09.08.2015
So if your into your LED lighting and how the different spectrum affect corals then read on.
A fantastic article that studies zooxanthallae exposed to varying intensities and colors of LEDs between 365nm (UV-A) and 657nm (red).
Zooxanthellae within stony corals (Porites sp.) were exposed to LED-generated light of differing spectral qualities and photosynthetic efficiencies were determined. Advanced technology allows quick determination of a light source’s ability to promote photosynthesis. Determination of efficient (photosynthetically speaking) light sources is important for several reasons.
Energy dissipation through various non-photochemical means will be presented, with a discussion on this subject to follow in a future article. Do measurements made by PAR meters really tell us everything we need to know about light intensity? What can we make of reports about successful coral husbandry under very low (but specific) lighting conditions?
Is there a difference in rates of photosynthesis when a coral and its zooxanthellae are exposed to different colored LEDs? Does ultraviolet radiation (UV-A at ~365nm) promote photosynthesis in zooxanthellate corals? Absorbance: The capacity of a substance to absorb radiation, expressed as the common logarithm of the reciprocal of transmittance of the substance.
Action Spectrum: The rate of physiological activity (such as oxygen production resulting from photosynthesis) plotted against wavelength of light. Electron Transport Rate: The rate of electron flow from Photosystem II (PSII) to Photosystem I (PSI), and abbreviated as ETR. Fluorescence: The absorption of light energy and emission of this light energy at a longer wavelength. Monochromator: A laboratory device capable of splitting white light into its components, and delivering light of pure hue. NO: Non-regulated quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence by means other than photosynthesis and NPQ.
NPQ: Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, specifically shunting of energy away from photosynthesis by xanthophylls, mostly as a protective measure against excessive light energy. Photopigments: Organic substances responsible for collecting light energy and hence the promotion of photosynthesis. Saturation, Photosynthetic: Photosynthetic Saturation is reached when an increased amount of light does not increase the rate of photosynthesis.
State Transition: A redistribution of collected light energy from one photosystem to another, thus allowing photosynthesis to occur in an efficient manner. Yield: The amount of product produced (such as photosynthesis) by the interaction of two substances (such as light and chlorophyll), generally expressed as a percentage. Symbiodinium dinoflagellates contain three major photopigments – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and the carotenoid peridinin. The standard method for determining light requirements for corals’ zooxanthellae has been examination of absorption characteristics of photopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, etc.
Another method for estimating light requirements of a coral’s zooxanthellae was developed during preparation of this article. Using these data, it would seem that we need only to use a light source that mimics action or absorption spectra in order to promote photosynthesis in a most efficient manner. The following sections describe light bandwidths, the light sources used in the procedures (in great detail), and the photosynthetic responses of a Porites coral’s zooxanthellae to these light sources.
Since there are gradual transitions between colors in the visible spectrum, it would not be surprising that definitions of color bandwidths vary among sources. This section will describe the light sources used in the experiments, and some caveats that are important to serious hobbyists. Black light, or UV-A radiation, produced by a fluorescent lamp was used to determine if zooxanthellae can utilize these wavelengths in photosynthesis.
This figure shows the Yields of energy dissipation pathways when a black light is used as the light source.
Figure 23.Surprisingly, a combination of blue and white light produced by these LEDs yielded low rates of photosynthesis. Results of testing show there are clear differences in the rate of photosynthesis when light sources of different hue (or color) are used. The differences in the rates of photosynthesis can be explained through an examination of things that compete with photosynthesis through absorption of light. There is another xanthophyll reportedly found in stony corals and Tridacnid clams – dinoxanthin. Although we might think of the coral skeleton as perfectly white and a good reflector of all wavelengths, it is not. Results of these experiments suggest that violet, blue, and red light with peaks away from the absorption maxima of carotenoids present in zooxanthellae are most efficient in the promotion of photosynthesis.
LEDs with peaks of 400 and 420nm were more efficient than those with peaks at ~450 and ~480nm. Additionally, pigments in zooxanthellae (MAAs, or mycosporine-like amino acids) protect zooxanthellae against ultraviolet radiation do so only up to about 340 nm.
Although these results were generated through use of LEDs, it is possible that they could be applied to other light sources, such as metal halide and fluorescent lamps, especially those with high kelvin ratings. Perhaps the real story here is the photo-protective responses (the xanthophyll cycle) of zooxanthellae to different light sources, especially red light. Light intensity was measured with a Li-Cor BioSciences’ LI-1400 data logger and 2-pi cosine-corrected LI-189 underwater quantum sensor (Li-Cor, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Corrections were made to the PPFD measurements of the UV and 420nm LED fixtures since they produce substantial amounts of radiation in the ultraviolet range. Spectral data were gathered by an Ocean Optics spectrometer and SpectraSuite software (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, Florida, USA).
Photosynthesis data were determined through use of a Walz Junior-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated) fluorometer (Walz GmbH, Effeltrich, Germany).


The Junior-PAM fluorometer exploits the relationships between competing processes for light energy. LED fixtures supplied the light in these experiments (except for the black light experiment.) These have the advantages of supplying near-monochromatic light while generating very little heat (a real plus when working with corals in small amounts of water. A small fragment of a Porites corals (tentatively identified as Porites lobata) was placed in a plastic container containing 2 gallons of artificial sea water.
The coral was allowed to dark-acclimate overnight before minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) and maximum fluorescence (Fm – through application of a photosynthetically-saturating pulse of light) were determined. Data were exported from Walz’s WinControl-3 software to Micro Soft Excel for further processing and charting. Measurements of ultraviolet radiation were made by a UV radiometer (Model UVX, manufactured by UVP, LLC, Upland, California, USA) equipped with a UV-A sensor (recommended for measurements at 365nm, with a sensitivity bandwidth of 335-380nm).
Le branchement se fait par l'intermediaire d'un ballast electronique adapte a la puissance du tube.
Branchement des HQICe type de lampes est  caracterises par un tres bon rendu des couleurs et par une lumiere presque continue dans toute la gamme des radiations visibles. Dit, une question bete, peut-on monter l'amorceur dans le projecteur et deporte le ballast et le condo plus loin en cablant ces deux dernier jusqu'a l'amorceur en 2,5 mm puis l'amorceur et les douilles en fils siliconnes? Apres avoir monte 2 tubes de T8 de 25 W sur un ballast de 58 W, et en ayant utilise des starters trouves en grande suface de 220v puissance 6 a 65W.
Apres mettre renseigne sur internet, je me suis vite apercu que je n etais pas le seul dans ce cas. Et apparemment, cela viendrait des starters, les starters qu'il preconise sont des starters de 110V et non pas 220V. Tres peu de constructeurs en font, OSRAM par exemple, la puissance pour ce type de starter est de 22 W max, ce qui limite les possibilites. Et pour ne pas ameliorer la situation, ils ne sont pas facile a trouver et de plus sont plus cher qu'un ballast. Voila je me pose la question, une alimentation pour lampe hqi 400w peut-elle fonctonner avec des lampes d'une puissance inferieur. Penn Plax Betta Bow Front 1-2-3 tank kit is designed to safely house and display up to three Betta fish.
Give your fish some room to swim in a five gallon - or better yet, ten - and you'll be surprised what a spunky personality they have. True Lumen 12 Volt Power Supply Transformer for for use with True Lumen LED Strips and True Lumen LED Lunar Lights. I know this is just the power adapter, but the True Lumen 3LED blue mini strip I bought it awesome! Orders will be processed as usual and we will be back up shortly, so please check back soon! The collected data sheds light on how different spectra affect photosynthesis and the Xanthophyll Cycle, helping us to better understand how corals use and respond to light. Economy in the costs of maintaining a coral reef aquarium certainly is a concern, but the health of zooxanthellae and hence their animal host should be of primary importance. Violet light’s bandwidth is defined as those wavelength frequencies between 380nm and 430nm. If the amount of light absorbed is not measured, the electron flow is reported as the Relative Electron Transport Rate (rETR).
PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation): That visible light energy between 400 and 700nm. Common photopigments in zooxanthellae are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c?, peridinin, and -carotene.
Sub-saturating light intensity is that seen between zero photosynthesis and just below saturating intensity. Redistribution is known to occur in some zooxanthellae clades, usually from Photosystem II to Photosystem I, and prevents a damaging traffic jam of electrons.
Important xanthophylls found in zooxanthellae are diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin – these play an important role in protecting them from excessive light. Peridinin absorbs light into the green portion of the spectrum – this is the reason many corals appear brown. About 28% of this lamp’s output is in the range visible to the average human eye, according to analysis with a spectrometer.
The output of a black light lamp is almost entirely in the ultraviolet range, which is invisible to the human eye.
Note that about 6% of the output will not be detected by a PAR meter with a cutoff of 400nm and below.
Play particular attention to the absorption properties, especially in the blue portion of the spectrum. Two xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) play an important role in protecting symbiotic algae and coral hosts from excessive light energy.
These xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) are important photosynthesis regulators in zooxanthellae. The combination of LEDs producing red light (at 631nm and 657nm) was most efficient with practically none of its output absorbed by carotenoids. If the energy of UV-A light between 340 nm and 380 nm is absorbed by photopigments, but not used in photosynthesis, how else would it be dissipated? Why is there little, if any, protective cycling of xanthophylls when strong red light is used? This instrument is among the gold standards for measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Using information supplied by the Ocean Optics spectrometer (described below), the correction was 6% for the 420nm LEDs, and ~40% for the Ultraviolet LEDs.
This sensor slightly underreports violet wavelengths (~400-420nm) and red wavelengths (~690-700nm). The fiber optic patch cord was held at a 45 angle (through use of a jig) to a 99% diffuse reflectance standard (Spectralon, manufactured by Labsphere, North Sutton, New Hampshire, USA). Measurements were corrected for electrical dark, with a boxcar averaging of 2, and 50 measurements were averaged.


Walz’s WinControl-3 software was programmed to measure the Yield of Photosystem II, and energy dissipation routes including NPQ (non-photosynthetic quenching by the xanthophyll cycle) and NO (quenching by other routes).
The energy can be used in photosynthesis, or dissipated as heat in a process called Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) or Other Pathways (collectively called NO).
A specially built jig held the lamps above the container, and light intensity was adjusted through adjusting the height of the fixture above the container, or by a dimmer. The coral was then exposed to light intensities that were incrementally adjusted upwards, and Fm’ (maximum chlorophyll fluorescence while illuminated) measurements were made 15-20 minutes after light intensity was increased.
Ultraviolet-B radiation was measured with a sensor made for measurements of radiation at 310nm, with a sensitivity bandwidth of 280-340nm. Ces caracteristiques sont obtenues en ajoutant au melange gazeux de la decharge (argon et mercure) des additifs comme sodium, thallium indium ou terres rares. I would only put something like one fish in this tank like a danio or use it for a nusrey for your baby fry. Plus with this size of a tank ammonia will build up in a day so youll constantly have to change the water.
It does not state that in the description which it should so we knnow, also the top has no support brace for the rim so when you fill it up with water it expands because it's cheap plastic and the deviders don't stay in the slots and you have to hold the dividers in place and put the cover on and alligne it together, also each time you feed them you have to remove the cover to feed them and do the same thing over and over to alligne the deviders to the hood. Aesthetic concerns, such as the promotion of coral coloration through expression of fluorescent proteins and non-fluorescent chromoproteins, are of interest to many. Carotenes are made by plants (and not animals) and are usually yellow, orange, or red in color. It is important to note that photosynthesis does not simply stop at wavelengths below 400nm – violet and some ultraviolet wavelengths can promote photosynthesis!
Dinoxanthin is an accessory pigment that transfers collected energy to dinoflagellates photosystems (with an unknown efficiency) and might act as an antioxidant as well.
Using this chart, it would appear that blue light is the most efficient promoter of photosynthesis. This method involves measuring of absorbance with a spectrometer and associated software (in this case, an Ocean Optics fiber optic spec and SpectraSuite software). Interestingly, ~40% of the LED’s output will not detected by PAR meters with a cutoff of wavelengths below 400nm. See the Glossary (above) for definitions and the Methods and Materials (below) for further information. Note that PPFD detected by the Li-Cor PAR meter during this procedure was less than 1 µmol·m?·sec.
When light energy is sufficient enough to effect pH changes within the photosynthetic apparatus of zooxanthellae, diadinoxanthin is converted to diatoxanthin. On the other hand, the skeleton absorbs red wavelengths with better efficiency; hence less red light is reflected. Strong doses of red light can regulate zooxanthellae densities even to the point of bleaching (Kinzie et al., 1984).
The spectrometer’s signal was corrected for electrical dark, with a boxcar setting of 2, and integration time of 66 milliseconds.
Yields of Photochemistry, Non-Photochemical Quenching (of chlorophyll fluorescence) and NO (other energy dissipation pathways) were determined. Emerson enhancement effect and quantum yield of photosynthesis for marine macroalgae in simulated underwater light fields.
Evidence suggests absorption by carotenoids is responsible for lessened photosynthetic efficiencies at 450 nm and 470 nm. When the Yield of any of these processes is multiplied by the light intensity level (PPFD, or Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, as determined by a PAR meter), we can arrive at an estimate of the relative electron flow from Photosystem II to Photosystem I. Effects of light of altered spectral composition on coral zooxanthellae associations and on zooxanthellae in vitro. Photosynthetic response of seagrasses to ultraviolet-A radiation and the influence of visible light intensity. Spectral characteristics shift slightly according to the extraction solvent used, and photopigments, when combined, also change these characteristics slightly.
In any case, the pigment in Caribbean stony corals is about 7% of total photopigment content.
Graphical displays (such as Figure 2) were cut and pasted into this Micro Soft Word document. Temperature and pH were monitored through use of a datalogger (Hach HQ40d multimeter and pH probe). A better way is to examine the action spectrum of zooxanthellae isolated from a stony coral. Note that these xanthophylls both absorb some violet but most strongly blue wavelengths at ~450 – 490nm. Since we did not measure the amount of light actually absorbed by the coral and its symbionts, this is called the Relative ETR, or rETR. Cette charge est fortement inductive et comporte des valeurs de courant absorbee assez elevees.
This is usually done with a monochromator, where a beam of pure color (hue) illuminates a culture of Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and a reaction is determined (such as oxygen evolution). The coral’s zooxanthellae were allowed to acclimate to darkness for 20-30 minutes after each round of testing.
Pour reduire ces courants (en optimisant la section des cables d'alimentation), il faut ajouter un condensateur au circuit.Les normes nationales de plusieurs pays imposent l'utilisation des condensateurs de compensation dans les installations d'eclairage. Light-induced dissociation of antenna complexes in the symbionts of scleractinian corals correlates with sensitivity to coral bleaching.



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