A new combined SPM ToF-SIMS system has been developed that significantly increases the throughput and accuracy of combined SPM ToF-SIMS experiments. Warren Oliver, President of Nanomechanics talks to AZoNano about their range of revolutionizing Nanoindenters and Nanoindentation testing systems. Nanoelectronic Grade Adhesives - Highly Reliable Formulations for Nanoelectronic Applications by Master Bond Inc. Step 4: Assemble X and YFirst put the rails into the two bearing blocks making sure to push the plastic bearing retainer out with the rails. Step 6: Finish the BoxClamp the box together as shown and make sure everything is as square as you can make it. Step 8: Laser Driver BoardThere is most likely a better way to do this but I am not an Electrical Engineer, the parts I used were on hand. Step 9: Limit SwitchesThe limit switches keep the controller from accidentally moving too far in one direction. Step 10: Wire it all upMount the boards to the top of the case with screws or nonconductive double sided foam tape. Step 12: Laser and Iris MountPlace the laser in the slot for it and tack in place with dabs of hot glue on each side. I have wanted a 3D Printer for a while now and there are some very reasonably priced kits available like the Makerbot, Ultimaker and the RepRap project. I decided to enter this in the Epilog Challenge Contest because I could really use a laser cutter :-) I also have some ideas how to redesign this project, for creation on a laser cutter. Well ventilated area, don't inhale the vapors from the resin or those produced when curing. The bearing blocks come with a piece of plastic where the rail goes, this holds the bearings in place. On each layer, the laser beam traces a cross-section pattern of the part onto the surface of the liquid resin. I could have just bought a kit and started printing things but at the time I had not seen great resolution or print quality from those. 1 Liter is about $200 - $250 so compared to ABS or PLA for the plastic extrusion printers it is about 4 - 5 times more as far as I can tell. Exposure to the UV laser light cures, solidifies the pattern traced on the resin and adheres it to the layer below. I started looking around at the other 3D printing technologies and found SLA made some amazing quality prints, so I decided to try making my own. Since I started this a while back those projects have come a long way and they can make some beautiful prints now. There are also people working on a UV resin and DLP projector 3D printer which is showing promise. While the 3D printing landscape seemed awfully quiet in the in the first decade of the new millennium, the number of 3D printer start-ups, their rate of innovation and the number of products that are currently offered saw a sudden jump.
This is attributed entirely to the expiration of key patents to what is known as Fused Deposition Modelling or FDM where a plastic is melted and layered on itself to produce an object.It is with the expiry of this patent and a few others that start-ups like Makerbot began making waves and 3D printing began to take off. Start-ups like Makerbot, Printbot and even DIY projects like RepRap began offering 3D printers that took the quality of output to the level of industrial and commercial printers at a fraction of the cost. The hardware, the software and the printable objects were free to be modified and improved by developers around the world this making more accessible to the masses kicking in to gear the 3D printing industrial revolution.

3D printing is a big deal because simply put, it has the potential to revolutionise mass production.
Specialization of work and assembly lines could be completely phased out and one 3D printer could churn out item out after item.3D printing could even phase out delivery of some products. Rather than having your latest product shipped, you could purchase or even download for free a three dimensional digital copy of the object and print it at home. The fact that virtually any substance in a power form can be melted and fused to take on any shape or size could phase out moulding and casting processes of manufacturing.With 3D printing, manufacturers can produce completely build products.
A popular style which was additive printing in the truest sense was developed in 1988 by S. Here, the 3D printer would extrude layer after layer of molten plastic to produce an object. Carl Deckard and Joe Beam an developed yet another style known as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). Here a laser would melt a layer of powder in the shape of the object over which a new layer of power would be applied and melted again.A fourth system of 3D printing was inspired by the way an inkjet printer works, Ely Sachs and Mike Cima from MIT developed a system known as Binder Jetting. Here the raw material presented in a powder form is stuck together, layer by layer that is jetted on to the powder.The advantage SLS has over FDM is the fact that any substances that can be released in a powder form can be used as raw material for printing. When you add to this the fact that the quality of finish one can expect from an SLS printer is far better than what one can expect from an FDM printer, it only sweetens the deal. The cells are allowed to grow and the organ is transplanted in to the patient’s body. As the cells are entirely the patient’s the chances of the organ being rejected by the body are significantly reduced. While the organ may not exactly be 3 dimensionally printed, it paved the way for several other developments in the use of 3D printers in medicine.In 2002, scientists at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine successfully printed a working kidney. The kidney when implanted in test animals actually filtered blood and produced diluted urine.
Skin, ears, bones, noses and even blood vessels have been printed by scientists across the world through 3D bio-printers that use a gel like substance made up of human cells extracted from the patient and grown in cell cultures.
These cells are mixed with hydro-gel and used to print complete organs layer by layer thus spawning a whole new Bio-printing industry.While there may be huge potential in this industry and could potentially save millions of lives and eliminate the long waiting lists one must endure to find a match, concerns have been raised about the who will regulate and set a standard of quality. In the case of Eric Moger of the UK who had lost almost the entire left side of his face to cancer, doctors were able to develop a nylon skull that served as prosthesis.The same is the story of an 83 year old woman who had a new jaw bone printed out of a titanium powder. Adrian Bower from the University of Bath, RepRap aimed to give the common man access to the world of 3D printing. Scott Summit developed an artificial limb complete with a thigh, knee, shin and foot all made as a single piece requiring no assemble opening up new avenues in the field of 3D printed prosthetics. Scott went on to start Bespoke Innovations, a company that manufactures custom fairings for prosthetic limbs in 2009.2009 also marked the year of Makerbot, a start-up that allowed users to build and assemble their own 3D printers are home at a fraction of the cost of commercial printers. With the support from Makerbot, Richard Van As from South Africa who had lost fingers in his left hand to a carpentry accident collaborated with a Ivan Over, puppeteer from the US were able to 3D print a prosthetic hand that provided dexterity to people who were either born without fingers or lost them in accidents.3D printed prosthetics would go on to become a viable alternative to expensive ones made from carbon fiber and titanium alloys. The same technology is currently giving over 50,000 war refugees in Sudan a new lease on life at a cost of about $100 each.More recently, 3D printing also gave Dudley, the duckling a new lease on life too. After being attacked by a chicken that left him with just one foot, Doug Nelson, the owner of the shelter where Dudley was brought, in consultation with Terence Loring, founder of a design firm 3 Pillar Designs designed a prosthetic leg.
As Dudley would outgrow each limb, Terence would improve the design each time.The security riskWith the dawning of a new decade in the 21st century, the limits of 3D printing were further stretched.

Security, now a growing concern spawned the unmanned aerial vehicle, better known as the drone.
They were used in Operation Neptune Spear which led to Osama bin Laden’s demise and China has been using them to spy on us for quite a while.
Manufacturers of aircrafts and aircraft parts embraced 3D printing to build parts of an unprecedented standard. Honeywell 3D prints the heat exchangers for their jet engines and Boeing already make about 300 3D printed parts. Of these parts, some are ducts designed to carry cool air to electronic equipment and because they were had complicated shapes, manufacturing and assembling them were labour intensive. Now those costs have been cut down and more efficient designs are being implemented.In 2011, with a budget of 5000 pounds, they designed SULSA, a drone and because it was 3D printed, they were able to give it a far more complicated aerodynamic structure that would have cost a fortune to build using conventional methods. Thus 3D printing, only on a larger scale could allow the execution of certain designs that would have been overlooked due to cost and manufacturing methods.Just like the SULSA, 2011 marked out to be the year of 3D printed firsts with funny names as the next innovation was titled the Urbee. Urbee is the greenest car on earth and with figures of over 200 miles to the gallon, gives the Tata Nano a run for its money. Dubbed the Liberator, it paid homage to the one shot guns that were designed to be air dropped over Nazi occupied France during the Second World War.Are we there yet?But the similarities stopped there because the Liberator of 2013 had a total of 16 working parts out of which 15 were made of plastic.
Through his company – Defence Distributed, Cody applied for a firearms manufacturing license. Not only will several landmark patents expire this year, it also marks the year when the 3D printing processes rewrote yet another age old industry. The person in question behind this revolution is Professor Behrokh Khoshnevis from the University of Southern California. With the help of a super-sized 3D printer that spits out concrete, Professor Khoshnevis and his team managed to build a 2,500 square foot house in 24 hours.The process is called contour crafting and it involves the laying down of two rails on either side of the site. The contour crafting system would move back and forth on these rails and lay concrete layer by layer. The design would make provisions for wiring and plumbing which would be assembled by hand along with the doors and windows.While at the surface this technology makes that unaffordable dream home of yours a little more tangible, Contour Crafting has the potential to make construction sites safer and could prove to be of great use in disaster relief measures, with the potential of getting entire countries back on its feet. Khoshnevis claims that his invention won’t take away jobs but in fact create more and contour crafting is being considered to be a feasible means of colonising the moon. What this implies is the fact that the traditional model where production was centralised and the goods were distributed to location where they are needed might become redundant. With advancements in technology, the production centres could be localised and production could even take place is people’s homes. Even if the per unit cost of manufacturing is more when compared to traditional means, it would definitely be offset by the fact that the costs incurred due to middlemen, distribution, storage and warehousing, buffer stocks and inventory would all be eliminated.
For example, an Alaskan production unit of an automobile company would be able to produce versions of the product that would do better in that particular market and not worry about the economies of scale for the same reasons mentioned above. Over the years, China has used its labour force to its advantage and has become the global leader in manufacturing.With 3D printing taking a hold, China may no longer be the first name a manufacturer looks up when they decide to start production.

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