still be exposed to reflected UV rays from buildings, roads and other reflective surfaces. Have fun in the sun all summer long, confident that you are protected against the ravages of UV rays. While 80 percent of visual impairment is preventable if detected and treated early enough, according to the findings not enough people are getting regular eye exams and their reasons for doing so vary wildly.
However, as with most biological processes, there is a balance; sun exposure is good, but there is a limit, and too much sun exposure can be harmful, especially for the skin. Visible light has a wavelength of 400-700 nm, while invisible ultraviolet (UV) light has a shorter wavelength (280-400 nm), and invisible infrared light has a longer wavelength (700 nm - 1 mm). During times of intense UV radiation, for example midday on a hot summer’s day, it is advisable to wear protective clothing and sunscreen when going out doors. Physicians and dermatologists increasingly warn about the strong correlation between the frequency of skin cancer and the extent of DNA damage, reminding us that more than 90% of skin cancers are the result of sun exposure. The below table details the properties and effects of these two types of UV light on our skin. The sun protection factor (SPF) ranking system for sunscreens is based on the level of UVB protection the product offers. International Standard ISO 24444-2010 is a reliable method of testing the UV efficacy of sunscreen products, and is in line with EU Commission.

Here a very high sun protection factor is essential to prevent from UV induced skin damage. What is well researched is the fact that a lack of exposure to sunlight can lead to vitamin D deficiency and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), which are possibly related. The following is a brief description of the most common complications - from sunburn to skin cancer. You should also see a doctor if you have sunburn and you feel faint, dehydrated or have severe blistering, or if a young child or baby becomes sunburnt. Acne aestivalis affects approximately 1-2% of the population, with young to middle aged women (25-40 years) being most affected.
Other commonly used photoactive medications include antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, statins, retinoids and antifungals. They are pink, red or brown and range in width from 0.5 to 3cm and most commonly found on the face (especially the lips, nose and forehead), neck, forearms and backs of hands and (on men) on the rims of the ears and bald scalps and (on women) on the legs below the knees. The first sign is often the appearance of a new mole or the change in appearance of an existing mole. Things we previously thought harmless we now know are extremely dangerous, and the impact the sun has on our skin has (no pun intended) really come to light. They are present year round, although their intensity varies based on geographic location, season, and time of day. False advertising means some of the sunscreens boasting ‘broad spectrum protection’ don’t follow through. We suggest finding moisturizers and makeup products with at least SPF15 so you're always protected. Because these health risks can manifest themselves over the short and long term, it is best to know the levels within the workplace and safeguard employees and customers at all times.
Lasers, for example, can cause irreversible eye damage and face shielding for workers is mandatory. It is important that the survey be carried out by a qualified person with appropriate equipment. In Great Britain, for example, The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010, defines the statutory UV light exposure limit values (ELVs), sets out minimum health and safety requirements for the protection of workers and advises so that employers know the exposure levels within the workplace, and trains workers and puts safeguards in place. These LEDs can be identified by packaging or mountings that are designed to carry heat away from the junction. I had wanted to purchase LEDs but am having doubts now, as at some stage people will look at the lights e.g. UVB only reaches the epidermis of the skin and causes sunburns, blistering, skin cancers and eye damages. At the top of the spectrum, gamma rays have photons with very high energies and short wavelengths with peaks that are close together. Also, the FDA has not cleared or approved any indoor tanning device for producing Vitamin D. While this type of therapy does not eliminate the negative side-effects of UV exposure, treatment is carefully supervised by a doctor to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks. UV radiation is also the strongest near the equator because ozone in these areas is naturally thinner, so there is less to absorb the UV radiation. We have stipulated this cut-off date so as to ensure delivery of your lenses before the final shipment date.  Please contact us urgently if you wish to do so. In the meantime we are anticipating the inevitable non-availability of the lenses and will change you to other products from other suppliers.
Therefore early detection is essential to limiting visual impairment and preventing the progression towards severe visual handicap or blindness. Current research has shown that there is also a strong correlation between peak performance and excellent visual skills, making an athlete’s eyesight one of the most important pieces of equipment they have. This will enable the optometrist to assess the eye health and determine whether the athlete requires a vision correction.
They often have a finely-tuned visual system which helps them learn to anticipate and respond more quickly to complex visual conditions. And, conversely, it can be the all-important factor that pushes a good athlete into a category of excellence. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, largely due to the ozone layer depletion, it is important to take the necessary precautions to protect your eyes.
The longer wavelengths, visible and infrared light, are able to penetrate deeper into the skin, yet are less likely to cause damage. However, products containing the UVA protection symbol have to provide a minimum level of UVA protection.
Serotonin is a powerful brain chemical that controls mood and is associated with happy feelings.
The exact cause of SAD is not known, but it is known that it is caused by a lack of exposure to sunlight. Sun allergies are triggered by oxidative stress caused by UVA- and, to a lesser extent, UVB-induced free radicals. Its symptoms are very similar to those of PLE, and it is often difficult to distinguish between them.
It is therefore important to consider this when choosing a moisturiser, lotion or sunscreen.
Melanomas are more likely to have an irregular shape, be more than one colour and be larger than 6mm.
Midday (between 10am-4pm) is when the UV rays are most powerful, because the Earth is the shortest distance from the sun. Many things can affect this though, such as intensity of the sun (geographic location, time of day), skin type of user, and how often it’s re-applied.
There are two types of barrier when it comes to broad spectrum protection: physical and chemical.
Even if you're just out running errands, UV damage can still occur, and we often don't realize that these unprotected outings will accumulate over time. It will include measurements of UV radiation and exposure levels, allowable exposure times and compliance with the guidelines. A measurement is provided that is weighted by wavelength according to a spectral weighting function (Sλ), which is directly proportional to health risk. LEDs without these special thermal management features can also pose a danger when operated beyond their specified maximum current. I’m wondering if that is the explanation for my problem, although It seems strange that only one eye is affected. These ranges describe the activity level, or how energetic the photons are, and the size of the wavelength in each category.
It was once believed that the cause of most or all glaucomas was high pressure within the eye (known as intraocular pressure – sometimes abbreviated as IOP).
Your Classic Eyes eye-care professional can detect glaucoma in its early stages and advise you on the best course of action. If this information is incorrect, even to the slightest degree, there is a good chance that we will make a mistake in our physical response.
So, exposure as a child, teenager and young adult contributes to cataracts, macular degeneration and even eye cancer later in life.Fortunately, cumulative eye damage is preventable. It has been theorised that it may be due to a decreased production of vitamin D, but this has not been proven.
Sunburn can be prevented by applying sunscreen every day and by minimising exposure to the sun when UV-rays are strongest (between 10am and 4pm). They can be found anywhere on the body but the back, legs, arms and face are the most common locations. These can result in skin cancer, and are a proven main cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer and play a vital role in melanoma as well. If a bottle is labeled SPF30, that means it will take 30 times longer for you to get a sunburn while wearing the lotion versus if you had none on. If exposure levels are found to be a potential health risk, then warning signs must be put in place, supervisors and workers must be trained in standing a safe distance away from the source, limiting exposure and in the use of barriers and filters.
It is now established however, that even people without an abnormally high IOP may suffer from glaucoma. UV radiation can also be given off by artificial sources like welding machines, tanning beds and lasers.
Even if you were careless in your younger days, you can still slow progressive eye disease by starting today to care for your eyes when in the sun.With the arrival of summer comes UV rays 3 times higher than in the winter.
They may have hard or scaly skin on the surface and are most often found on the face, neck, lips, ears, hands, shoulders, arms and legs. UV-C has the highest energy and generally has the most potential to cause acute adverse health effects. Should you need us to keep your contact lenses for collection beyond the 23rd February, we will require you to pay for them or ensure that your medical aid will pay for them. UVB rays also reflect off of surfaces such as snow, sand, and water, meaning as much as 80% of the initial UVB ray can be reflected onto you again. Only about 50% of individuals check, and many end up with shaded glasses without UV protection that actually increase eye damage to eyes.Consider wrap around or large sunglasses. This means that damage can happen more quickly and be more severe for those who frequent them. The best protection when going to a tanner is to wear the protective goggles that most tanners provide and many states require.The CDC reports that the leading causes of blindness and low vision in the United States are age-related eye diseases like macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Fortunately, in many cases these diseases can be slowed and possibly even prevented by through healthy habits like eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, not smoking and getting regular eye exams.Equally, and possibly more important to eye health, is the important daily practice of wearing 100% UV eyewear to prevent cumulative damage from the sun.

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