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Three Dimensional Nanoimprint Lithography using Inorganic Electron Beam ResistJun Taniguchi1 and Noriyuki Unno[1] Tokyo University of Science, Japan1. Optical, electrical and structural properties of spin-on MSQ low-k dielectrics over a wide temperature range.
It might be the future of manufacturing, but 3-D printing is built on a 2-D foundation: A MakerBot is essentially an inkjet printer that spits out plastic instead of ink. Inspired by the mercurial T-1000 bot from Terminator 2, University of North Carolina professor Joseph DeSimone wanted to make objects emerge from liquid.
Even with this effect, the Carbon3D can print up to 100 times faster than leading 3-D and stereolithographic printers. Right now, Carbon3D has prototypes running at auto behemoth Ford in Dearborn, Michigan, at an athletic apparel company, and at a special-effects house in San Fernando, California, with an eye to hitting the market in 2016. The goal of indie game studio Robot Loves Kitty is to see how players behave when any misstep could mean the permanent end of their existence. Yes, only eight people play at a time, but a vast audience of spectators can stream the game live—plus they’re empowered to toss aid or obstacles to the all-too-mortal players. Since 2011, the 26-year-old postdoc, now at UC Santa Barbara, has been building a vast library of plastic microbeads—each the size of a grain of sand—with a range of special powers.
Chemist Abby Knight has created plastic microbeads that grab onto toxic metal (shown here in green) in contaminated groundwater. Environmentalists don’t want to hear that water needs more plastic, and researchers still need to find a way to scoop out these microbeads (along with the ones that originated in your face wash). For those who must always look their best, the work tray has a space for storing jewelry, along with a large mirror for applying makeup. Passengers can sit back and put their feet up, while a white-gloved chauffeur takes them anywhere they'd wish to go. By that, he means enough space for Yao Ming to work on his yoga, or enjoy a 17? screen, a cushioned leg rest, and storage boxes for shoes (!), jewelry and makeup.
It’s actually sort of surprising it’s taken the auto industry this long to remove the front seat, but for those looking to travel in decadence (and don’t have 2.4 kids to haul around), the Lounge Concept could be just the ticket. LAS VEGAS, NV - JANUARY 06: Autodesk's Ember 3D stereo lithography 3D printer is displayed at the 2015 International CES at the Sands Expo and Convention Center on January 6, 2015 in Las Vegas, Nevada.
3D printing technology has been progressing at a fairly steady pace for the past few years, but now, thanks to California-based startup Carbon3D, the technology is about to take a massive leap forward. The company has developed a radical new technique called Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) that is anywhere from 25 to 100 times faster than most 3D printers. This amount includes seller specified US shipping charges as well as applicable international shipping, handling, and other fees.
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Enter your email address below to receive daily news about 3D printing and updates on the Inside 3D Printing conference series. IntroductionWith the advancement in the information technology the need for increasingly complex three-dimensional (3D) structure is eminent. ERA-8800FE (ELIONIX Co.) was used for EB system with several pA of beam current and about 10 nm beam diameter. 6 shows a sub-100 nm 3D nanoimprint mold and the UV-NIL pattern on photo-curable resin that we obtained, similar to a blade-shaped mold. 14 shows the cross-sections of developed L&S pattern with or without PEB at 300 0C, whose designed line-width and space-width were 45 nm and 270 nm, respectively. Keep printing in the same spot, over and over, and the layers will eventually form a 3-D object from the bottom up.
Oxygen inhibits the chemical reaction that solidifies the resin, slowing the process some­what.
In a video that ricocheted around the Internet after DeSimone pre­sented it at TED, the device pulls a model of the Eiffel Tower out of the goo, as if it had just been sitting in the liquid all along.
Rather than warehousing and shipping car parts, technicians could make components for older models on the spot from designs stored in the cloud. In the event of a perma-permadeath, a random viewer becomes the next player, like a contestant on The Price Is Right summoned up from the crowd.
Some 5 trillion bits now clog the world’s oceans, ending up in everything from deep-sea sediments to plankton guts.
She douses the balls in a dye to see how much metal they’ve absorbed (see artist’s re-creation, above). They’re coated in peptoids, a class of synthetic molecule she has tweaked to target chromium.
But with a pinch of chemistry, Knight has turned a filthy pollutant into a potent purifier—a Brita filter for the planet.

The XC90 “Excellence” is built specifically for China, where the luxury market is booming and having a chauffeur is far more common than it is in the US or Europe. The printer uses the Spark open 3D printing platform and a UV curable resin that hardens with light and will be available later this year for USD 5,995. UV light triggers photo polymerization (hardening) in the resin, while oxygen inhibits it. CLIP is essentially a chemical process that leverages this interaction in order to eliminate the mechanical steps and layering of traditional printers. Carbon3D is able to draw from the entire polymer family, meaning they can make objects out of everything from silicone to rubber to polyester. Keep your fingers crossed and we might see CLIP printers out in the wild by the end of the year. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
Gray scale lithography can produce 3D structure but it cannot match the resolution of electron beam lithography (EBL).
Here the peaks of Si-CH3 and Si-O in exposed area are significantly lower than the corresponding peaks in the un-exposed area indicating that the exposed area was developed out.
The designed line-width is 27 nm and the space-width is 108 nm (line and space pattern, L&S). This L&S pattern line, space, and depth were was 470 nm, 190 nm and 550 nm, respectively. But an outfit called Carbon3D is taking the opposite tack: Its new rig creates objects from the top down, in one continuous motion.
Aeronautical engineers could print high-strength, low-weight lattice structures to replace, for example, components in passenger seats, lightening the payload and increasing fuel efficiency in planes. That’s what makes the twist behind the upcoming PC game Upsilon Circuit so scary: If you die in this world, you’re done. When Knight dumps the beads into water, the peptoids’ “arms” grab onto the toxic metal, clearing up the contamination.
Massage seats, custom-designed sound systems, and neck warmers are no longer enough to stand out. Revealed at the Shanghai auto show, the “Lounge Console” ditches not just the third row, but the front passenger seat. CES, the world's largest annual consumer technology trade show, runs through January 9 and is expected to feature 3,600 exhibitors showing off their latest products and services to about 150,000 attendees. Objects produced via CLIP look almost like injection-molded plastic, and come out of the bath without any noticeable layers. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Today the EBL is primarily used for mask making and for making nanoimprint lithography (NIL) molds (Chou et al., 1995), but these structures do not require features with varying depths. This result means that the pattern depth can be modulated by using CAV-EBL even at the sub-100 nm scale.
The develop mechanism is explained by the conversion of Si-CH3 into Si-OH when exposed to EB where, unlike Si-CH3, the newly formed Si-OH is readily soluble in BHF. A projector underneath deliv­ers targeted blasts of UV to shape the form from below as the overhead platform lifts, drawing the object out of the soup.
A sheet of glass between the projector and the resin is gas-permeable like a contact lens, and the oxygen keeps the resin from hardening too soon, before the object is com­plete. And Carbon3D could prove invaluable for medical applications: Custom molds could be made onsite at a dentist’s office, and stents or other emergency implants could be custom-printed on-demand in the hospital.
So the Swedes yanked the third row entirely, making more room acres of legroom, massage seats, folding tables, and a temperature-controlled cup holder.
At first, SOG was spin-coated on a Si substrate and cured at 425 oC for 1 h resulting in a 450 nm film. The replicated heights were shorter than mold depths, because the photo-curable resin was shrunk by curing at UV exposure. This behavior results in the appearance of high contrasts.Next, a developer, buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF), was optimized.
However, the mold line-widths and the replicated pattern line-widths matched, and the replicated pattern heights were also modulated.
Thus, the wetting ability between the resist surface and water dominates the etching rate of the resist.
However, high kV EB because of its poor interaction with resist causes poor resist sensitivity resulting in low throughput. In the case of the CAV-EBL, the developed depth was controlled by varying the voltage to change the electron range where low and high voltages gave shallow and deep pits. Mixing ratios and concentrations of these components were varied to optimize the development process.
In this case, thick NIMO-P0701 film (1 ?m) on silicon wafer was exposed and developed to achieve the required pattern, because PEB process for the SOG suppress the proximity effect and increase the contrast.
It is also difficult to control depth because dose change affects EB blur resulting in feature width spread during develop. Improving the inorganic resistWe used a Spin-On-Glass (SOG) material, Accuglass 512B (Honeywell Co. This L&S pattern line, space, and depth were was 390 nm, 250 nm and 1000 nm, respectively.
The process was as follows: at first, a fabricated 3D mold was coated with anti-sticking layer Optool DSX (DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD). On the other hand, negative EB inorganic resist has high sensitivity and resolution (Namatsu, 2001).
But developing characteristic of NIMO-P0701 turned out to be of low contrast and sensitivity.
Since the transparency of this type of resist extends to ultraviolet (UV) light, it can also be used for making UV-NIL mold.

Hence, positive EB inorganic resists with high sensitivity and resolution, and low line edge roughness (LER) are now required for low kV EBL. Therefore, the etching rate at the un-exposed area with PEB is smaller than without PEB, result in the developed line-width reduction. An aspect ratio of “with” PEB mold was higher than that of “without” PEB, thus, influence of PEB is effective even where pattern size is of the order of submicron. Using the resist we fabricated 3D mold by controlling the acceleration voltage, and then we replicated the mold with nano-order patterns by using UV-NIL. Furthermore, PEB makes the surface smooth, and makes the structure vertically more anisotropic.
Usually, fabrication of binary optics element involving repeated overlays and dry etch results in poor resolution and is expensive.
However, control of acceleration voltage electron beam lithography (CAV-EBL) can fabricate binary optics element by using only EB, and thus makes the process cost effective.
To make the precise measurement of depth dependence on acceleration voltage change, we used a step profilometer (KLA-Tencor alpha-step 500). The NIMO-P0701 film was pre-baked at 300 0C (90 s), which is the decomposition temperature of PBG, resulting in an approximately 300 nm film thickness.
Hence fabrication of 3D NIL mold using CAV-EBL is described.Furthermore, the method of improving the resolution and the contrast using post exposure bake (PEB) with inorganic resist is also described. To enable the profilometer stylus to reach to the bottom of the patterns, we set the drawing pattern width to 10 ?m. PBG totally changes Si-O-R into Si-O at low pre-bake temperature of 300 C and accretive to NIMO-P0701 to achieve high sensitivity and delineate pattern at lower pre-bake temperature.
Although no chemically amplified material is contained in our inorganic resist, PEB was characteristically applied in our process. The mold and replicated pattern was observed with atomic force microscope (SII 100 SPA-400), and scanning electron microscope (SEM, ELIONIX, ERA-8800FE) was used to examine the pattern. The obtained L&S pattern’s line, space, and depth were was 280 nm, 240 nm and 940 nm, respectively. PEB process causes the anneal effect for inorganic resist and the proximity effect is suppressed, resulting in high contrast.2. 3D UV-NILTo evaluate the EB dose effect in the CAV-EBL, the acceleration voltage was varied from 1 to 4 kV by 30 V increments.
The replicated height and width were slightly smaller than mold depth and width because of volume shrinkage of photo-curable polymer by UV irradiation.
Experimental apparatus and proceduresAt first, Accuglass-512B, a Spin-on-Glass (SOG) composed mainly of siloxane with 14% organic content whose interlayer dielectrics were developed by Honeywell Co., was used for inorganic resist. After develop shows decrease in Peaks of Si-CH3 and Si-O indicating the area of NIMO-P0701 developed out.
As a result, using the developed EB resist layer and UV-NIL, sub-micron L&S mold were fabricated.
Since NIMO-P0701 has exhibited high sensitivity and low LER, it was used to image very fine patterns as shown Fig. Nanodot array patterns will be used in patterned media and plasmonic devices of the next generation.
Post exposure bake with the inorganic resistA line and space (L&S) patterns, which line-width was 40 nm and space-width was 70nm, was obtained using low-acceleration-voltage EBL system with inorganic resist, NIMO-P0701 in section 3. Nanometer-scale pattern fabrication has already been applied to quantum devices optical (Fujita et al., 1997).
This figure mean that the effect of EB dose on the developed depths was quite noticeable at higher accelerating voltage. However, the smaller space-width was not obtained with 4 kV EB because of the proximity effect. The patterned media can have a higher density of dot pattern than existing hard disk drives as a result of their ability to store magnetic information vertically. In contrast, in low acceleration voltage region (< 2kV) there was no effect of dose change on developed-depth.
Typically, PEB was only employed for increasing the sensitivity of the resist, which has a chemically amplified material (Ocola, 2003). When these nano-meter scale structures fabricate, high acceleration voltage EBL system is normally employed as noted previously in introduction. Furthermore, a 5 nm depth control is possible using CAV-EBL and spin on glass as an EB resist. However, there are no chemically amplified material in NIMO-P0701, but PEB process caused the anneal effect for SOG and the proximity effect was suppressed. Using our PEB process with NIMO-P0701, however, a nanodot array pattern with 20-nm-diameter dots was obtained by 4 kV EBL (Fig. However, these motors had limited accuracy of around 500 nm, so superposition of areas width needed to be wider than 500 nm and hence a designed line-width of 2 ?m was chosen. PEB was carried out just after EB exposure using hot plate at 200, 300, 425 0C for 5 minutes in air.
Although the designed diameter of the nanodots was 30 nm, the areas exposed to the electron beam were shrunk to 20 nm as a result of the anneal effect of PEB at 200 C.
We found that the CAV-EBL can be employed to fabricate 3D NIL mold which may be in the order of just a sub-100 nm width, and can be employed to control a depth with a precision of 5 nm by simply changing the accelerating voltage by 30 V. Therefore, CAV-EBL is a suitable technique for the fabrication of binary optics element and NIL molds.
5 shows replicated patterns on photo-curable resin, and table I shows developed-depths of mold and heights of UV-NIL patterns. Thus, volume production of high value-added binary optics elements is possible using CAV-EBL and UV-NIL.In addition, inorganic resist and post exposure bake process have been developed. Hence, volume production of binary optics elements is possible by using CAV-EBL and UV-NIL.
Consequently, developed inorganic resist (NIMO-P0701) with PEB process can fabricate high resolution and high aspect ratio NIL molds.

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