SLA (Stereolitography) 3D printers rely on liquid resin that is being solidified with the help of UV light (Laser, LED or DLP light source), however when the finished print is ready to be removed from the build plate it still needs some more work. We have experimented with different sources of UV light to see if we can easily cure 3D printed parts on our new XYZprinting Nobel 1.0 SLA 3D printer. If you add a Heated Build Platform (HBP) to your MakerBot Replicator 2 3D printer you will need to do some modifications to your working process whenever you want to be able to print with a hot build plate. Next you need to manually add some additional code to make sure your Replicator 2 3D printer will first heat the build plate before starting to print and that the temperature will be kept at the desired value until the print finishes. Then add some more extra code to make sure that the 3D printer will stop the heating of the build plate and cool it down after the printing finishes.
The MakerBot Replicator 2 3D printer does not come with a heated build plate, but you can add one – either a readily available unofficial upgrade or make a DIY one.
You need to go through the Print Settings panel in order to get access to the settings for 3D printing and under the Temperature tab you will see the option to enable the option called Heat the Build Plate and set the Build Plate temperature to the desired value.
On the MakerBot Replicator 2 3D printer you also need to do something in order to activate the support for the Heated Build Plate.
This particular design comes into consideration when a system is required that combines the accuracy and precision of an automatic process control with the economically favorable way of manual loading and unloading.
As the terminal step in the encapsulation of OLEDs the MB-UV-Press laminates substrate and cover glass under vacuum conditions creating a bubble-free end-sealing of the device. A range of different modular chucks are obtainable allowing laminating glasses with several shapes and sizes.
Underrated from many who entirely focus in their research on creating an optimized organic material stack the lamination is an extremely critical, complicated and important step in the entire OLED process. Please contact us if you have questions choosing the right UV Press system for your specification needs.
The MB-UV-Cure is part of the MBRAUN encapsulation process tool series specifically designed for applications in the organic electronics marketplace.
The MB-VacuPress is a manually operated vacuum lamination tool with a transparent vacuum chamber for evacuation. The MB-UV-Press-Auto is the lamination tool of choice when the highest precision, reliability and repeatability during the lamination process are required. MBRAUN's UV Ozone Cleaner series are used in the organic electronic and semiconductor industries as well as in scientific research fields including biology, chemistry, physics and materials science. Adapted specifically for OLED encapsulation the MBRAUN MB-Dispenser series offers highest flexibility, process repeatability, a variety of optional features, a compact design and is completely compatible with inert-gas equipment. MBRAUN offers getter dispensing platforms for adhesive dispensing and mounting of desiccant material onto glass substrates for the preparation of subsequent encapsulation together with a coated substrate. Since 2006, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets. Digital printing today is the de facto method for short-run, wide- and grand-format or variable-data print production. In the inkjet arena of narrow format, there is Screen (Dainippon), HP, Kodak Versamark and Agfa Dotrix. Wide- and grand-format printing applications have flourished because of the flexible nature of inkjet technology and adaptability of inkjet chemistries to various substrates. The capability to control this change only when the printer needs it to happen makes the ink appealing to anyone occupied in the use or formulation of inks. Sales of UV inks have been given considerable momentum by new European Union legislation on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC).
Second, UV-curable inks can be printed at higher speeds in both narrow- and wide-format sizes without the need for cumbersome drying systems. Coupled with that flexibility is the wider range of rigid substrates that these inks have superior adhesion to.
Let?s go over some of the verbiage associated with UV inks, and how the UV curable process works. In starting and completing the UV-curing process, photoinitiators are the prime components.
The types of photoinitiators most commonly used in inkjet inks have been of the free-radical nature.
A monomer (from Greek mono ?one? and meros ?part?) is a small, single molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
Depending on the UV ink formulation, other additives can also be included, such as flow and wetting aids, antioxidants and stabilizers.
Stabilizers are used to help with the ink?s shelf-life and increase the tolerance to heat, which is important at higher jetting temperatures. Presently, the majority of flatbed inkjet systems use what are called free-radical UV inks, rather than cationic (containing positively charged electrons) UV inks. Free-radical UV inks use an acrylate or urethane resin, which polymerizes rapidly when exposed to UV radiation. Free-radical UV inks typically use a shuttered mercury-vapor lamp on either side of the print head to produce enough UV output to complete the curing process.
A UV lamp?s peak intensity will have a drop off in performance that is related to the bulb type, usage and duty cycle of the printer. Even though the UV-curing process is fundamentally an immediate process ? inks are certainly ?dry to the touch? right after printing ? some post-curing does take place. Cationic inks, which generally use epoxy resins instead of urethanes, also are virtually odor-free. The curing process is best described as the following: The protons, generated from the photoinitiator during UV exposure, continue to be active after exposure. These inks typically have better adhesion to the traditional ?difficult? substrates, like expanded plastics and glass.

Cationic inks cure from UV lamps that are ?tuned? to the specific wavelength of UV radiation needed by the photoinitiator. These two UV curing lamp systems do not generate the high temperatures associated with mercury-vapor lamps. This article appeared in the SGIA Journal, 2nd Quarter 2008 Issue and is reprinted with permission.
Government news, analysis, & advice - informationweek, Informationweek shares news, analysis and advice for government it leaders. Bertie county, nc, Official site news, budget information, meetings events, departments, county office directory, photographs.. The first step is to clean it up with the help of stong alcohol that will remove any liquid residues from the resin, then you might need to remove some support material if you needed it. We’ve started with a 3W UV LED lamp from a flashlight, but that was simply not powerful enough an even after an hour the test parts were still not cured well enough. Using the MakerBot Desktop software with a Replicator 2 with HBP can be pretty easy just switching to the profile of a Replicator 2X, but there are some drawbacks.
To do so follow the steps described below, the end result should look like on the screenshot above. The control board of the Replicator 2 does have the needed support to control a HBP if you install one and decide to let the printer control it based on your settings. What you can do to make the heated build plate is to switch the software to the Makerbot Replicator 2x profile instead of the Replicator 2 that you should normally be using. Also since the Replicator 2 has only one extruder, you need to set the temperature for the extruder in the Right Extruder panel. After placing the substrate to the lower quartz and the cover glass to the upper vacuum stage the subsequent process steps are completely automated. In order to run the encapsulation process even at high-vacuum conditions a proprietary edge-gripping chuck is available.
Usually it represents the final step before the OLEDs can be transferred out of the inert environment. The basic function is to encapsulate rigid substrates with a cover glass under ambient pressure conditions using a high intensity UV source. Most commonly this system is applied in fully automated pilot-scale systems in which it is embedded into a supervisory control system. Starting from manually operated stand-alone laboratory units up to fully integrated, robot loaded dispensing platforms.
This increase has been driven by new developments in ink technology and demand from printer manufacturers and end users.
Technologies driving these applications include toner (electro-photography) and inkjet-based printing systems. Ink research and development for inkjet printing has never been greater, with a migration from the original water-based dye and pigment inks to the presently popular mid- and high-solvent and UV-curable inkjet ink types. Within the last two years, there has been a incredible rush toward the use of UV-curable inks in most of the printing markets. UV-curable inks, which were already being used extensively in the screen printing field, are replacing much of the solvent inkjet ink currently in use. Lastly, the flexibility now being seen in the UV ink formulations allows roll-to-roll capability, opening up fleet graphics applications in the areas of wide- and grand-format printing. Compared to solvent inks, UV does not dry up in the inkjet head and exhibits a lower rate of nozzle failure caused by blockage.
A polymer can be any of numerous natural and synthetic compounds of high-molecular weight, consisting of up to millions of repeated linked units ? each a relatively light and simple molecule. After absorbing UV energy from the light source located on the print head, the photoinitiators fragment into reactive materials that start the chemical reaction known as polymerization. Ink formulators work with photoinitiator suppliers to develop inks that are compatible with the UV output of medium-pressure, mercury-vapor bulbs found in most curing systems for inkjet printing. Monomers provide many specific functions within an inkjet formulation, depending on their viscosity and chemistry. Oligomers determine the final properties of the cured ink film, including its elasticity, outdoor performance characteristics and chemical resistance. Usually, the colorant is pigment-based because of the greater light fastness and durability of pigments compared with dyes.
Surfactants (surface active agents) are included to ensure the ink film spreads in a controlled fashion, and coats the media or substrate uniformly. Simplistically, stabilizers neutralize or absorb reactive molecules in the ink during storage and prevent polymerization. Recent innovations of new performance-enhancing, cationic-ink chemistry have stimulated their development for inkjet-type applications. These bulbs are unbelievably hot, and that temperature gets transmitted to the substrate with each pass of the print head. UV curing lamps age, and with subsequent changes in output, they may reach a point in which inadequate energy is emitted to fully cure the ink layer.
Dust and ink residues on lamp windows and reflectors also can have an impact on the lamp unit?s output, requiring periodic maintenance to prevent any reduction in cure efficiency. UV-curable inks are essentially on top of the substrate (unlike solvents that etch into the substrate), and the interface between the ink and the substrate is not as strong as solvent inks.
They start to polymerize when exposed to UV radiation in the nanometer range which stimulates the photo initiator chemistry. The excellent adhesion to difficult substrates is related to the ink?s reduction in shrinkage (due to heat), which is roughly one-third of that experienced by free-radical UV ink systems. Manufacturers also are utilizing UV-light emitting diodes (LED) lamp blocks to supply the necessary UV energy.

Cold curing mitigates the heat issue associated with free-radical UV cure inks while, at the same time, the cured ink is more robust at its cured endpoint.
You would notice however that the 3D printed part has a bit of rubbery feel and is not yet like a strong plastic, so it needs to be cured with additional UV light to become strong.
Then we have moved to UV lamps for checking for counterfeit money, these are usually available with a 4-8W UV lamps and are pretty easy to find, but unfortunately they were still not powerful enough.
In order to be able to have more control on your prints with a Heated Build Platform on a Replicator 2 3D printer you probably would want to go for a different slicer such as the Simplify3D that we are already using.
Mechanical glass-2-glass alignment, evacuation to process pressure, pressing the glasses together, opening the shutter and curing the adhesive are part of the recipes which can be defined and saved in the PLC.
Only an effective encapsulation of the substrate can provide the essential protection of the active layers from harmful components like oxygen and moisture as well as mechanical stress. Major trans-promotional marketing players generally utilize toner-based systems and include such names as Xerox IGen3, Kodak Nexpress, HP and HP Indigo, Oce, Konica-Minolta, Ricoh, Kyocera and Xeikon.
Driving the shift to UV is its ability to almost immediately change the ink state from a liquid to an extremely resilient hard film. Solvent- and water-based inks dry by evaporation and upwards of 80 to 90 percent of those ingredients go into the atmosphere as vapors during the printing process. Ultraviolet light is electro-magnetic radiation, situated between 200 and 380 nm of the light spectrum.
But there are downsides, including UV-light exposure hazards and possible sensitization issues related to the handling of uncured UV ink. Disadvantages from this type of light source include excessive substrate heating, high power consumption and the need for scheduled lamp replacement. Most mono-functional monomers are used as ?solvents,? or flow modifiers, because of their ability to reduce viscosity and combine with other ink components. Pigments used in outdoor advertising and display applications have similar requirements to those used in automotive paints. Careful control of drop-spreading behavior contributes to the dot-gain control, which is vitally important for image quality. There are limitations to free-radical UV inks, which include oxygen inhibition, poor adhesion to difficult substrates and residual odor.
If the ink layer is not cured completely, the ink will not reach its intended hardness potential.
Moreover, the effects of exposure time to UV radiation are cumulative: If an ink is over-cured, it can become fragile and flake off. In the past, cationic inks have been available for UV-curable analog printing, but the polymerization process could take hours from initiation to completion.
That means a coating does not need to be fully cured after it leaves the light source, just dry to the touch. Cationic inks are sensitive chemistries, and can react with the bases and acids present in inkjet media, resulting in poor adhesion.
This feature enables UV inkjet systems to be used on substrates that, until now, had been considered unsuitable, including vehicle graphics, uncoated glass materials and other slick or heat-sensitive substrates. His extensive background in digital imaging, electronic pre-press for print, professional photography and computers, serves members by supplying individualized solutions to their daily business problems. One of the most common and easy ways to do it is to bring out the 3D printed part outside so the sun can shine on it and cure it in a few minutes, however this is not the best way to do it and the sun is not always available when you need it to provide enough UV light. So the next step was a string of UV LED lights where we got about 8W of power per meter and this meant that we needed quite a long strip to get more power out of them and we have moved to looking for alternatives.
Since Simplify3D already has built-in support for Replicator 2 3D printers with installed HBP it is easier to take advantage of that along with the many other available options to control the printing process that the software offers. It however comes with some drawbacks such as slightly reduced build plate size in the software, though your heated build platform may actually be smaller compared to the original space available prior to that.
With the standard setup all commonly used UV-curing adhesives can be cured at moderate process times and heat load to the substrate. The advantages of UV-curable inks overshadow any disadvantages, marking them as the dominant ink system for the future of industrial inkjet printing.
Burton received his Bachelor of Science in Photographic Science from the Rochester Institute of Technology. Enabling the HBP support and using it properly in Simplify3D however requires a bit more to make it work properly, so we are going to be looking at what steps you need to take.
When quick curing and minimum heat load to the OLED become important the standard source can be upgraded to an advanced, high-intensity source with optimized reflector geometry, IR-filter and improved uniformity across the entire substrate. While a pigment is selected on the basis of the required application, size control and reduction along with dispersion technique are major components of ink formulation. It uses four 9W CCFL UV lamps and apparently provides enough UV light in order to cure most 3D printer parts in just a few minutes. It has worked really well with the clear resin prints from the Nobel 1.0 SLA 3D printer and there is enough space to fit inside relatively large objects. If you need more space you should be able to pretty easily modify the standard plastic box and make a larger size box with some aluminum foil. These ?higher functions? of a monomer add improved film hardness and resistance properties, but may also increase the viscosity of the chemistry.

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