17.10.2015
NOTE: The below article has been translated from Spanish and can be found in its original language in the 2012 EMC Europe Guide.
Fluorescent lamps, in particular compact fluorescent lamps, are replacing incandescent lamp worldwide. It was not until 1992 that GE completed a machine for bending the glass, and samples of the so-called Heliax lamp that it produced were issued to the market that year. The fluorescent lamps has been used in office and other commercial environments, giving light at an efficiency of 5-10 times that of standard tungsten filament bulbs. The operation of a fluorescent lamp at higher frequency leads to a reduction in detectable visual flicker, a reduction in audio ‘hum’, increased ease of dimming and an increase in efficiency of up to approximately 25%.
A well known method to measuring the Magnetic Field (Hi) of electromagnetic wave propagation is using a loop, or loop antenna, that can be observed in Figure 6. More details about the antenna parameters to perform a H field measurement are described in the Appendix. It is interesting to note that the Voltage Voc from equation 1 increases with the area and the number of turns (n)–this can be used to select an adequate voltage. In order to observe the emissions of the RF radiations of the CFL, the magnetic field produced by the CFL has been measured as a function of the distance of the CFL. The magnetic field measured in the radial direction from Figure 11 is about six times lower compared to the magnetic field in the axial magnetic field  from Figure 10. The magnetic field levels of compact fluorescent lamps have been measured, and the more important levels have been detected between 40 and 50kHz in the axial direction. In the frequency of 150kHz, the received power are considerable lower compare with the 40-50kHz band. As an interference test, you can locate an AM receiver at Medium Frequency near the CFL and the reception will be interfered with an audible noise that you can hear.
The CFL generate an electromagnetic field in the 40-50kHz bandwidth, which can interfere with other electronic circuits; these emissions are in the near field due to the band of frequencies. The electrical circuit of a n turns Loop as a receiving antenna is represented by the impedance Z=R+jX in series with a voltage generator.
This factor is very important because it relates the measured voltage with the magnetic field vector, which is the unknown. In Figure 14, the picture of the impedance measurement set up of the loop antenna is shown. In Figure 15, the reactance is linear up to 1,700 kHz, and then the reactance is away from the linear response. 4) Characterization of compact fluorescent lights RF emissions in the perspective of human exposure. EMC and Its Role In Reliabilityby Ken Javor, EMC ComplianceTotally anecdotal, but this just happened to me.My wife uses a powered wheelchair.
A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people. Zoo Med's Turtle UVB & Heat Lighting Kit comes with everything you need to meet the light and heat requirements your turtle needs.
If you live in a warm climate and your tortoise spends most of his days outside with free access to the natural sun, you won't need to use UV bulbs.
On the other hand, if you live in a cooler climate with a short outdoor season, it's important to use UVB lights indoors in addition to non-UV basking bulbs and heaters.
When purchasing UVB lights, always buy good quality reptile specific bulbs from trusted manufacturers like Zoo Med and Arcadia. Always install lighting and heating devices securely and according to the manufacturer's directions.
Zoo Med has created a nice chart for choosing the right UVB bulb for your enclosure based on its height.
Zoo Med stands are adjustable in height and depth and allow you to position the lights exactly where you want them. In the past, when no reptile lamp stands were available and I still used clamp lights, I secured them with welding ground clamps (pic). UVB and heat lamps can also be installed securely by suspending them from sturdy ceiling hooks or wall brackets. Indoors, you can provide UVB with reptile fluorescent bulbs (long tubes) or reptile mercury vapor bulbs (MVB). MVB's provide a high level of UVB, but using separate basking bulbs with UVB tubes allows more flexibility for lighting and heating arrangements. Reptile UVB fluorescent tube sizes: T-12 is the oldest size, T-8 was the common size before the new T-5 HO tubes were released. Many, if not most, tortoise keepers are switching from the T-8 tubes to the newer, stronger T-5 UVB tubes.
Note: The new T-5 HO (high output) UV tubes will not fit in the traditional T-8 fixtures.
According to the manufacturer, the Arcadia D3+ T-5 desert species tubes (12% UVB) provide 100% more visible light and 95% more UVB than reptile T-8 tubes of the same length. Zoo Med started advertising their new ReptiSun T-5 HO UVB tubes for reptiles in Nov 2012, and they became available for purchase soon after that. These new T-5 HO fluorescent tubes emit twice as much light and UVB as the traditional T-8 tubes. Compact reptile UVB bulbs are short fluorescent bulbs that screw in like regular light bulbs. There's a lot of controversy among tortoise keepers about using compact fluorescent UVB bulbs. You may want to AVOID using compact bulbs until more research is done and results are published. Some years ago, several reptile keepers reported eye problems in their animals due to the very intense UV radiation from some compact fluorescent bulbs at short distances. Even the best quality compact fluorescent UVB bulbs are NOT ideal for tortoises because they cannot provide large enough UVB zones at sufficient intensity.
Update 2013: Zoo Med released a new UVB compact bulb for 2013, the Mini Compact Fluorescent.
Compact fluorescent bulbs, like all UVB lights, should be installed DIRECTLY OVERHEAD of the tortoise, not at an angle clipped to the side of the enclosure.


Wire deflectors (open wire lamp fixtures) can be used with MVB's as well, especially with the higher wattage ones, to help prevent bulb overheating. You can also use work lights, utility lights, or brooder lights to hold reptile bulbs, although some of them are too shallow for the MVB's. Adjust the bulb position up or down, but above the minimum installation height, to achieve the ideal basking temperature. A common recommendation is to keep indoor tortoise enclosure lights on 12-14 hours a day during the summer and 10-12 hours during the winter. On the other hand, Andy Highfield of Tortoise Trust (Promoting Proper Bone Development, 2003), suggests that spending 3-4 hours outside daily is enough UVB exposure to produce adequate levels of vitamin D3 in tortoises if you live in an area that has native chelonians.
Basically, you have two choices in commonly available reptile UVB bulbs: mercury vapor bulbs and long UVB fluorescent tubes. In a large enclosure with two or more tortoises, it's better to have several lower wattage MVB's instead of one high wattage bulb. Long T-12 and T-8 fluorescent UVB tubes have been used for many years as an indoor UVB source for reptiles.
Reptile UV bulbs should to be changed every 6-12 months because their UVB output degrades over time.
You can monitor the intensity and ageing of your UVB lamps with a small, handheld device called a UV meter. These UV meters are not cheap, but they can save you money in the long run because you don't need to change UVB bulbs prematurely.
For more info on these meters and some example outdoor measurements, see the UVB & UVI readings page. You can buy special types of glass or acrylic that allow the transmission of UV radiation, but they are more expensive than regular glass. Use our Energy Savings Calculator to see what your long term savings will be by using more energy effecient Philips light bulbs.
When you need a cost effective (not cheap) LED light bulb two for the best options are Feit Electric and Kobi Electric.
We know that sometimes it can be difficult to know what type of light bulb your recess lighting can accept. LED Light Bulbs!  Philips LED lights have the latest technology and are designed to last for years. The ancient Greeks knew about the power of the sun, for it was already over 2,000 years ago, a so-called Heliotherapy for the treatment of physical ailments. Especially in the treatment of psoriasis, eczema, itching and sun allergy are forms of therapy with a pure UV-A or UV-B radiation and a combination of both types of radiation have been proven. Therapy with white light is normally used for the treatment of depressive disorders or seasonal depression.
Whether at breakfast or during the morning newspaper reading, the pleasant and in principle free from side effects of light therapy is not bound to any environment and can also easily be done at home. This new technology offers the benefit of lower energy consumption—about five times that of incandescent lamps—but due to the employment of the electronic ballast of high frequency could interfere electronic equipment because of electromagnetic field emissions produced by the electronics and arc mechanism of the lamp, as well as conducted emissions by electrical wires.
This radiation will be masked by the radiation produced by the transmission lines of the energy distribution of the city. His proposal was to coil a long, thin high efficiency tube into this form, such that it would better match the size and light distribution of a frosted incandescent lamp. For that reason higher frequency operation is desirable so as to meet the requirements, using electronic switching ballast.
There are two possibilities of H field measurement: in the axis direction of the loop and the radial direction of the Loop, as can be observed in Figures 8 and 9. This  Magnetic Field have been also modeled as a function of the distance “d” with an exponent a.
The levels in the radial direction are six times lower than axial direction, and could be neglected. If the room has some electronic devices that are sensitive to these magnetic fields, it is desirable to replace the CFL with another type of light, such as LED connected to a voltage regulator employing a linear regulator with no switching power.
The results of the measurement of the reactance as a function of the frequency of the loop antenna can be observed in Figure 15, where the reactance is linear and increasing with the frequency. This is due the proximity of the frequency of resonance of the antenna because the coil has stray capacitance, and thus the frequency of resonance will decrease as the number of turns increase.
This one has a MVB in a large deep dome for basking and a long UVB fluorescent tube for additional lighting. Cheap, copycat bulbs of unknown brands can emit dangerous UV radiation, for example, a too high level, the wrong wave length, or the wrong type. Improperly and unsafely installed tortoise enclosure fixtures have caused many house fires. Zoo Med reptile lamp stands (show in the first pic on this page) work well with deep dome fixtures. This can cause clamp light fixtures to slide down to one side, or even fall off, and start a fire. Welding clamps have a very strong grip, but other heavy-duty steel spring clamps work as well. Reptile T-5 HO tubes are stronger and put out twice the light and UVB as the older the T-8 tubes. Shop light and strip light fixtures are perfect holders for linear T-8 UVB fluorescent bulbs. Some keepers say there are fine to use when properly installed, while others swear compact bulbs have caused severe eye problems, even blindness, to their tortoises. Unfortunately, the Reptile UV Guide UK website by Dr Frances Baines has not been updated in several years with any new results about compact UV bulbs. The UVB gradient is intense: too strong and possible harmful at close distance and too weak at a usable distance. For example, with Zoo Med compact bulbs the period of high light and UVB output lasts about 150 hours. It can be used with Zoo Med’s Naturalistic Terrarium Hood or the Mini Deep Dome fixture.
According to UV Guide UK web site, some, but not all, MVB's from batches JI, KI and LI are affected.


In other words, MVB's of the same wattage from different manufactures can vary in depth and width. Because MVB's stick out when placed in traditional reptile bulb holders, I like to use the LARGER Zoo Med's Deep Dome or Fluker's Sun Dome fixtures with them. Because I don't like any bright light shining into my eyes and I only use 100W MVB's, the deep dome fixtures work well for me.
I used to have many of my lights on timers on a fixed schedule, but I have since then switched to a manual control to follow the actual day period. He feels that too much UV is pointless and only breaks down the initial level of vitamin D3.
MVB's and the new T-5 HO UV bulbs are more expensive than the older T-8 UV tubes, but their output last longer. These plastics are especially useful for building outdoor warm up areas for tortoises utilizing polytunnels or small greenhouses. Light Bulb Market offers LED light bulbs for almost every application from LED Flood Lights to LED traditional (A19) light bulbs.
In addition to the red light in the field of heat therapy and blue light for the treatment of neonatal jaundice, for example, especially ultraviolet light and so-called white light plays a role for therapeutic purposes.
In severe cases, the radiation can also through the gift of so-called psoralens, which make the skin before the start of radiation still sensitive to light, are supported. But even with shift work, jet lag, Alzheimer’s, and light, nonseasonal depression can help restore the body clock and thus the biorhythm who falls through time shifts or short winter days off balance light therapy. This article is devoted to the measurement and the study of the radiated emissions characteristics of the CFL at short distances. However, GE felt that coiling glass tubes into this complex shape was not compatible with high speed manufacturing techniques, and the idea was shelved [1][2]. It is a discharge lamp; the discharge is initiated by a starter and after that controlled by a ballast, which is traditionally an iron cored inductor. As the device is essentially an inductor, in practice the resistance with this loop antenna can be neglected compare with the reactance.
Always provide hiding places for the tortoise to escape the bright UVB lights if he so desires.
I like the bigger stand, model LF-20, better because it has a larger foot and is more stable.
Using a lamp stand (scroll down for info) and a bulb holder that has a metal loop for hanging is a safer way to install your lights.
Fluorescent bulbs only give out light, UVB, and UVA, so you'll need a separate heat-producing basking bulb with them. These linear reptile tubes produce a high amount of visible light, UVA (30%), and UVB (12% desert, 6% forest). During this time, place the bulb higher than usual or preburn it away from the tortoise enclosure. I turn the enclosure lights on at sunrise, or as close to it as possible depending on when I wake up, and then turn them off at sunset.
His recommendation is to shine the UV light for about 20 minutes during the morning activity period and another 10 minutes during the afternoon activity period. Frances Baines is a retired veterinary surgeon and well-known for her research on reptile UV lighting. This provides a larger heated area that accommodates several tortoises and the basking temperature is not quite as intense in one spot. If energy savings and long life is what you are looking for in your lighting needs there is nothing better that LED technology.
In addition, UV light is among other things used in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency and its consequences. Especially in the winter, when the days are short, the human body produces increased melatonin, a hormone that is supposed to promote sleep, but during the day in winter makes for fatigue, lethargy, and for thinking and concentration problems. In addition, patients who suffer from eye diseases or taking certain medications such as psychotropic drugs and preparations containing lithium, consult a doctor before treatment. When the arc has been struck, the ballast schemes the current flowing and the circuit operates at mains supply frequency. This can be showed in the Figure 5, where the CFL has a consumption about five times compared with that the incandescent type.
According to Dr Frances Baines from UV Guide UK, Arcadia T-5 D3 12% and Zoo Med T-5 ReptiSun 10.0 UV tubes are almost identical. Unlike the old compact instructions, instructions for this new bulb do not mention any initial burn-in period. The defective bulbs emit abnormally short-wavelength UVB radiation and increase the risk of photo-kerato-conjunctivitis (eye problem). This creates a more natural day period with seasonal variations throughout the year for my non-hibernating species.
Also, if one of the MVB's fails, you still have at least one working heat bulb until you replace the broken one. However, it must not be forgotten that high doses of UV radiation also has disadvantages because it can damage the skin cells and the genetic material of these cells.
On the other hand helps daylight, which is produced by artificial, very bright light sources between 2,500 and 10,000 lux at the light therapy, which is about a bright spring day. When the operation is normal,  radio frequency emissions from a mains frequency fluorescent lamp occur because of arcing at the electrodes.
The traditional recommendation is to change bulbs when their UVB output has decreased by 30-50% per Solarmeter 6.2. Consequences can be not only premature skin aging and pigmentation problems, but possibly also the formation of a malignant skin tumor. The treatment itself should preferably take place in the morning, since light inhibits the production of melatonin and simultaneously raises the levels of serotonin, a substance which provides inter alia for well-being and vigor.




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