For inset doors, suitable for mirrored doors, not suitable for laminated glass, eliminates drilling into the glass, door can be removed after assembly.
A series of technological steps concentrating around photolithography and UV polymer on glass replication in a mask-aligner that allow for the cost-effective generation of rather complex micro-optical systems on the wafer level are discussed.
Mastering of hybrid microlenses: refractive lens combined with a diffractive phase correction element by combining reflow and laser lithography. RIE assisted lens mastering: Reactive ion etching (RIE) of polymer structures like reflow lenses is a well established technology for proportional transfer of lenses to fused silica or other inorganic substrates [21]. Chirped lens arrays: Design (hollow squares) and measurement data (full triangles) of lens radii across a row of chips. A spacer layer was generated on top of the lenses by selective UV molding and subsequent rinsing of uncured resin so that the openings correspond to the optically active areas of the lenslets (see Figure 8). Mastering and patterning by means of lithography is especially useful when complex layout information has to be processed, as in the case of diffractive elements, (chirped or stochastic) microlenses, aperture or filter arrays and their repetition on the wafer, and additional structures like alignment and dicing marks, test and control structures, etc.Microlenses mastered by photoresist reflow show diffraction limited performance in a wide parameter range (see Table 1).
Medical device adhesives provide the bond strength, flexibility, and speed of cure that is demanded for needle and syringe assembly. Tangent Industries has developed a series of LED light curable adhesives that are ideally suited for bonding stainless steel cannula into hubs of various substrates and configurations. Each Tangent adhesive is typically available in several viscosity ranges to better match manufacturers’ hub designs and process requirements. Tangent’s needle and syringe assembly adhesives create high strength bonds that deliver consistent performance after sterilization and aging. These adhesives are ideal for the high volume production of disposable hypodermic needles, syringes, safety syringes, pen needles, winged infusion sets, and biopsy needles.
Part of the magic of this glass staircase is that, even though all of the stairs structural components and workings are exposed and plain to see, the staircase retains a sense of mystery as to how it actually works.
This unique feature staircase was designed and made for interior design practice FisherID, to serve their own studio in SE London. UV bonding of metal to glass is in itself an almost magical process, the bonded joints are unbelievably strong, during our own loading tests, the toughened glass would always fail before the bonded joint.
In this approach, optical functional surfaces are aligned to each other and stacked on top of each other at a desired axial distance.
IntroductionAlthough discussed extensively in recent years, wafer level optics is a well-established technology, which had been introduced decades ago in the field of miniaturized or micro-structured optics. Mastering by PhotolithographyThe reflow of photoresist patterned by binary photolithography is well established to generate a large number of microlens structures with precise positioning and diffraction limited surface accuracy on a single wafer [13,14,15]. Furthermore, an initially spherical lens profile can be shaped by changing the transfer rate during the etch process resulting in well-defined aspheres [22]. In particular, the feature height should be well below 100 µm and slope angles below 35°.The implementation of these more complex processes to achieve microlenses with improved performance is justified for volume production because the elevated efforts apply only to the mastering while the replication process remains unchanged.
LED Spot Array IlluminationFigure 7a shows a beam shaping device where a lens array is illuminated by a LED in a pupil splitting approach to generate an array of 21 ? 21 spots with field-of-view of 40° ? 40° [27].
The spacer surface was then coated with a thin layer of UV curing adhesive before upper and lower parts were loaded into the mask-aligner, aligned in x, y direction, brought into contact (z = 0) and bonded together by diffuse UV exposure.
RIE assisted mastering can extend the design rules towards 100% fill factor of arrays, which was shown for the first time. These adhesives are formulated to meet USP Class VI and ISO 10993 biocompatibility standards, and are compatible with gamma, EtO, and peroxide plasma sterilization processes. Solvent-free and single component, Tangent medical device adhesives can be easily and precisely dispensed through stainless steel valves commonly used in device assembly processes.
Please contact Tangent to confirm your product selection and to secure additional application assistance, including samples and process recommendations. They can consist of lenses, achromatic doublets, regular or chirped lens arrays, diffractive elements, apertures, filter structures, reflecting layers, polarizers, etc. Here, the wafer concept was simply related to the lithographical generation of micro-optical structures, such as microlens arrays or diffractive optical elements. The main limitations of the technology are the radius scatter depending on the amount of photoresist which is available per lenslet in the reflow step, and the limited flexibility of the lens profiles, both making reflow lenses less attractive for high-resolution imaging.Nevertheless, in all of the applications discussed below we used reflow lens mastering successfully.

The lens array as the central element was integrated with an aperture array to obscure the space between lenslets. The thickness of the bonding adhesive in this example was below 3 µm in order to avoid the lenses being contaminated with excess material, and to achieve the desired axial accuracy of the stack.
We demonstrated the feasibility of aspheres and achromatic doublets and their benefits in multi-aperture imaging systems. This provides manufacturers with the ability to select more economical curing systems for their assembly process, including those based on LED technology. Tangent adhesives are moisture resistant, and when fully cured, possess dry, tack-free surfaces. Fluorescing versions of each adhesive are available to enhance automated detection systems that monitor adhesive volume and profile. In the event that these standard products do not satisfactorily address your performance requirements, Tangent will investigate other solutions that include development of adhesive specifically tailored to the complexity of your application.
The suitability of the separated modules in certain imaging and non-imaging applications will be shown. In analogy to micro-electronics, a large number of optical chips with thousands or millions of microstructures can be generated in parallel.
The preferred substrate material in the RIE process is fused silica due to its etching characteristics, low CTE and UV transparency.Because of the highly isotropic nature of the RIE, the fill factor of arrays of convex lenses decreases during the transfer process. As an additional feature, a buried color filter array was implemented in order to demonstrate the opportunity to color code each individual spot. On the other hand, the adhesive layer was thick and homogenous enough to form tight cavities for each lens, which were not affected in the dicing process.
However, reflow lenses show limited homogeneity of their focal length across the wafer (~1%, see also Figure 2), which causes problems beyond VGA imaging resolution. The adhesives are specifically formulated to meet USP Class VI and ISO 10993 biocompatibility standards, and are compatible with gamma, EtO, peroxide plasma, and E-Beam sterilization processes. Lithography involves the structuring of several layers, aligned to each other, and, thus, offers an integration capability. On the other hand, with concave lens arrays it is constantly enhanced during the etching process until the gap between adjacent lenslets vanishes, leading to a 100% fill factor.
Apertures and filters were patterned onto blank glass wafers and hard baked before lens replication. For testing purposes, the optics and imager (without cover glass) were mounted on a chip scale after dicing.
More than ten years ago, UV polymer on glass replication [1] using a modified mask aligner as a lithography related fabrication tool was introduced as a precise and cost effective technology for the generation of wafer-scale miniaturized optical systems and for hybrid integration [2]. The structures are transferred to a ~100 nm thin base layer by dry etching, forming chemically stable lens pedestals.
Thus, a limitation of microlenses based on photoresist reflow can be overcome as shown in Figure 5.
A chirped lens array was generated by the approach illustrated in Figure 4 in order to compensate for aberrations of the plano-convex projection lens. Proper focusing within about ±10 µm was achieved solely by the control of lens radii and glass and polymer spacer thickness. Further extensions of the technology could be the implementation of mechanical actuators or OLED illumination.
Parallel fabrication is especially useful in cases of miniaturized systems because one can obtain a high number of chips from a wafer and in cases where several structural layers have to be aligned to each other. Here, the chirp of the microlens position (see Figure 7b) compensates for the distortion while the chirp in the focal length (see Figure 7c) reduces field curvature.
Thus, similar wafer-level concepts were introduced and optimized in recent years for the fabrication of miniaturized cameras [3,4,5].
The volume of each lenslet (and thus its radius of curvature) is now defined by patterning a smaller resist area onto every pedestal using mask #2. However, the technological and application potential of wafer-level miniaturized optics is not restricted to miniature camera lenses.In the present paper we present a refined wafer-level fabrication technology involving UV polymer molding, coating and lithography which is based on earlier work [2] but is characterized by a much higher degree of variety and complexity.

As a result, the lateral lens layout (process #1) can be defined with exceptional high accuracy and high resolution, and can be chosen independently of the corresponding radius of curvature. Within the frame of this paper, the main focus will be on the diversity of systems that have been realized using this technology, as well as on the fabrication details, range of parameters, and on the potential and limits of the approach. In other words: every lenslet on the wafer can be designed to have its own position, orientation, size (mask #1), and focal length (mask #2).
The paper is organized as follows: the mastering of micro-optical elements, UV replication, and further key elements of the fabrication process will be discussed in the next chapter “Technology”.
We used this enhanced design freedom in the randomization of arrays for homogenization [17], the channel-wise aberration correction of multichannel imaging optics [18] or simply the lateral arrangement of elements with different parameters on the same wafer [19]. Our focus is on the interaction and compatibility of process steps in order to generate systems with high lateral and axial complexity.
A means to simulate “generalized” chirped or stochastic lens arrays in the ray tracing design and routines to calculate the corresponding mask data for each lenslet were implemented in our fabrication process [20]. This will be illustrated in the subsequent chapter “Experimental examples and characterization” by discussing special aspects of three different micro-optical systems.
Finally, a summary of typical systems, their performance and main technological parameters will be given and conclusions will be drawn. Lens Arrays on Si Detector ArraysThe direct replication of lens arrays onto detector arrays including lateral and axial alignment was already proposed [2].
In particular, selective UV curing using a partially UV-transparent replication tool allows for the electrical bonding of separated chips. In the following we show first results of molding on functional complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) substrates. Figure 6 is a photograph of a six-inch silicon wafer with a cylindrical lens arrays for fill factor enhancement.In contrast to other studies [26], we focused on rather large lenslets where the designed pitch and polymer thickness were in the range of 100 µm, which is ideal for UV replication.
The detail in Figure 6 shows that selective curing can be used to keep the bond pads free of polymer despite the possible stray light from metal or from via or mesa structures in the CMOS substrate.
Before UV molding, the CMOS passivation layer was treated with a coupling agent (methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane) for optimum adhesion. The Silicon CMOS wafer with UV-molded microlens arrays turned out to be compatible with further process steps like dicing (see Figure 6), handling by a pick and place robot, electrical bonding, reflow soldering at 260 °C, and testing.
Coating and StructuringApertures filter structures, anti-reflection, or other coatings are an essential part in the design of more complex optical systems and have to be implemented in the wafer-level approach.
Thus, apertures or color filters can be generated by spin coating, lithography, and hard bake.
PSK2000 apertures have very low reflection (<1%) in a wide spectral and angular range and are easily generated, while low reflective chromium structures demonstrate better spatial resolution and stability.
Plasma assisted evaporation (APS) coating technology for polymer surfaces is a well-established technology [8] and can be applied to optical wafers in every stage of the fabrication. Typically, UV polymer is subject to a thermal post-curing (hardbake) before coating (30 min at 180 °C under protective gas (Nitrogen) for ORMOCOMP®). We found that long-term radius changes of the ORMOCOMP® polymer lenses after hard bake were well below 1%. Thermal BehaviorRefractive index as well as geometry changes with temperature, have to be considered in the optical design of imaging systems; for lens array applications a temperature dependent pitch can be critical.
Thermo-optical coefficients of a 100 µm thick polymer layer on a B33 glass substrate were measured and are typically on the order of ?0.0002 K?1.
Geometry changes were determined by measuring polymer-on-glass microlens arrays in a mechanical profiler (Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf) at different temperatures, thus, taking the polymer on glass configuration into account. Due to the scatter in the lenslet parameters it is crucial to compare corresponding lenslets, and to scan across a higher number of lenslets in order to improve the measurement contrast. The measured pitch variation corresponds to the CTE of the glass substrate (+3.3 ? 10?6 K?1) and is almost two orders of magnitude smaller than for thermoplastic polymers.

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