27.03.2016
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Role of Ecotour?sm in Susta?nable DevelopmentTugba Kiper[1] Nam?k Kemal University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Design and Architect, Department of Landscape Architecture, Turkey1. Effective technical problem solvers are skilled at combining statistical thinking with engineering insight to converge on the hidden causes keeping complex systems from meeting customer expectations.
Shainin develops outstanding technical problem solvers through a combination of classes and coaching on real life problems. In class, Shainin instructors convey an understanding of concepts, principles, strategies and techniques using case studies drawn from a wide range of industries, products and manufacturing technologies. At our clients, a Shainin coach guides problem solvers through the development and execution of strategies that converge on the hidden causes impacting system performance. Shainin’s certification system provides an independent assessment of demonstrated problem solving skills.
Skilled Red X problem solvers, properly supported by knowledgeable leaders, help improve system performance and reliability to achieve higher customer satisfaction and better financial performance.
Product engineers enhance their ability to solve product performance and reliability problems including: performance outside desired range, broken or damaged product, units failing in customer systems and field failures. Manufacturing and quality engineers enhance their ability to solve first pass yield problems for dimensional, material property and defect failures.
Manufacturing and quality engineers also enhance their ability to solve end of line test failure problems involving both damage and performance. Es un diagrama usado para representar las palabras, ideas, tareas y dibujos u otros conceptos ligados, dispuestos radialmente alrededor de una palabra clave o de una idea central. The Spencer Properties Leeds Rhinos Dance Team consists of 16 female dancers who perform every match night at Headingley Carnegie Stadium. Led by Spencer Properties Dance Team captain, Nicola Booth, the Rhinestones has given a new generation of aspiring dancers the opportunity to learn to dance and perform on the famous Headingley Carnegie pitch at selected Rhinos games. In 2012 we were pleased to welcome on board our sponsors Spencer Properties, who have over 40 years experience of providing quality student & professional accommodation in the Headingley and Leeds area. The Spencer Properties Leeds Rhinos Dance Team now have their own official accounts on Twitter and Facebook so you can follow all that is the team. If you would like to be part of the Dance team auditions are held twice a year and dates will be posted on the Rhinos official website. The dance team are available for hire for social and corporate functions and promotional events. The Fans' Forum was launched in 2012 to give supporters a chance to voice their opinions towards the decisions made at both Leeds Rhinos and Yorkshire Carnegie. The News Service will be run directly from the Leeds Rhinos Press Office and will inform you of all the developments from Headingley Carnegie by email as soon as they happen.
Shainin’s unique problem solving methodology has evolved over eight decades at the cutting edge of solving “unsolvable” problems.
Instructors are chosen for their extensive experience as well as their communication skills. Product engineers also enhance their ability to react to field failures and supplier problems impacting their products. Los mapas mentales son un metodo muy eficaz para obtener una idea clara de una situacion que ayudara a conceptualizar el problema y lograr una solucion, extraer y memorizar informacion. The dance team formed in 1999 and since then they have established themselves as one of the most credible and renowned dance teams in the Super League and have made dance an integral part of the Leeds Rhinos match-day experience. The team regularly dance at events in the city, are involved in community projects with the Leeds Rhinos Foundation and in 2007 due to the increasing popularity of the Dance Team and the interest from our young supporters the Junior Dance Academy, the Rhinestones, was formed. They will be giving an insight to what it is like to be part of the best dance team in Super League as well, keeping you up to date with their upcoming performances and appearances. The team could add to your event by performing a dance team routine, handing out flyers or meeting and greeting guests.
Ecotourism’s perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable development is the main reason why developing countries are now embracing it and including it in their economic development and conservation strategies.
Son una forma logica y creativa de tomar notas y expresar ideas que consiste, literalmente, en cartografiar sus reflexiones sobre un tema. Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study, or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is, a tourism based on the nature experience, which enables the economic and social development of local communities.
A symbiotic and complex relationship between the environment and tourist activities is possible when this philosophy can be translated into appropriate policy, careful planning and tactful practicum (Rahman, 2010). Se utiliza para la generacion, visualizacion, estructura, y clasificacion de las ideas y como ayuda interna para el analisis, estudio, planificacion, organizacion, resolucion de problemas, toma de decisiones y todo lo relacionado con la creatividad, innovacion, toma de decisiones, solucion de problemas y todo lo que usted pudiera necesitar para mejorar procesos.
It focuses primarily on experiencing and learning about nature, its landscape, flora, fauna and their habitats, as well as cultural artifacts from the locality. A symbiotic and complex relationship between the environment and tourist activities is possible when this philosophy can be translated into appropriate policy, careful planning and tactful practicum.
According to Weaver (2001); Ecotourism exists within the broader classification of tourism types which, at an initial level, can be divided into ‘mass tourism’ and ‘alternative tourism’ (Figure 1). Carefully planned and operated ecotourism sites, especially if it is village-based and includes local participation, is able to provide direct benefits that might offset pressure from other less sustainable activities that make use of natural and cultural resources.


Mass tourism is seen as the more traditional form of tourism development where short-term, freemarket principles dominate and the maximization of income is paramount. Eco tourism, natural resources, cultural heritage, rural lifestyle and an integrated tourism is a type of local economic activities. Therefore, ecotourism in naturel and culturel areas was carried out with a number of elements in their natural landscape and cultural landscape (water, vista, topography, vegetation, clean air), as well as in the variety of recreational activities suitable for all kinds of environments.
Therefore, ecotourism and its natural assets and raw materials to create, as well as directing people to travel is an attractive force.Ecotourism helps in community development by providing the alternate source of livelihood to local community which is more sustainable. Its aim is to conserve resources, especially biological diversity, and maintain sustainable use of resources, which an bring ecological experience to travelers, conserve the ecological environment and gain economic benefit. According to this definition of adventure tourism and to that of ecotourism as previously stated, it seems that there are many overlapping concepts.Ecotourism is a component of sustainable tourism. However, achieving the aims in ecotourism depends on whether they are environmentally and ecologically sustainable and economically applicable. Ecotourism helps in involving local community for the conservation of the ecology and biodiversity of the area that biodiversity in return provides the economic incentives to the local community. Ecotourism must account for social, economic and environmental implications, in order to succeed. The purpose of this study look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices. In parallel with this purpose, it was aimed at looking for an answer to questions of: What is Ecotourism? The concept of sustainability first appeared in the public scene in the report put out by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The commission report advances the idea of sustainable development by noting that economic growth and environmental conservation are not only compatible but they are necessary partners.
Within this scope, we focused on ecotourism’s definition, its objectives, the reasons of its emergence and development, its principles, its types, its environmental, social and economic impacts; ecotourism and sustainable development and on the examination of approaches to ecotourism in Turkey and Europe. Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report:"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In this section, the subjects below will be discussed.Introduction What is ecotourism and its types? It is often called intergenerational equality, the idea is that we should share natural resources not just with people who are alive on the planet today but also with future generations of the earth’s inhabitants. Sustainable development integrates economic, social with the aforementioned environmental goals. Ecotourism, a unique subset of the tourism industry, is ‚focused on the enhancement or maintenance of natural systems through tourism.
Dixon & Pretorius (2001) cite the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), which emphasizes environmental, social and economic concerns as three distinct but interrelated components of sustainable development. According to Hall (2008) sustainable development and tourism present change which refers to the movement from one state or condition to another. To some, it is the general term that encompasses nature?based, adventure, soft adventure, and cultural tourism. Whether such a transition is positive or negative depends on the original criteria by which change is measured. The term ecotourism was coined in 1983 by “Hctor Ceballos Lascurain” a Mexican environmentalist, and was initially used to describe nature-based travel to relatively undisturbed areas with an emphasis on education. Sustainable tourism requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them (World Tourism Organisation, 2001).Sustainable development through ecotourism is a concerning issue in the world today. Even though ecotourism lacks a concrete definition, there are many wellrecognized definitions that have formed a clear picture of its core principles, which are shown in Table 1.
In this concept, sustainable development may be occurred by the ecotourism and regional development (Figure 3) simultaneously in an area. The ecotourist visits relatively undeveloped areas in the spirit of appreciation, participation and sensitivity.
Ecotourism and environmental, social and economic impactsTourism can be sustainable if development meets the needs of tourists and local residents while protecting future opportunities.
Ecotourism offers benefits for local residents, conservation, development and educationalexperiences. Ecotourism operates for one or more of the eco-friendly alternatives for the economic use of natural resources compared with mining, hunting, farming and so on (Li, 2006). It focuses primarily on experiencing and learning about nature, its landscape, flora, fauna and their habitats, as well as cultural artefacts from the locality. Within the ecotourism implementation existence of water resources creates advantages in terms of both visuality and utilization.
Climatic features of a region influence tourism directly and indirectly and play a crucial role in the development of tourism.
Plants drawing interest thanks to their size, age or appearance are other appealing components of ecotourism. According to Soykan, traditional commercial products are one of the most significant appeals leading to development of ecotourism in a region.


This is because whole production process from planting to harvest and processing bear cultural differences, and most of them are performed in traditional ways (Kiper, 2011). Ecotourism has the potential to seriously impact local communities, largely due to the tendency of ecotourists to have a greater interest in the culture and nature of the areas they visit, as compared to mass tourists (McMinn, 1997).Ecotourism destinations are always environmentally sensitive because ecotourism activities directly involve various environmental phenomena including bird watching, trekking, mountaineering, horse riding and elephant riding within the forest wilderness trail, staying in natural caves, studying about flora and fauna, simple bush walking, fishing, animal behavior study, ecological studies (Rahman,2010). Ecotourism always incorporates various activities in nature (hiking, mountain climbing, observing the living beings in their natural habitat, etc.), but it may include cultural activities, too.
Ecotourism is an important educational component, it is a chance to learn respect for nature, for the local culture, and for some it is a chance to self-reflection being inspired by the beauty of the surroundings. Ecotourism and sustainable development relationshipTourism is a highly complex activity and thus requires tools to assist in effective decision making to come to terms with the competing economic, social, and environmental demands of sustainable development (Fadahunsi, 2011). Yet, regardless of how socially and environmentally responsible ecotourism may be in theory, in practice it remains rooted in the tourism industry (Wall, 1997). Similarly, tourism activities generally can create various negative impacts on the surrounding environment. Increased human interference in ecologically fragile areas can cause irreversible change in the existing ecological processes. These problems can be reflected in degrading natural resources, vegetation structure and the size of the habitat patch, increasing deforestation and decreasing upstream water flow (Tourism Queenland, 2002). According to the emergence of sustainable tourism development it is proven that the milestone for its emergence was the Brundtland Report by the WCED in the year 1987.
Previously, many ideas in this field had been developed at the IUCN -The World Conservation Union and referenced in the World Conservation Strategy published in 1980 (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003). Ecotourism is often perceived as an tool for promoting sustainable development in developing countries. Many view ecotourism as a viable way to protect the natural environment and create social and economic benefits for local communities. Ecotourism encompasses a spectrum of nature-based activities that foster visitor appreciation and understanding of natural and cultural heritage and are managed to be ecologically, economically and socially sustainable. Ecotourism has attracted increasing attention in recentyears, not only as an alternative to mass tourism, but also as a means to promote a country’s economic development and environmental conservation. Ecotourism is increasingly being lauded as a sustainable development option for rural communities, one that is able to spur economic development (Vogt, 1997) and instill environmental protection at the same time (Cater, 2002). If the environment has not at least achieved a net benefit toward its sustainability and ecological integrity, then the activity is not ecotourism.Many groups have proposed sets of guidelines or principles for sustainable tourism and ecotourism.
Ecotourism is a sustainable version of tourism in natural areas, including at the same time elements of rural and cultural tourism.
Besides subscribing to the principles of sustainable tourism, ecotourism has specific principles: it contributes actively to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, it includes local communities in planning, development and operation activities, and it contributes to their welfare, it involves complete and interesting explanations for visitors, regarding the natural and cultural resources, it is intended mainly to individual visitors and also to small organized groups (Sambot?n et al, 2011). According to Buchsbaum 2004; in many ways, sustainable tourism exemplifies the relationship between ecotourism and sustainable development. Many groups have proposed sets of guidelines or principles for sustainable tourism and ecotourism Tourism Concern and the World Wildlife Fund for Nature developed a wellknown list of principles and guidelines in 1991, which are presented in Table 4. Using resources sustainablyThe conservation and sustainable use of resources -natural, social, cultural, -- is crucial and makes long-term business sense Using resources sustainably:2. Reducing over consumption and wasteReduction of over-consumption and waste avoids the costs of restoring long-term environmental damage and contributes to the quality of tourism3.
Maintaining BiodiversityMaintaining and promoting natural, social, and cultural diversity is essential for long-term sustainable tourism, and creates a resilient base for the industry4.Integrating tourism into planningTourism development which is integrated into a national and local strategic planning framework and which undertakes environmental impact assessments, increase the long-term viability of tourism5. Supporting local economiesTourism that supports a wide range of local economic activities and which takes environmental costs and values into account, both protects these economies and avoids environmental damage6. Involving local communitiesThe full involvement of local communities in the tourism sector not only benefits them and the environment but also improves the quality of the tourism project7. Consulting stakeholders and the publicConsultation between the tourism industry and local communities organizations and institutions is essential if hey are to work alongside each other and resolve potential conflicts of interest8.
Training StaffStaff training which integrates sustainable tourism into work practices, along with recruitment of personnel at all levels, improves the quality of the tourism product9. Marketing tourism responsiblyMarketing that provides tourists with full and responsible information increases respect for the natural, social and cultural environments of destination areas and enhances customer satisfaction10. In addition, Wall (1997) has argued that for tourism to contribute to sustainable development it must be economically viable, environmentally sensitive and culturally appropriate, and the forms that this might take are likely to vary with location.
Achieving sustainable tourism—defined here as tourism that is ecologically benign, economically feasible and socially acceptable—is thus contingent on environmental protection and reconciling tourism activities with local socio-economic values (Brown et al., 1997). According to Rome (1999); Ecotourism is one strategy for supporting conservation and providing income for communities in and around protected areas. It can contribute to economic development and conservation of protected areas by: a) generating revenues that can be used to sustainably manage protected areas, b) providing local employment and c) inculcating a sense of community ownership. However, without careful planning and management that balance ecological, social, and economic objectives, it may lead to environmental damage. Furthermore, envisioned as a positive approach towards sustainable development, unplanned or poorly planned and implemented tourism can have serious negative effects, offsetting the benefits it was designed to provide.



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