06.02.2016
You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Powder Coating provides a premium coating ideal for many automotive, marine, home, and garden applications. EASTWOOD DUAL-VOLTAGE HOTCOAT® POWDERCOAT SYSTEM allows you to coat a part and return it to service in less than an hour!
The DUAL-VOLTAGE CORONA CHARGE design utilizes exclusive EASTWOOD PULSE TECHNOLOGY to deliver a consistent, hard hitting fl ow of power providing the maximum powder coverage and adhesion possible. FLAMMABILITY HAZARD: Powder coating dust, like common household dust, when confined and suspended in air, poses a fire and potential explosion hazard if ignited.
Infrared Light Curing Systems (#10180 and #10680) - Used in place of an oven to cure items which have been powder coated. REMOVING OLD COATINGSTo chemically strip off old finishes use Eastwood's Paint and Powder Remover. FILLING MINOR LOW SPOTS Metal-2-Metal Polyester Filler (#10021Z) can be used as a filler for corroded or pitted areas prior to powder. HANGING OR PLACING THE PART FOR COATING Bend wire hooks to hold the part during powder application and curing. Use a clean sheet of glossy paper (to avoid lint), a spoon, or a funnel to pour the powder into the cup.
ATTACHING THE AIR SUPPLY TO THE GUN TECH TIP: Handle powder as if you were handling liquid paint. CHECKING THE GUN SPRAY PATTERN Use optional deflector for tight recessed areas if you notice the powder is not adhering. Before plugging in the unit, make sure that all the cords are not damaged or cut, uncoiled and free to move (do not depress the activation switch).
ALSO: Gloss should go into an oven preheated to 350° F and allowed to cure at 350° F after complete flow out has occurred. Recycling powder is not recommended as any debris will result in a rough surface and a compromised finish. Before re-connecting your powder gun be sure to change the air pressure from 30 psi back to 8 PSI or damage will occur! PROBLEM: Coating Porous MaterialsIn some cases, contaminants in porous materials will cause pits in the powder. PROBLEM: Orange Peel "Orange Peel" is when the coated surface resembles the surface texture of an orange. PROBLEM: No Coverage or Poor Coverage in Recessed Areas This is likely the result of a repelling electrical charge build-up known as the "Faraday - Cage Effect".
PROBLEM: Poor Coverage When Applying 2nd Coat (Hot Application) Powders can be applied to hot surfaces. It is a portable hand machine that can produce solid and half-tone flexo samples quickly and economically.
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The focus here is on bisphenol A (BPA) diglycidyl ethers, which constitute well over 97% of all epoxy functional materials produced in the world. Epoxy resins with lower EEW have greater propensity to crystallize than do higher-EEW liquid resins.
The reaction in Figure 1 is an idealized scheme that ignores all potential side reactions, therefore the structure of the epoxy resin shown is also idealized. The phenolic, chlorohydrin and alpha glycol end groups serve as accelerators in the cure of epoxy resins with amines or amine-functional curing agents. Epoxy equivalent weight is often interpreted as an approximate measure of molecular weight. Some epoxy resin manufacturers may purposely introduce non-epoxy end groups, or may manipulate them to modify resin properties, such as lowering viscosity or increasing reactivity.
BPA epoxy resins are generally made by two possible routes.1 In the taffy process, BPA and epichlorohydrin are reacted together at appropriate ratios to make epoxy resins of any desired molecular weight. Many people believe that all BPA epoxy resins are basically the same, regardless of manufacturer. As an example, one epoxy manufacturer sells liquid BPA epoxy resin with one level of alpha glycol. Liquid epoxy suppliers generally establish specifications for epoxy equivalent weight, alpha glycol content, hydrolyzable chlorine content, color and viscosity. It is strongly recommended that formulators contact their suppliers and get the specifications and typical ranges for the epoxy resin characteristics they use.
A coating manufacturer developed a unique high-performance coating that was carefully optimized to achieve the desired performance. This paper was presented at a meeting of the Thermoset Resin Formulators Association at the Crowne Plaza Niagara-Fallsview, Niagara Falls, Ontario, September 12-13, 2011.
Our September issue focuses on sustainable solutions, specialty chemicals, architectural coatings and the latest pigment technology. EASTWOOD’S DUAL-VOLTAGE HOTCOAT® POWDER COATING SYSTEM is a breakthrough refinishing system for the home hobbyist providing professional performance at a fraction of the cost of industrial equipment.
Now you can powder coat any metal part that can withstand the 400°F (204°C) cure temperature utilizing an electric oven or our Infrared Light Cure System. This unit uses high voltage as well as powder which may become fl ammable under certain circumstances. Good housekeeping, adequate ventilation, dust control and isolation from potential ignition sources is required!
Do not use an oven used for food preparation or located in a living area, as mildly toxic fumes are given off by the powder during the curing process! If you damage any of the electrical parts call Eastwood at 1-800-227-8321 and a Technical Representative will gladly assist you in finding the best resolution to the problem. Properly clean the part to be coated by removing all traces of old paint, rust, grease, oil, etc. To mechanically strip the old finish use a Cleaning Disc (#31095), wire brush or sand paper to completely remove paint.
Eastwood has a wide variety of abrasive blasting equipment, including our blast cabinets and Blast out of a Bucket Gun.
Apply Metal-2-Metal as you would any body filler and finish by level sanding and feathering all edges with 180, 220, and 320 grit paper.
Clean with Metal Wash (#10120), PRE Painting Prep (#10041Z), PRE Quarts (#10194ZP) or acetone. Handle the cleaned part with vinyl or Nitrile Disposable Gloves (#43098 M, L, or XL) to avoid contamination. Grounding the part provides a path for static charges to dissipate and attracts the powder.
Hold the gun at various positions and angles to get the best application of powder over the entire part. For smaller parts or irregular surfaces, be sure the Optional Defl ector is not in place on the Emitter Rod at the discharge end of the gun. Move the gun in slightly different angles and in a circular motion to ensure that all areas of the part are covered (as shown above).
If you accidentally knock some powder off the part, it is usually best to blow all the powder off and start over. The high temperature changes the powder from it’s dry solid state to a "glossy" liquid state. At this point, set oven temperature to 400°F (350°F for 10093 and 10286 Gloss Clears) and your timer to 20 minutes.
After the 20 minute cure, remove the part from the oven or turn the oven off, crack the door open and allow the piece to slowly cool.


Once cool, the piece can be second coated, or the tape, plugs, and other masking material can be removed, and the part returned to service.
Simply continue to check the piece until complete flow has been achieved, then set your temperature and timer as described above for curing.
It is also important to unplug the gun first and keep your dust mask on while cleaning the gun.
However, some finishes such as Argent Silver Base (#10102), Extreme Chrome (#15999), Chrome Smoke (#10543) and Gray Metallic (#10341) need to be top-coated with a clear or translucent finish to protect the metallic coatings from oxidation and dulling over time. Apply the second coat in the same manner as the first, concentrating on the deep recessed areas first. Porous cast iron, die cast, cast aluminum, and magnesium parts trap contaminants that, when heated, will outgas and cause porosity problems as the powder is cured. It is also possible to wet the part to dissipate the charge then dry thoroughly and quickly with compressed air. Samples that use fine-tone inks with high viscosity like UV curing flexo ink can be produced. These are their stock-in-trade, and they would be incapable of developing high-performance formulations without properly understanding these issues. This is insidious, because the coating can pass quality control testing with no crystals present. This includes adding reactive diluents and solvents, which is commonly done in formulating coatings. It is believed that the higher-molecular-weight oligomers in the higher-EEW resins act to disrupt the crystal structures and prevent crystallization. However, as one goes up in molecular weight, the number of epoxy groups decreases, while the number of non-epoxy end groups remains constant. The relative levels of these end groups can influence the gel times of some coating formulations. This interpretation is based on the belief that all epoxy resins are difunctional in epoxy groups. In the fusion process, BPA and liquid BPA epoxy resin are reacted together at appropriate ratios to make epoxy resins of any desired molecular weight. To do this, epoxy resins are made with monofunctional chain terminators that serve as non-epoxy end groups. It does not matter which one is used in a formulation that calls for this type of liquid epoxy. One grade has a low level of hydrolyzable chlorine (low chlorohydrin content), while the other grade may have levels 3+ times higher. It is important to know what levels of non-epoxy end groups are in the resins used in your formulations, and how these end groups affect the performance of your high-performance coatings. They are a result of side reactions that occur during the manufacture of epoxy resins, as outlined in Figure 1. They work hard to control these characteristics within their processes and to deliver product within specification.
Certificates of analysis should be kept on file for all epoxy resins used in both product development and in manufacturing commercial products.
To guarantee that this would not happen, the coating manufacturer had to test and approve pre-shipment samples for every candidate lot of resin. This information is also useful in comparing resins from different suppliers and can be useful in troubleshooting problems later.
The cured finish resists most chemicals, fuels, acids, thinners, brake fluid, UV light, and is much more durable than liquid coatings. Eastwood shall not be held liable for consequences due to deliberate or unintentional misuse of this product.
Don't use a coated wire as debris from the wire coating may fall on the part during the curing process. Use of the 25KV setting is best suited for large objects such as wheels, intake manifolds, valve covers, etc. If this should occur, stop all work, blow off clinging powder film then either wash and dry the part in warm water or preheat the part in an oven and re-apply powder taking note of the appropriate switch position. Try repositioning the part to allow gravity to help assure coverage in corners and reposition the gun. Some edges or thinner cast sections of the piece may flow out or gloss over early, but wait until the entire piece has flowed out. Replace your moisture filter regularly, as moisture will build up even when the gun is not in use. Automotive (non-abrasive paint polish) may be used to remove water spotting and enhance the gloss. You can do this by threading in an old bolt into an existing hole, or simply scraping the powder from an inconspicuous area, and attaching the clip. If you have a bare spot where the ground clip was connected, you can now apply powder with the gun to cover that spot.
Note: Gloss Clear (10093) should go into an oven preheated to 350° F and allowed to cure for 20 minutes at 350° F after complete flow out has occurred. To avoid this, follow these Preheating instructions: For large or heavy parts, and to prevent pitting from occurring, preheat the part to 450°F for 30-60 minutes. An orange peel condition can often be removed by sanding the part with 600 grit sand paper (wet) and compounding as you would conventional automotive finishes.
Remember powder coatings are more solvent resistant than other coatings and may require more time than paint to remove. However, experience has shown that many details about epoxy resins are generally not well understood, even by the best formulators. It has an epoxy equivalent weight (EEW) of about 172-176, and a viscosity of about 40-60 Poise.
It is believed that lowering the viscosity increases the mobility of the resin molecules, enhancing their ability to form crystals.
A formulator realized that they could achieve lower viscosity and lower VOC by shifting to one of the lower-viscosity liquid resins. Thus, in a high-molecular-weight resin, the relative amount of non-epoxy end groups can be significant.
Figure 3 shows the acceleration effect (decreasing pot life) of hydrolyzable chlorine on amine-cured epoxy.
Increasing the amount of non-epoxy end groups will then increase this apparent molecular weight. Taffy resins appear to give lower viscosities than equivalent fusion resins because taffy resins generally have higher levels of non-epoxy end groups than do fusion resins (Figure 4). To illustrate this, assume we make epoxy resins by reacting BPA, liquid epoxy resin (EEW = 188) and small amounts of phenol in ratios to achieve an EEW of about 3000. This increases both the number of phenolic end groups and epoxy end groups, resulting in lower resin molecular weight and viscosity. This is an assumption that is made based on the fact that all these resins have essentially the same epoxy equivalent weight and viscosity. If a coating formulation is insensitive to hydrolyzable chlorine, then these grades would be equivalent.
Epoxy resin manufacturers can only minimize them and control them within the constraints of the process and equipment that each manufacturer uses. They generally do not establish specifications on such factors as total chlorine, phenolic hydroxyl content, functionality and molecular weight.
Use the certificate of analysis data and typical ranges to verify that you are evaluating resins with different characteristics – even though those characteristics are within specification. Used household ovens can be obtained very easily for little or no money by checking your local newspaper classified section or by calling appliance stores and remodelers in your area. High Temperature Plugs (#10078) can often be used to support the parts above the trays, and plug bolt holes.


Once part is cooled, use PRE Painting Prep or acetone to remove the newly exposed contaminants, repeat the same preheating cycle. Also use the 25KV setting when applying second coats or clear coats to assure proper coverage.
The Dual-Voltage 25KV switch setting is recommended to provide the power needed to penetrate a powder coated surface for applying multiple coats. The main cause of orange peel is insufficient coating, over-baking, or excessive powder build up. To speed results, cover the part with a heavy coating of remover and cover the remover with a plastic bag to prevent evaporation. The reformulation was done, however the formulator was not aware of this crystallization issue. For example, in an epoxy resin with an epoxy equivalent weight of about 3000, the average epoxy functionality can be only about 1.3 or so. This demonstrates how even small and subtle changes in end groups can have significant impact on performance. In systems cured through epoxy groups, non-epoxy end groups do not participate in crosslinking and have the effect of decreasing the crosslink density of the cured epoxy matrix. So at a given molecular weight, the taffy resin will have slightly lower epoxy content and higher epoxy equivalent weight. To illustrate this, assume that we intend to make an epoxy resin with an EEW of about 3000. If the coating formulation is insensitive to alpha glycol level, then they would appear to be equivalent. Under certain circumstances, the chlorohydrin could dehydrochlorinate and release inorganic chloride in the coating.
They may establish typical ranges for characteristics like total chlorine and phenolic hydroxyl. It was determined that the resin requirements needed to achieve necessary coating performance were so narrow, that the resin supplier had to lot-select resins from inventory for this application.
Clearly, this was a very costly problem for both the coating manufacturer and the resin supplier. Awareness and understanding of these issues can assist in formulating robust systems and can help to avoid performance failures.
This information is useful in comparing resins from different suppliers and can be useful in troubleshooting problems later. Powder may be applied to hot or cool surface (see details about "Hot Application" on page 15). To help maximize chip resistance and produce a smooth coating, the substrate (piece you are coating) must be brought up to the cure temperature quickly and allowed to stay at that temperature for the specified cure time. You will know if powder build up occurs because the powder will start to stand on its end like hair. Plastic Media such as our Poly Abrasive Material also works well in removing powder coating. Yet, experience has shown that these details can cause performance failures or other problems in high-performance systems. This has been established as the standard, general-purpose liquid epoxy resin by virtually every epoxy manufacturer in the world. Increasing non-epoxy end groups at a given EEW decreases resin molecular weight and viscosity. The phenol serves as a chain terminator and causes the number average molecular weight (Mn) to decrease as the phenol is increased.
It is known that cathodic electrodeposition coatings may give better performance if the epoxy feedstocks are low in alpha glycol. For example, if one tried to further minimize, or even eliminate the hydrolyzable chlorine (chlorohydrins), the side reaction forming alpha glycol would be strongly favored, and the alpha glycol content would go up dramatically. This coating manufacturer did not understand how normal resin variations could impact performance of their coating. To properly cure the HotCoat powders and achieve full chemical, heat (up to 350°F), and chip resistance, along with the smoothest possible finish follow the steps below.
Once the part has cooled, use PRE Painting Prep (#10041Z) or acetone to remove the newly exposed contaminants. If this happens, stop applying powder and with light air pressure blow off some of the powder. All that we know for sure is that the thermodynamically stable form is a crystalline solid.
The two lower-viscosity resins and the higher-viscosity resin are specialty products that are used in applications where less resistance to crystallization or higher viscosity can be tolerated.
This seedy batch had been filled into quarts, gallons and five-gallon pails, and was in distribution channels. It will have the viscosity of a resin of its molecular weight, but it will appear to be a higher-molecular-weight resin with an anomalously low viscosity.
As an example, cathodic electrodeposition coatings would generate this inorganic chloride during their manufacture. In the author’s view, the major epoxy manufacturers do an excellent job of minimizing and controlling these end groups to provide very consistent resins. There was no way to ensure that resins with the very narrow requirements would be available at all times. Note: Most powders inherently have a slight orange peel (the surface condition and preparation will affect smoothness). Using compressed air, clean the discharge and pick up tubes, and cup thoroughly with no more than 30 psi compressed air. Evidence of crystallization in a BPA epoxy resin ranges from haziness or cloudiness in the resin to a slushy mix of liquid and solid, to near complete solidification. One may easily conclude that discussion of less than 1% of end groups is truly a subtle detail that is of interest only to epoxy resin chemists.
Resulting high levels of chloride would attack the anodes in the bath, requiring premature replacement. Reprocessing could potentially eliminate the crystals, but recovery from many small packages would be problematic and expensive. In one incident, a customer making cathodic electrodeposition resins inadvertently used a batch of epoxy resin with high hydrolyzable chlorine.
If a customer needs a product with tighter specifications then, by definition, this requirement is beyond the process capability, and the process is incapable of generating that required product at all times.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Die-cast metal and solders vary widely in formulation, many of which can be difficult to powder coat and, in some cases may even melt at 400° F.
Storage at cool temperatures or cycling the temperature seems to increase the likelihood of crystallization. However, other monofunctional chain terminators are used to lower viscosity, increase reactivity or both. It is clear that stopping the reaction only a few percent short of completion reduces molecular weight and EEW, but reduces viscosity even more dramatically.
Crystallization is reversible, and a crystallized sample can be warmed above the melting point of 42 °C to melt the crystals and return the sample to a crystal-free condition.
With your blow gun, thoroughly clean the inside and outside of all the tubes and defl ector.



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