10.04.2015
CharacteristicsThe UVAFLEX® Y71 Series has a low-migration formulation and is therefore suitable for printing of primary packaging for food.
You may think that ink is just ink and that it’s the plates, press and skill of the printer that make all the difference when it comes to print quality. The properties of ink including colour, the strength of that colour, tack, drying characteristics and the length of the filaments that it forms when it flows, have a big influence on the final result.
Ink is comprised of 4 basic raw materials that are combined in specific proportions or formulas. Solvents– are used to keep the ink liquid from when it is applied to the printing plate or cylinder until when it has been transferred to the surface to be printed.  At this point the solvent must separate from the body of the ink to allow the image to dry and bind to the surface. Printing ink can be broken down into two subclasses: ink for conventional label printing and ink for digital label printing. In water-based inks, the water acts as the main solvent to keep the pigment in liquid form. Ink manufacturers are working hard to overcome some of these problems and have made great steps forward in recent years.
Solvent inks are toxic and require special handling and ventilation in compliance with specific regulations relating to the release of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Bio solvent or eco solvent inks are being developed for use in more enclosed print settings with minimum ventilation. UV curable inks are mainly used for indoor applications, such as shrink sleeves, packaging, posters, signage and POP displays. The ink or toner that is used in a digital press is fundamentally different to that used in conventional machines; its chemistry is far more complex and it comes in a sealed canister not a pot! Toner formulations, particle size and melting point vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. A varnish is a transparent, liquid coating applied to a printed surface to add a clear glossy, matte, satin, or neutral finish. Varnishing can be carried out ‘online’ (the varnish is applied directly after the ink is put on the paper), or ‘offline’ by a separate machine, sometime after printing.
A gloss varnish is often used to heighten the impact of photographs or particular design elements, as the coating reflects back the light and makes colours appear richer and more vivid.
The percentage of gloss can actually be measured in accordance with DIN 67530 which is based on the reflection of light corresponding to specific angles. A matt varnish diffuses the reflection of light to give the printed surface a non-glossy, smooth look. This represents the ‘middle ground’ between the two above, being neither as glossy as a true gloss, nor as subtle as a matt.
Textured varnish is a glossy varnish that overlays a slightly rippled, tactile finish to the page. Please get in touch on 01903 738 205 if you would like to discuss any of this blog with our technical team.
Details about  UV and EB Curing Formation for Printing Inks Coatings and Paints by R. This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within 2 business days of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
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Your bid is the same as or more than the Buy It Now price.You can save time and money by buying it now. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. Enhance your Screen Printing magazine experience by exploring our interactive digital edition. Editor's note: This article was updated from an original version that appeared in the January 1996 issue of Screen Printing magazine. 275°F 15 min * Not recommended for outdoor exposure Epoxy, enamel, acrylic, and polyester inks need toe cured at high temperatures, for long periods of time, or both. TrioTek™ 3 in 1 (Three curing methods in one oven) inline heat curing ovens from ETS are ideal for medium to high-volume curing, baking or drying of conductive inks, conformal coatings, adhesives, encapsulants and potting compounds.
Longwave Infrared Thermal Curing: The primary method of heat transfer is combination convection and long wave Infrared (IR).
Mesh Belt ConveyorSome applications are better suited by support across the entire width of the conveyor. Supply Air FiltrationAir is drawn through large area filters running the length of the machine on both sides to provide clean, fresh air to be used in the process cavity.
Pre-FiltrationCourse filters are used in the exhaust to protect more expensive secondary filters from premature dust loading and replacement.
Gas Phase FiltrationDeep Bed, Gas Phase Adsorbers are employed to remove solvents and odors from the exhaust stream ensuring a safe and comfortable work environment.
TrioTek Curing Oven Model 4250 paired with SCS PrecisionCoat Selective Spray and Dispense Conformal Coating Workcell processes Conap 1155 Conformal Coating. TrioTek Curing Oven Model 2250 paired with Nordson Asymtek Century Selective Spray and Dispense Conformal Coating Workcell in Right to Left Processing Configuration.
Deep Bed Gas Phase Filtration (left) Removes VOC’s (such as solvents) and Odors from the Exhaust Stream.
Traditional medium-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps produce a wide spectrum of radiation, including significant emissions in the ultraviolet region, specifically UVC, UVB, UVA and UVV.
These traditional Hg lamps yield 70-75% radiation in non-useful wavelengths, most notably high-energy infrared light that produces significant heat. The science of producing a suitably high flux of intense UV photons with light-emitting diodes has made remarkable progress in the past 10 years.
To test this principle, a simple clear formulation (50% epoxy acrylate, 50% IBOA) was blended, and photoinitiators were added at percentage levels. Type 2 photoinitiators and EMK (Ethyl Micheler’s Ketone) were not tested individually in this screen. Note: Although MBF gave a poor result by itself, it does have excellent solvency for other PIs and possibly some synergy in cure response. A concentration curve up to 15% photoinitiator was created for BDMM in the same clear formula and tested for cure as a function of line speed (dose).
The addition of Type II initiators could be considered to reduce oxygen inhibition, but, again, yellowing can be quite severe. The master batch formula was diluted with 60 pbw DPGDA and tested with several photoinitiator packages to achieve reasonable cure. Our September issue focuses on sustainable solutions, specialty chemicals, architectural coatings and the latest pigment technology. Luminus is applying its Big Chip technology to ultraviolet radiation and bringing with it the advantages of high power beam control in the areas of UV Curing, Medical & Scientific applications and Purification. A co-solvent may be added for a number of reasons, most commonly, to decrease the time and heat necessary for curing.
Printing on these substrates with water is very successful because of the absorbent nature of the paper fibres. Due to the number of different machines and materials however, trials are always recommended to ensure full compatibility before production commences. There are many classifications for this type of ink; some are classified as mild or eco-friendly, while some are categorized as aggressive. Solvent gravure inks are used to achieve the very highest quality of metallic printing as seen in the beverage market. These environmentally friendly inks are made from renewable resources, namely corn and soybean.  They show a high durability to UV light and good adhesion to vinyl, PVC, and other uncoated substrates.


The UV radiation acts as a catalyst and initiates a photochemical reaction where by cross links are formed, instantly turning the liquid ink into a dry and durable coating.
There are global standards for migration which must be complied with for certain types of food packaging. Developers have made heavy investments into its development and continue to come out with new inks and substrates optimised for UV-curing. In the digital world the ink represents a key part of the technology and must be compatible with all elements of the press. During the label printing process, the toner is electrostatically charged to adhere to the printer drum which is charged with opposite polarity. A great deal of research has gone into trying to achieve small, uniform particle size, key to achieving accurate colour reproduction and print quality. The liquid varnish hardens after application by a variety of processes depending on its formulation. A gloss coating can add impact to your print, especially in sales or promotional material, where optimum presentation of images is paramount. A gloss varnish seal is the most common type of all-over varnish, (perhaps because this finish really does give a very high gloss effect, more so than with a laminate in many cases) although silk and matt are also available.
This has the effect of drawing attention to a specific part of the design and can add interest to the label. It can be used as a spot varnish to enhance the impact of particular page elements and is an interesting and eye-catching alternative to standard gloss varnishes.
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This has placed us at the forefront as a producer and supplier of UV Inks and varnishes world wide. They are easy to integrate with automated spray and dispense systems, SMEMA compliant and equipped with a unique downdraft exhaust design. Convection heating is accomplished by first pressurizing a plenum above the oven’s process cavity, second directing the air to the first two zones and then through air knives in the hot plates to the product.
EdgeGrabber Conveyor and Ultraviolet (UV) Curing featuring High Power LED Flood Cure Emitters. Provides onscreen display of Temperature, Wattage, Conveyor Speed, Light Tower Status, Product Tracking, SMEMA status, etc.
The need to keep typical Hg lamps cool requires voluminous airflow, and, thus, additional energy. Also note that the 395 nm lamp provides much greater peak irradiance than the traditional Hg lamp, as well. A difference could be seen between 4 and 8 mm to the substrate, but a longer distance showed no further decrease in reactivity.
Coatings were tested between 6 and 80 micron thicknesses and demonstrated little difference in cure.
Type II initiators show very little reaction at the LED wavelengths tested, and ITX contributes substantially to yellowing.
However, with the level of pigment required to achieve commercial print densities, the amount of photoinitiator required was near 20%. Screen inks and other similar low-pigmented, thick-film and slow-speed decorative systems could be cured adequately, similar to inkjet. Luminus’ high flux density technology enables solid-state UV solutions to optimize the curing of coatings, inks and adhesives. For the print to be cured, the water has to have completely evaporated, allowing the pigment particles to settle into the substrate.
The inks and solvents (water included) are partially absorbed into the substrate, and partially vaporized into the surrounding air. The use of water-based inks, which had been declining, is now seeing an increase in popularity, especially on the Continent.
After transferring to the paper, the toner is fused in place by a heating element forming a very thin and smooth plastic layer on the surface.
Small text on a label is easier to read on a surface coated with matt vanish as the coating scatters the light, reducing glare. It is particularly effective when applied as a gloss spot varnish on top of a matt flood varnish.
If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. But do you know which type of ink is best suited for your product and the type of metal you're printing?
Removable drip pans and drip grabber foil lining reduce oven maintenance associated with messy drips and spills. Long wave Infrared (IR) emitters cure coatings from the inside out, eliminating problems associated with surface skinning and off-gassing. LED systems utilize focused long wave UVA emitters with a relatively narrow wavelength band for rapid curing. The low-power systems are typically fitted to inkjet scanning applications, and the high-power systems are slowly finding their way into traditional high-speed printing equipment.
As much of our customer base is focused on inks and coatings, significant focus on pigmented systems was included in this first study. Considering the band overlap potential, it should be possible to find one or more photoinitiators (or, more likely, a combination of photoinitiators) that can provide sufficient free radical flux to initiate an efficient polymerization, even in pigmented systems.
One explanation might be that the high levels of photoinitiator required to achieve sufficient cure combined with the greater penetration of the 395 nm wavelength light overcomes surface cure inhibition common in traditional systems.
Although not specifically tested in this study, low-film-weight opaque whites would likely suffer from insufficient cure without a boost from Type II photoinitiator, but yellowing with its inclusion. Medical & scientific applications including photodynamic therapy also benefit from a high power and high flux density LED. The use of water inks on other substrates, such as films and foils, varies and they may require special treatment in order to have the inks adhere to them.
They are  being used as a possible alternative to UV curable inks, where migration can be a problem in food labelling. The mild inks take some time to dry and need a lot of heat, whilst the aggressive types are easier to dry and require less heat.
This achieves maximum contrast between the highly reflective shiny coating and the light-absorbing matt finish. Scratch-and-sniff technology takes a fragrance and encapsulates it in minute gelatin or plastic spheres which are then incorporated into a varnish – the number of fragrances available is impressive!
The optional ETS xFlow exhaust flow controller and gas phase filtration ensure a safe and comfortable work environment. TrioTek’s unique LED emission sources produce very little heat, require no warm-up, emit no harmful UVB, UVC or Ozone, and do not contain Mercury.
BDMM and PMP are slightly better than TPO but their high yellowing after cure would normally rule them out as suitable photoinitiators for clearcoats. The majority of pages are undamaged with minimal creasing or tearing, minimal pencil underlining of text, no highlighting of text, no writing in margins. Do you know why a conventional solvent-based ink seems to perform where a UV ink seems to fail? Humidity levels are monitored, and when required, moisture levels are increased in the supply air prior to entering the process cavity. TrioTek™ LED UV Emitters offer high flux radiant output and greater than 25,000 hours of operation with minimal degradation over time. This article will attempt to answer these questions and explore the use of UV screen-printing inks on metal versus solvent-based inks.
These ink systems are generally fast curing and may have good outdoor durability, depending on the formulation. On-Screen display give the operator instant access to current process cavity relative humidity levels.


Both the cationic and free-radical UV ink systems are chemically reactive and can produce hard ink films with chemical, scuff, and flexibility properties similar to baked solvent-based inks.
While circuit printing does fall under the "metal" umbrella, the special requirements for this application make it a unique product specialty. Any screen-printing ink will have to exhibit certain properties to satisfy the requirements for coated-metal printing. The ink may have to provide a hard film to resist scuffing, scratching, blocking, and solvents, but be flexible enough to meet bending, diecutting, and embossing requirements.
If the end product is for interior use, epoxies would be suitable in addition to other resin systems. If both solvent resistance and outdoor durability are important criteria, most air-dried inks and any epoxy-based inks are not suitable; conventional baked inks or free-radical UV inks could be. In any case, the most important parameter is that the ink film adheres after proper drying or curing.
But if the coating is thermoset (and in most screen-printing applications it is), printing with UV, air-dried, or baked inks is more difficult. This hardness depends on the resin system of the coating, the method of coating application, and the curing (usually baking) conditions of the coating. Usually, the higher the temperature and the longer the cure, the harder the surface becomes. This surface hardness is the root of the problems that screen printers encounter in trying to get free-radical UV inks to adhere to coated metals as compared to solvent-based inks.
Depending on the formulation, a free-radical UV ink deposit may shrink up to 50% during curing due to polymerization and crosslinking of resin components.
With conventional baked inks, shrinkage is based on solvent content and tends to be more limited than with UV inks.
After printing a coated metal with a conventional baked ink, the printed product must be baked at high temperatures for long periods of time. This will soften the surface of the metal coating to some degree and allow the ink to "wet" the surface better to achieve good adhesion.
As the metal and the coating cool, the ink film also cools, and any shrinking occurs in slow stages, allowing for good adhesion. When ordering coated-metal substrates from your supplier, make sure you ask what type of coating is on the metal (acrylic, polyester, etc.) and whether any slip agents or other surfactants have been added to the coating that may make it more difficult to print. Printing UV Inks on Metal The most successful inks currently used for coated-metal decorating are solvent based. UV printing has one system, cationic, that exhibits very little shrinkage, but is slow curing and based on cycloaliphatic epoxides.
Since little shrinkage is involved, the cationic ink system tends to adhere better to the thermoset-coated metals than the free-radical systems. Cationic inks continue to cure over long periods of time, however, and care must be taken to prevent intercoat adhesion problems.
Solvent-based ink Conventional solvent-based inks can be broken into two categories, based on how they cure: 1.
A free-radical UV ink, on the other hand, reacts rapidly during the curing cycle, cools quickly, and shrinks on a surface that is hard and nonshrinking, such as thermoset-coated metal.
The cured inks are normally epoxies, enamels, and polyesters or acrylics modified with a crosslinking resin, such as melamine.
The metal and coating are not affected--they don't heat up so they neither expand nor shrink, and the substrate surface remains hard. When compared to a chemically reactive or "baked" ink film, the surface of the air-dried ink film will be softer and susceptible to scratching and scuffing. This puts stress on the adhesion of the ink to the substrate, to the point that the ink film may pop off the coated metal. Softer ink films could also lead to blocking if not dried properly, and because metal is heavy, blocking in the stack could be a problem. The coatings vary considerably in base chemistry and crosslink density, relating to surface hardness variables that often go beyond a UV ink's ability to wet the surface (that is, the surfaces are too hard for the ink to adhere to). The epoxies, acrylics, or polyesters, which are chemically reactive, need to be cured at high temperatures, often for long periods of time (Table 1). While one batch of metal may process well, the next could be too hard, exhibiting poor adhesion. After curing, these inks generally exhibit very hard ink films, which are more resistant to solvents, gasoline, and cleaning solutions, as well as scratching and scuffing. To increase your chances of success with these commercially available metals, you should conduct a cross-hatch test on each batch before the production run.
These baked inks tend to be less flexible than air-dried inks, but they may be suitable for embossing or forming. Additionally, surface-tension testing may be helpful in detecting any high levels of surfactants in the coating that could cause adhesion problems. However, the best chance you will have for successfully processing UV inks on coated metal surfaces is to control the coating and its resultant cure density, or hardness, yourself. This is done by working with your metal supplier and your ink supplier to get a coating that is more receptive to UV inks.
As a matter of fact, they are winning Golden Image Awards." You, of course, would be right. Some printers have had success with free-radical UV inks on metals whose coatings have been qualified for the window of performance required. In most of these instances, the metal supplier has worked with the printer and ink manufacturer to develop a softer coating that meets printing requirements. Most of these applications have been more in point-of-purchase decorative signage (not exterior qualified), short-term display, and indoor signage.
As a rule, a baked conventional ink (except an epoxy) will exhibit three- to five-year durability, and a clear coating will further enhance exterior performance. UV inks (not epoxy based) will exhibit two- to three-year durability, although a UV clear coat will further enhance exterior performance of these inks, as well. The market Yes, both cationic and free-radical UV inks can be used for screen printing on coated metal. Free-radical UV inks are successfully being used as halftone inks for decorative signage and are being used with some success for nameplates and appliance trim. Raw materials will eventually allow manufacturers to produce a UV ink with properties comparable to those of a solvent-based baking ink.
While you'll find no definitive answer to this question, the fact remains that the coated-metal printing market is shrinking.
More and more, plastics are being specified for signs, nameplates, appliance trim, and automotive trim. Plastic sheets can be stacked higher with less weight, which means that blocking problems are less probable.
The baking of inks for coated metals consumes high energy levels and requires long curing-time cycles, both of which slow production. With these concepts in mind, it will be interesting to see if UV inks for coated-metal printing ever grow to the size or ability of conventional baked inks. Conclusion I have attempted to present an open-minded view of the status and future of UV inks in the coated-metal market.
Seeing the positives and the negatives, I have tried to explain this information in an easily understandable form and hope I have been successful.
Blanco holds a bachelor of science degree in chemistry and an MBA from Fairleigh-Dickinson University. He is a frequent speaker at industry events and a contributing author to several industry journals.



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Comments Uv curing inks 2014

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  2. BABNIK
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  4. GRIPIN
    Item cracked in the event that you decades, is seeing increasing use in scientific great, although the.