Curing a product with exposure to UV light, while fast and economical, requires careful control of the exposure process such as the spectral output of the light source, intensity levels, and exposure times of the products.
International Light Technologies has developed a broad range of UV curing-specific systems to aid in the challenging task of defining and monitoring these process variables. In particular, ILT Belt Radiometers are self-contained compact radiometers designed for measuring the exposure of conveyor-fed UV curing process equipment from 1 to 80 feet per minute. ILT UV Curing Systems are listed in the table below - CLICK ON THE ILT PART NUMBER IN THE "ILT SYSTEM OPTIONS" COLUMN TO SEE SYSTEM DETAILS, SPECIFICATIONS. As the world's population continues to expand, so too does the demand for goods and the world wants them faster and less expensive. One typically troublesome bottle neck is the use of inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings in production since these need time to set or cure properly. The pressure to free the bottleneck to increase their production and remain competitive in their markets forced manufacturers to research a faster, more adaptable and less expensive alternative to traditional curing acceleration methods. The breakthrough in this research came in the form of new chemicals, called photoinitiators. Photoinitiators could be developed into a myriad of compounds useful in manufacturing leading to the availability of instant or delayed cure photoreactive inks, paints, adhesives, and coatings.
Choice of action spectrum from a photoreactive compound will be dictated by the intended application for the product, the desired effects after curing and even the manufacturing environment itself. Ultraviolet or UV light is typically used as the action spectrum due to the efficiency and economy with which it can be produced in a manufacturing process but also because manufacturing facilities tend to have large amounts of visible light present either from windows or task lighting.
The use of UV photoreactive compounds eliminates the concerns about storage and use in the prevention of premature curing from exposure to the visible light present. Despite these concerns, UV curing remains the predominant choice in high-speed, large quantity production applications such as the printed circuit board, publishing, screen printing, and furniture manufacturing industries. Visible light, while less efficient and slower than UV curing, has advantages over UV when human safety is of prime concern, particularly if a compound needs to cured in direct contact with a person, such as with an oral adhesive. Specifically, blue visible light is used in such applications as its shorter wavelengths are not produced in the large quantities from the sun or task lighting as are the longer visible wavelengths like green, yellow orange or red. Besides gaining new clinical insights from the presentations, the BCLA proved to be a fantastic opportunity to network with international contact lens practitioners.
The Silicone Hyrogel Multifocal workshop exposed the new developments in this area and I am particularly excited about the new CooperVision Biofinity® Multifocal that is due to be launched in the near future. This lens utilizes the principles behind their Balanced Progressive™ Technology, which has been very successful with the Proclear Multifocal lens and will become available in the in the very popular Biofinity material.
To add to an already awesome itinerary, I was also fortunate enough to visit Cooper Vision in Hamble and was taken on a tour of the manufacturing plant as well as the distribution warehouse.
I was also fortunate enough to witness the manufacture of the recently launched product Avaira. Compatible with Ultra-thin WaferA stand-alone system, and the ideal wafer multi-mounting system for ultra-thin wafer manufacture.
Wafer Handling Cycles MinimizedThe handling frequency of wafer is reduced to 4 times in stand-alone, and reduced to 2 times in in-line system.
Dicing Tape with In-line Pre-cut System (Optional)Even if non pre-cut dicing tape is used, the optionally installed tape cutting mechanism with a unique inline pre-cut system will not damage the ring frame as the tape cutting is conducted inside the equipment. Wafer Loading, Scanning, and UnloadingThe load status of the wafer in the cassette is detected automatically, and the wafer is then retrieved by robotic arm and transferred to the alignment table (also functions as inspection table). Wafer AlignmentThe wafer is aligned by a CCD camera system with reference to the orientation flat or V-notch.
UV IrradiationThe wafer is transferred to the UV irradiation unit on the wafer delivery pad, where the back grinding tape is uniformly irradiated with UV, and then transferred to the mounting table. Frame LoadingThe frame piled up on the frame cassette is removed one by one and set on the mounting table. Tape AttachmentFollowing UV irradiation, the wafer is set on the mounting table, and while the mounting table moves back and forth, pre-cut tape is attached to the wafer and frame with a press roller. Wafer Control System (Optional)With this system, an ID number on the wafer is read, the data is then converted to barcode, and a label is attached. Built-in DAF Lamination MechanismStandardly equipped with a DAF lamination mechanism, a high demand feature for stacked packages and other applications. Reduced FootprintExtremely compact in design, the equipment measures2,200mm(W)x3,700mm(D)x1,800mm(H).
Equipped with pre-cut tape vacuum mounting functionHigh-precision wafer mounting is achieved for wafers with specially shaped backside that makes difficult to mount with the roller method. Performs tape mounting without contact with wafer surfaceBy using our unique wafer holding table, wafer mounting is performed without contact with the wafer surface.
Adopts backside non-contact wafer handling mechanism By adopting the non-contact wafer backside handling method, contamination caused by contact is eliminated for wafers with specially formed backside used in the manufacturing processes of power devices and TSV. Reduced Footprint and High PerformanceHigh performance and yet compact, the equipment allows effective use of workspace and increases work efficiency.*Can also be used for special mounting of package substrates (special specification). Material jetting is the only additive manufacturing technology that can combine different print materials within the same 3D printed model in the same print job.  Additionally, the multi-material printing process is capable of constructing functional assemblies, which reduces the need for multiple builds.
The system offers more than 100 digital material combinations to choose from, including rigid to rubber-like materials, opaque to transparent materials, and materials with ABS-simulating performance. Electrically conductive adhesives (Elecolit brand from Panacol-Elosol) for die bonding, underfilling, antennae printing, flip-chips, LCD, and flex circuit assembly. Tangent Industries offers electrically conductive adhesives for applications involving die bonding, underfilling, antennae printing, flip-chips, LCD, and flex circuit assembly.
As their exclusive distributor for the Americas, Tangent provides Elecolit® brand epoxies from Panacol-Elosol. In select applications, Elecolit® electrically conductive adhesives from Tangent can have significant advantages over traditional soldering methods. Elecolit® electrically conductive adhesives include thermally curable one and two-component products as well as a UV light curable, anisotropic adhesive series. View the electrically conductive adhesive products listed below for a possible candidate for your application. The UJF-6042 incorporates a ball screw type head conveyance mechanism heretofore available only in very high-end flatbed printers. Multiple ink options for the utmost in production flexibility. The UJF-6042 operates with LH-100 CMYK + white inks, a rigid ink formulation for printing on hard surfaces requiring greater adhesion properties. LED curing. Mimaki’s new UV LED unit is optimized for curing efficiency, leaving no uncured ink.
Automatic primer. The automatic inkjet primer application system can apply primer on selected areas, saving cost and preserving the character of the substrate where ink is not being applied.
Nozzle recovery function. This function temporarily covers clogged nozzles with normal nozzles, maintaining consistent print quality throughout the run. Direct print on thick substrates. The UJF-6042’s UV inks enable printing directly on a wide variety of substrates as thick as 150mm and up to A2 size. Environmental advantages. In addition to the environmental advantages already cited, UV curable printing generates minimal VOCs. With RasterLink 6, 3-layer printing of colour, white and colour can be simultaneously performed.
Specifications, design and dimensions stated in this release may be subject to change without prior notice (for technical improvements etc.). To keep up with the increase in demand, manufacturers are constantly looking to increase their output by shortening the production time while keeping costs low.
This may entail simply waiting the required amount of time for the product to set, which could take minutes or even hours, or attempting to accelerate the process with various methods such as forced air drying or oven baking. These photoinitiators react when exposed to a certain amount of light from a particular band or "action" spectrum causing the compound containing the photoinitiator to cure by polymerization of the liquids within. Designed with a wide selection of available action spectra, photoreactive compounds now give manufacturers a menu of solutions to quickly and economically adapt the technology to their unique applications. UV curing does present certain challenges since exposure to UV can gradually degrade production equipment and pose health risks to humans, both of which must be carefully considered. This allows use without rapid premature curing and extends the working time beyond that of photoreactive compounds with an alternative visible light action spectrum. These particles in general tend to grow by Ostwald-ripening, and the characteristics of the sols are changed, as it has been investigated by Brinker and Scherer [23]. This proved to be an absolutely amazing experience and really gives one a fantastic insight into differences in contact lens designs and curing processes. Avaira is the latest addition to the CooperVision silicone hydrogel family in South Africa and offers excellent value.
I can highly recommend it to any contact lens practitioner that would like new insights into world class research, education and information on all aspects of contact lenses, and the anterior eye.

From UV irradiation following the back grinding process, to alignment, mounting on dicing frames, and peeling of back grinding tape, all in a single machine.
A tape pre-cutting mechanism with a unique in-line batch cutting system may be installed as an option. The wafer control system makes it possible to establish FA (factory automation) for the assembly process. This multi-function equipment is capable of handling UV irradiation on BG Tape DAF lamination, mounting to dicing frame, and back grinding tape removal.
While maintaining product quality, the equipment guarantees speedy and dependable work.*Can also be used for special mounting of package substrates (special specification). It enables the tape to be laminated according to the tape type and back-end processing conditions. Elecolit electrically conductive adhesives include thermally curable one and two-component products and a UV light curable adhesive, anisotropic adhesive series.
Panacol-Elosol GmbH is a member of the Honle Group headquartered in Germany, and has been formulating and manufacturing adhesives for over 30 years.
While single component adhesives simplify dispensing and processing, two-component adhesives provide longer shelf life and can be cured at room temperature. Please contact Tangent to confirm your product selection and to secure additional application assistance, including samples and process recommendations.
Pushing down on the brass pump assembly fills upper pan with a measured amount of liquid for moistening. In addition to its larger format size, this printer incorporates many of the innovative improvements Mimaki has introduced in the UJF-3042 series, including 6-colour process colour, white ink, clear ink, to be used as spot varnish, and the ability to print on substrates up to 150mm thick.
This high precision conveyance mechanism enhances the accuracy of the ink drop placement onto the substrate. For photo applications, its A2 size means operators can simultaneously print two facing pages of an A3-size photo album. In addition, the UJF-6042 can utilize Mimaki’s LF-140 flexible ink available in six colours and white, as well as LF200 ink which is available in CMYK + white and enables stretching of ink up to 200% with high adhesion for applications requiring this level of flexibility.
With LED UV curing, the UJF-6042 delivers environmentally friendly UV printing and curing with all of the advantages of LED technology, including long-life, energy savings, lower heat generation, the ability to use thinner, more cost-effective media and printing on heat-sensitive media that cannot be utilized in with conventional UV curing systems. Also, the curing efficiency of the newly developed UV LED unit reduces power consumption while offering much longer life cycles and increased operability. Print and other conditions can easily be set with related settings consolidated into a single window. The underlay printing of a base layer of white ink reproduces the natural beauty of process colours printed on transparent substrates with high precision and simultaneous printing of white and colours ensures that there is no multi-pass colour registration shift.
In addition, the “Jig Layout Function” enables easy imposition of multiple files or images with a template-based approach. The gains in production experienced with these acceleration methods are often minimal and their adaptation and use typically costly. With two different lecture halls presenting different topics and a very impressive exhibition, there was not a single dull moment in the 4 days I spent at the conference. Visiting the distribution warehouse enlightened me on the logistics that are involved in offering such a wide range of products and grew my appreciation for the availability of products such as the Proclear Multifocal Toric XR so much more. On the fully-automatic type, tape application torque and torque curve can be set and registered with the equipment's touch screen. In the event that these standard products do not satisfactorily address your performance requirements, Tangent will investigate other solutions that include development of adhesive specifically tailored to the complexity of your application. The UJF-6042 will be unveiled at Photokina, scheduled for September 18-23, 2012, in Cologne, Germany.
For smaller items, it is easy to create an efficient print layout to minimize waste of expensive substrates and decrease overall production time.
With Mimaki Circulation Technology (MCT), standard with the UJF-6042, white ink is circulated to avoid settling of white pigment in the ink lines.
There is growing demand for high quality photo books with leather or acrylic covers and coated or cast-coated paper inside, and the UJF-6042 is the only printer on the market that can accommodate this range of substrates with the quality required for photo applications. The 600 ml ink packs come in eco-cartridges, which can be used repeatedly, further reducing the amount of waste. In addition, stored layouts can be reused at any time by using the “Register as Favorite” designation. If single-component sols are used, the shelf life can be increased by using low pH (addition of acids). More than 45 of the industry’s leading manufacturers supported the event at the exhibition, showcasing a multitude of contact lenses, instruments and related products. It is no secret that the UV curing process of Biofinity has been extremely successful and the demand for this product has grown exponentially since the launch of the Biofinity Toric. To facilitate practical conductivity, fillers such as palladium, gold, silver, copper, nickel, and graphite are used.
Quality can also be enhanced with the application of glossy or matte finish clear ink, and multi-layered print can be achieved by overprinting an area several times.
This capability provides print service providers with a unique, high margin revenue stream not previously achievable. Depending on the effect to be obtained and the material to be used for this, either gas phase, vacuum or wet coating techniques have been chosen or have been developed, but for most of these coatings, the wet coating technique is not the preferred method at present. Selected colours from the RasterLink 6 colour charts can easily be added into Adobe Illustrator swatches. Choose from corrosion resistant, high density polyethylene or rugged 24-gauge steel construction. Users can also simulate printed colours in Illustrator or Photoshop prior to actually printing, saving both time and money in the design and production process.
A similar situation is observed for the coating material, since coatings based on commercially available organic polymer materials are of interest only in a few cases. SiO2 and TiO2) can be used for the production of optical coatings (reflective coatings, anti-reflective coatings, wide and narrow band filters or dielectric mirrors). Wet coating materials more or less are not standardized, not easily available and therefore have also to be developed by the users. Another interesting area for oxide coatings are electronically conductive coatings where sol-gel prepared ITO-systems show sheet resistances of below 10 Ohms per square [24]. Simply select the order of over- and under-print with white in RasterLink6, and the most efficient path is automatically determined without further operator intervention.
These types of coatings, which are at the break through for industrial production, normally are employed by dip coating processes with subsequent curing at appropriate temperatures. This is in opposition to the large potential connected to chemical material synthesis, which allows to generate highly functional coating materials with interesting properties for glass surfaces and, in addition to this, the equipment costs may be only a fraction of the cost of other techniques. To exploit the potential of others than dip coating technologies for large scale applications have to be to developed too.2. New opportunities with wet coatings on glassAs already mentioned in the introduction, standardized wet coating materials with well-described properties are not available on the market. Non transparent materials mainly may be used for decoration purposes for example using printing techniques.
Transparent materials in form of organic paints never gained significance in practical applications. The application potential results from the opportunity of synthesizing unique material properties and to combine it with cost-effective coating techniques.
Interesting material properties are, as pointed out later, easy-to-clean properties antifogging properties, strength increasing properties on thin glasses, micro-patternability of coatings, photochromic or elecrochromic properties, but also properties presently fabricated by other techniques, as far as they can be prepared cheaper.
There are antireflective (AR) coatings, IR reflecting coatings, coloured coatings or conductive coatings.This short description about the materials situation shows that there is an interesting potential for these coatings.
One advantage of wet coating techniques is, that molecular structures developed by chemical synthesis can be used to develop new properties either when preserving these structures on the surface, or to develop new desired molecular structures by heat-treatment and subsequent chemical reaction on the surface.
This coating is based on colloidal silica, surface modified by methyl groups and compounded with a sol, prepared from fluorinated organoalkoxy silanes. After employing on a glass surface, this coating undergoes a self-alignment, in which the fluorinated groups turn to the air side of the coating and the reactive silanes to the glass substrate to perform adhesion.
Coating technologiesAs general prerequisites for obtaining wet chemical coatings with high optical qualities on glas, it can be stated that the coating step has to be carried out under cleanroom conditions, the coating liquid has to be filtered and the glass has to be cleaned properly. The special features of the different wet coating techniques will be summarized in the next chapters.
Dip coating techniques Dip coating techniques can be described as a process where the substrate to be coated is immersed in a liquid and then withdrawn with a well-defined withdrawal speed under controlled temperature and atmospheric conditions. Hydrophillic coatings For automotive applications, coatings with a good wetting behaviour against water for outside uses as well as those with antifogging properties for inside applications are needed.

The coating thickness is mainly defined by the withdrawal speed, by the solid content and the viscosity of the liquid.
Further requirements are good mechanical properties (scratch and abrasion resistance) and stability against wet climate conditions and UV radiation. If the withdrawal speed is chosen such that the sheer rates keep the system in the Newtonian regime, the coating thickness can be calculated by the Landau-Levich equation [1] (eq 1). They show a poor mechanical stability (haze after 100 cycles Taber-Abraser test over 15 %) and the tendency to swell by incorporation of water. Hot water exposition with this material led to swelling and a loss of mechanical stability. By incorporation of a percolating and interpenetrating inorganic network with predispersed SiO2 nanoparticles, the abrasion resistance was increased resulting in 16 % haze after 1000 cycles Taber-Abraser test with unchanged hydrophilic properties. For the application on the outer side of a windscreen however, a haze increase of maximum 2 % after 1000 cycles Taber-Abraser test is allowed. This objective seems to be reachable by optimization of the composition and curing conditions. Conductive pastes as well as decorative pastes are a state-of-the-art material, commercialized by a variety of specialized companies.Recently, it has been shown that in decorative enamel type silk screen printing pastes, consisting of an organic oil, organic binder, glass frit and ceramic pigments, the organic printing oil and the organic binder can be replaced by a lead boron zink silicate gel [39,40].
In this case, the rheological properties required for the printing process can be obtained by interparticulate interactions. Based on this technology, a coating technique for eye glasses or plate glass has been developed which are partially already used in industrial processes. A wide variety of colours can be obtained like red, blue, grey, green, yellow, brown, orange. The colour is developed during a nucleation and growth process of the colloids during the heat treatment. And this allows the control of the colour intensity by using only one type of colouring system.
Different colours in one-step process can also be obtained using a mixed colloidal system or alloy nanoparticles. The sols are prepared by keeping the metal colloid forming element in a stable form in the liquid (e.g. After coating and drying, the temperature treatment can be carried out under various atmospheres which also influence the type and intensity of colours.PhotochromicsPhotochromic colours can be obtained by using photochromic dyes and incorporate them into sol-gel type of organic-inorganic hybrid materials to be coated according to the methods mentioned above [43,44]. A Nanomer coating system, developed recently [45] allows the incorporation of different blue, violet, yellow and orange photochromes (oxazines, pyranes, fulgides) and neutral tinted mixtures thereof with fast switching kinetics (half darkening and half fading times < 10 s) and good scratch resistance by incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles. In case of a blue coloured spirooxazine dye lifetimes of up to 200 h in sun test could be obtained after incorporation of an appropriate stabilizer (partial UV absorber), which is sufficient for ophthalmic applications. For other dyes, the stability obtained so far , has still to be improved.Glass Strength improvementCompressive stress coatings can be obtained by densifying ceramic or glass coating systems, having a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the substrate glass and at the same time can be densified below the Tg of glass. So it has been shown that borosillicate sol-gel coatings after densification can improve the bending strength of float glass by the factor of 4.
The stacks can be fired finally at 450 A°C to obtain AR systems, colour filters or IR reflective layers. So far, stacks wit up to 5 single layers have been fired without any defects on lab scale [47].
Flow coating processes at present are used for outfitting of automotive glazing from polycarbonate with hard coating but also can be used for float glass to employ functional coatings. The advantage of the flow-coating process is that non-planar large substrates can be coated rather easily.
The potential of new materials to be used in coatings on glass is very high, but is only exploited to a tiny fraction.
As a variation of this process, the spinning of the substrate after coating may be helpful in order to obtain more homogenous coatings.If no spinning process is employed, the coating thickness increases from the top to the bottom of the substrate. The reason for this is that due to the relatively small amounts of coating materials, most of the conventional materials developers are not able to carry out time and costs consuming developments, since the expected pay back is too small.
In addition to this, the material development by itself is not sufficient, since it requires a coating technology development at the same time. Spin coating process In the spin coating process, the substrate spins around an axis which should be perpendicular to the coating area. The spin-on process has been developed for the so-called spin-on glasses in microelectronics and substrates with a rotational symmetry, e.g. Dr Schmidt (In German)  Related linksInternal LinksCleaning for coating operations An introduction to substrate cleaning operations indispensable before any coating deposition technique. The coating thickness vary between several hundreds of nanometers and up to 10 micrometers.
The quality of the coating depends on the rheological parameters of the coating liquid, and it has to be mentioned, that one should operate in the Newtonian regime.
Lai, Chen and Weill [12-14] independently determined thickness of films obtained by spin coating, using different angular speeds, and their results could be fitted very well with equation (3).
Capillary coating Spray and spin coating processes are characterized by the fact that the coating material cannot be brought all onto the substrate.
So, in spray coating processes more than 100 % overspray is obtained, and similar amounts are wasted with spin coating. Dip and flow coating processes mainly depend on the shelf life of the coating material and in optical dip coating only 10 to 20 percent of the coating liquid actually can be used for fabrication of coatings.
To overcome these problems, the so-called capillary or laminar flow coating process has been developed by Floch [15,16] and CONVAC Co.
7: Schematics of the capillary coating process, Floch [15]The tubular dispense unit is moved under the substrate surface without physical contact.
A spontaneous meniscus is created between the top of the slot tube (or porous cylinder) and the substrate surface, and achieving laminar deposition conditions a coating is deposited with high uniformity.
It is of importance that in order to avoid structures in the surface cutted roles have to be used, and coating thickness and viscosity of the liquid have to be adapted very thoroughly.
Using cutted roles, the amount of liquid transported onto the glass surface is defined by the voids cutted out of the role.
For this reason, the wetting behaviour of the glass against the liquid has to be perfect and the drying speed has to be adapted to the film forming velocity. Printing technique The most common printing technique for glass decors is the silk screen printing process [19,20]. Coating materials based on organic polymers, to be cured at low temperatures or UV curing as well as enamel coatings with ceramic paints and appropriate low melting glass frits are used. Enamel like coatings are densified near the Tg of the glass substrate or, in combination with a thermal strengthening process or with a bending process, at appropriate higher temperatures. Therefore the coefficients of thermal expansion of enamel have to be matched to that of the substrate glass.Beside silk screen printing, continuous [21] and discontinuous [22] ink jet printing of sol-gel ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid coating materials have been applied to ceramic and glass surfaces to obtain decorative coatings and micro-optical elements (micro lenses and micro lens arrays). Chemical coating Chemical coatings should be understood as a process where a chemical reaction, e.g. The most common process is the fabrication of mirrors where the glass surface acts as a nucleating agent for the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 in presence of reducing agent. Another technology, which is suitable as an example for precipitating copper layers on glass, is the currently metalization process with commercially available liquids after seeding of the glass surface. Drying and curing techniques Drying and curing techniques are important for obtaining the appropriate coating properties.
Depending on the type of the coating material high temperature curing and low temperature curing can be distinguished. If high chemical durability are required, the coating temperature mainly is chosen just below Tg of the glass in order to maintain the shape. If special functions have to be obtained, the control of the atmosphere may be of importance (e.g.
Organic polymer or organic-inorganic hybrid coating materials can be cured by a low temperature IR treatment or UV-curing.
For some special applications, the development of electron beam curing seems to be of interest.4.
All the work of Dislich [6,7] has shown that a large variety of systems can be prepared in form of sols, following the alkoxide synthesis route. For this reason, the alkoxide process for the fabrication of sols is shown schematically in figure 9 for a sodium borosilicate glass coating as an example.Fig.

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Comments Uv curing process control

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