13.09.2014
The Spectroline MiniMAX series of battery operated lamps offer portability and versatility.
All lamps feature a unique "shadow box" design which blocks room light making materials glow brightly.
Portable - Compact and lightweight units are easily carried for on-site or field inspections. This multi-purpose lamp can be used for countless applications, including quality control, sanitary inspection, mineralogy, readmission control, rodent contamination detection, UV curing, forensic inspection, document verification and much more.
Just because a sunscreen has a high SPF does not necessarily mean that you are being protected from damaging UVA rays. Badger sunscreens use the mineral zinc oxide, which provides broad spectrum protection from UVA and UVB rays. UVA penetrates deeper into the skin than UVB, and will cause immediate suntan, not sunburn. According to the EU, broad spectrum protection is determined by the ratio of UVA to UVB protection. Shop Windows to the UniverseOur Glaciers: Then and Now activity kit helps you see the changes taking place in glaciers around the world. Previously, we had assumed a simplified model of Earth; one in which our planet had not atmosphere. You probably know that scientists think of our atmosphere as having several distinct layers with specific traits. Though not universally recognized as a layer of our atmosphere, some scientists consider the exosphere to be the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere.
Let's now take a look at the electromagnetic radiation, of various wavelengths and energies, from the Sun as it penetrates into Earth's atmosphere. All of the high-energy X-rays are absorbed by our atmosphere well above our heads, which is very fortunate for us indeed! Most of the longer wavelength IR waves, and many of the shorter radio waves, are absorbed by the stratosphere before reaching the ground.
Recall how the temperature of the various layers of Earth's atmosphere rises and falls as one moves upward from the ground, in a seemingly haphazard fashion.
Most of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth or its lower atmosphere, where albedo from clouds and features on the ground come into play, is thus in the form of visible light. As was demonstrated in the "Infrared - More Than Your Eyes Can See" video earlier, some substances are transparent to certain wavelengths of EM radiation, but largely opaque to others. As infrared radiation from the ground and low-lying clouds works its way up through the atmosphere, much of it is absorbed; by gases in the air and by clouds (which have lots of IR-opaque water). Here (below) are three different diagrams illustrating the flow of visible light into, and infrared light back out of, the lower regions of Earth's atmosphere. Infralight Pty Ltd supplies replacement ultraviolet UV lamps, uv bulbs and uv globes, medium pressure uv lamps, amalgam uv lamps, quartz sleeves & ultraviolet products for many ultraviolet disinfection wastewater systems used throughout the world including Trojan, Xylem Wedeco, ITT Flygt, Berson, Heraeus and many more.
Many more uv lamps specifications available to suit Wedeco TAK, UviFlo, Trojan, Heraeus, AUVP, AVP, Calgon Carbon, Berson, Siemens, Wallace & Tiernen, ITT Flygt, ITT Technology. Color quality is one of the key challenges facing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a general light source.
2) RGB systems, in which light from multiple monochromatic LEDs (red, green, and blue) is mixed, resulting in white light.
The RGB approach produces white light by mixing the three primary colors red, green, and blue.
What appears to our eyes as “white” is actually a mix of different wavelengths in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps radiate across the visible spectrum, but with varying intensity in the different wavelengths. Each approach to producing white light with LEDs (described above) has certain advantages and disadvantages. How do currently available white LEDs compare to traditional light sources in terms of color characteristics and luminous efficacy? These revolutionary lamps are three times brighter than competitive UV inspection lamps of this type making them ideal for use in microbiology, mutation studies, laboratory UV dosing, illumination and other life science applications.
SPF is only a measure of how well a sunscreen protects you from sunburn, which you get only from UVB rays. It passes right through clouds and glass, and it is pretty much the same strength throughout the day and the year.
Many sunscreens on the shelves, even those intended for babies and kids, offer little or no protection from UVA rays.


We had our sunscreens independently tested and they earned "Superior UVA Protection" based on US and international rating systems. UVA also generates free radicals in living skin, which contribute to skin damage, wrinkling, and skin cancer.
UVA rays are not blocked by glass, clouds or the ozone layer and thus they comprise the vast majority of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. The active ingredient in Badger sunscreens, the mineral zinc oxide, offers excellent UVA protection. UVB rays have different strengths, depending on sun's location, and can be reduced by clouds. Badger's active sunscreen ingredient, zinc oxide, is effective for all wavelengths of UVB rays. UVC rays are blocked by the ozone layer atmospheric oxygen and do not reach the surface of the Earth in significant amounts. Badger Company, Inc:makers of certified organic body care, lip balms, bug repellents, and natural mineral sunscreens. This allowed us to examine the basic effects of albedo, latitude, and seasons on our planet's overall average temperature.
Let's quickly review the structure of the atmosphere, since some aspects of that story are relevant to how and where solar energy gets absorbed.
It extends upward from the ground to an altitude of about 16 km (in the tropics, or 8 km near the poles). Starting at the top of the thermosphere, this extremely tenuous layer gradually gives way to the vacuum of interplanetary space. Fortunately for us, all of the high energy X-rays and most UV is filtered out long before it reaches the ground.
Recall that the Sun emits a broad range of frequencies, from high-energy X-rays and ultraviolet radiation, through visible light, on on down the spectrum to the lower energy infrared and radio waves.
Likewise, most of the UV radiation (especially the highest energy, shortest wavelength regions of the UV spectrum) is blocked by the thermosphere, mesosphere, and stratosphere. It includes some of the longer wavelength UV frequencies, some of the shorter wavelength IR frequencies, and all of the visble light region of the spectrum. Recall also that the peak of the Sun's EM emissions are in the visible light region of the spectrum.
So about 30% of the incoming sunlight is reflected back into space by clouds or light areas on Earth's surface, or scattered back out into space by gas molecules in the atmosphere (that scattering is what makes the sky blue, not black!). Such is the case with the panes of glass in a greenhouse; sunlight readily passes in, providing plants with the energy they need for photosynthesis and warming the inside of the greenhouse, but the IR radiation that the warmed interior emits does not readily pass back out through the glass, for the glass is largely opaque at infrared frequencies. The Website was developed in part with the support of UCAR and NCAR, where it resided from 2000 - 2010. Ultraviolet lamps and quartz sleeves supplied by Infralight Pty ltd are a direct equivalent of the original lamp and sleeve specification, no modification to existing equipment is required.
This paper reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white light LEDs. Instead, LEDs emit light in a very narrow range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum, resulting in nearly monochromatic light.
When combined with a yellow phosphor (usually cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet or YAG:Ce), the light will appear white to the human eye. Color quality of the resulting light can be enhanced by the addition of amber to “fill in” the yellow region of the spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation in wavelengths from about 380 to 770 nanometers is visible to the human eye.
The spectral power distribution (SPD) for a given light source shows the relative radiant power emitted by the light source at each wavelength. Phosphor-converted chips are produced in large volumes and in various packages (light engines, arrays, etc.) that are integrated into lighting fixtures.
Standard incandescent A-lamps provide about 15 lumens per watt (lpw), with CCT of around 2700 K and CRI close to 100.
We'll now add the atmosphere into our figuring; this will complicate matters, but will also make our model more realistic. Temperatures once again decline with increasing altitude (as was the case in the troposphere), falling as low as -100° C (-146° F) in the upper mesosphere.
This region is one in which temperatures once again rise with increasing altitude, reaching as high as 2,500°C (4,500°F) in the daytime!
Different wavelengths of this solar radiation behave differently as they enter our atmosphere.


The relatively low energy, long wavelength portion of the UV spectrum that does reach the ground forces us to wear sunglasses and slather ourselves with sunscreen to protect ourselves from sunburn and skin cancer.
The longest wavelength radio waves also fail to penetrate the atmosphere; many are absorbed or reflected by the ionosphere. So, although the atmosphere blocks out much of the range Sun's range of EM emissions at various altitudes, the bulk of the EM radiation from the Sun in the form of visible light does reach at least as far as the troposphere.
Some of that radiation goes upward, escaping into space; but some goes downward, further warming the ground and the lower atmosphere. I think each diagram has its strengths in helping to tell parts of the story; and I'll let you choose which (if any) you think might be most helpful when presenting these ideas to your students. Infralight is a major supplier of replacement uv lamps commonly used in many waste water treatment plants around the world. This is why LEDs are so efficient for colored light applications such as traffic lights and exit signs.
A more recently developed approach uses an LED emitting in the near-UV region of the spectrum to excite multi-chromatic phosphors to generate white light.
Incandescent sources have a continuous SPD, but relative power is low in the blue and green regions. ENERGY STAR qualified compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) produce about 50 lpw at 2700-3000 K and CRI at least 80. Combination wavelength lamps are available extending the range of applications that are possible.
We will just take a basic look at the atmosphere's influence on incoming solar radiation; we won't discuss winds and circulation patterns at this point.
Jet airliners fly in this layer, for it is far less turbulent than the underlying troposphere.
This layer is relatively poorly studied, for it is above the reach of most aircraft but below the altitude where satellites orbit.
Embedded within the thermosphere are several layers of the ionosphere; regions where ionized gas particles can reflect radio waves, a feature that people used to send messages beyond the line-of-sight range of the horizon before the advent of satellites.
Most radio waves do make it to the ground, along with a narrow "window" of IR, UV, and visible light frequencies. This cycling of the IR radiation's energy through the lower atmosphere warms our planet to a much more comfortable temperature than the frigid range that we calculated for an airless world.
The typically “warm” color appearance of incandescent lamps is due to the relatively high emissions in the orange and red regions of the spectrum.
The primary pros and cons of each approach at the current level of technology development are outlined below.
Typical efficacies of currently available LEDs from the leading chip manufacturers are shown below. The troposphere is warmest near ground level, and cools gradually the higher up in it one goes. The stratosphere extends upward from the top of the troposphere to an altitude of about 50 km. Our atmosphere is opaque across much of the IR spectrum; take a look again at the image above that shows how much of the incoming IR radiation from the Sun fails to make it to the ground.
The potential of LED technology to produce high-quality white light with unprecedented energy efficiency is the impetus for the intense level of research and development currently being supported by the U.S.
Long wave and short wave models can be supplied in both self-filtered and unfiltered versions. Many of the atoms and molecules in the thermosphere (and above) have lost electrons, thus becoming electrically charged ions; so the motions of particles in the upper atmosphere are partially influenced by electrical currents and Earth's magnetic field.
On the way in, most of the EM radiation is in the form of visible light, which easily passes through clear air. At this point a critical player in the climate drama enters the scene - the Greenhouse Effect!
On the way, back up, however, much of the radiation is in the form of infrared, which is absorbed and thus stopped before it reaches space.
Earth's atmosphere, like the panes of glass in the greenhouse, traps much of the infrared radiation, and the heat that it carries, warming our planet.
Several different gases play a role in this greenhouse effect; water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane are amongst the most prominent.




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Comments Short wave uv light bulb

  1. sevgi
    The spectrum, but they also rubber-base liquid sold in bottles and cans.
  2. Ocean
    Pre-filter is a 40 micron filter designed to remove small twigs, leaf debris and make a funnel.
  3. Alexsandra
    30??with a modular design to allow for added components such as an automatic simple contours rather than.
  4. zeri
    Transparent materials and/or organic transparent materials.